Paralecanium, Cockerell

Chris J. Hodgson & Douglas J. Williams, 2018, Revision of the soft scale genus Paralecanium (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) with the introduction of three new genera and twenty new species, Zootaxa 4443 (1), pp. 1-162: 77

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4443.1.1

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Lecanium (Paralecanium) Cockerell in Cockerell & Parrott, 1899: 227   .

Podoparalecanium Tao & Wong, 1983   , in Tao et al. 1983: 100. Type species P. machili Takahashi. Synonymised   by Tang, 1991: 126.

Type species: Lecanium frenchii Maskell   , by original designation.

Generic diagnosis. Adult females showing most character-states typical of this group of genera but with following combination of characters. Test glassy, probably composed of a series of polygonal plates, probably in 7 or 8 longitudinal lines. Body mostly broadest across abdomen with a more pointed anterior end; often asymmetrical. Dorsum becoming sclerotised at maturity; areolations all round to oval, extending medially where they become smaller and less distinct. Marginal radial lines occasionally distinct but usually only indicated by arrangement of dorsal setae and pores, with almost invariably 11 around anterior margin of head, 3 on each side between stigmatic clefts and 11 on each side of abdomen. Stigmatic rays absent. Clear areas present or absent. Dorsal setae variable in shape, occasionally of two distinct sizes; those submarginally and submedially not situated in an obvious membranous area of derm. Preopercular pores absent. With 2 or 3 other pore types: when 3, largest type a closed pore with a sclerotised margin and often with visible micropores, present in a broad submedial band; also with a small simple pore; and a smaller pore, perhaps a microduct. Pores and setae forming a sparse polygonal pattern similar to that of test. Anal plates variable in shape, usually longer than combined width; anogenital fold with 1 or 2 pairs of setae on anterior margin, each lateral margin with 1 seta anteriorly and another posteriorly. Marginal ornamentation variable but generally consisting of sclerotisations along margin, usually appearing as corrugations but some species with sclerotised dashes or arrow-heads lying radially. Marginal setae fan-shaped, round to broadly oval (spatulate in P. comperei Hodgson   , spec. n.). Stigmatic clefts deep and sclerotised, each with 1–3 stigmatic spines in a transverse line along base of cleft. Multilocular disc-pores in transverse bands medially on abdominal segments V, VI and VII or just VI and VII. Both spiracular disc-pore bands complete, each without any gap without pores medially. Ventral microducts few. Ventral setae few. Antennae 6 segmented and usually well developed, with a full complement of setae, but occasionally reduced and then with some setose setae missing. Spiracles usually rather small but sometimes significantly larger. Legs always present, each with 5 segments, but occasionally somewhat reduced in size.

Paralecanium   currently includes 30 species (of which two are synonyms), all from India and the rest of southern Asia plus Australasia. They can be separated using the following key.  













Chris J. Hodgson & Douglas J. Williams 2018

Lecanium (Paralecanium) Cockerell in Cockerell & Parrott, 1899 : 227

Cockerell & Parrott, 1899 : 227


Tao et al. 1983 : 100
Tang, 1991 : 126