Mitrapsylla Crawford,

Rendón-Mera, Diana Isabel, Burckhardt, Daniel, Cavichioli, Rodney R. & Queiroz, Dalva L., 2020, Taxonomy and host-plant relationships of the psyllid genus Mitrapsylla (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Psyllidae) in Brazil, Zootaxa 4887 (1), pp. 1-100: 7-14

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4887.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B9A17D69-EBE7-49F4-AB01-54CA617FED02

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4338373

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03A687A2-8752-FF9E-58C7-C7E0F983FCA3

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Mitrapsylla Crawford
status

 

Mitrapsylla Crawford 

Mitrapsylla Crawford, 1914: 134  ; Brown & Hodkinson, 1988: 61; Burckhardt & Queiroz, 2020: 34 View Cited Treatment .

Type species: Mitrapsylla albalineata Crawford  , by original designation.

Description and character assessment

Adult. Colouration. Body pale yellow, orange, reddish to dark brown or multi-coloured, when preserved dry or in ethanol ( Figs 103–132View FIGURES 103–112View FIGURES 113–122View FIGURES 123–132). Antennal segments 3–8 with dark apices becoming more extended towards apex, segments 9 and 10 black. Rostrum with black tip. Forewing usually with brown median spot in cells m 1, m 2 and cu 1 apically, as well as at apex of clavus, except for M. pterogynis  sp. nov., where they are lacking ( Fig. 187View FIGURES 183–192), and M. pallida  sp. nov., that bears a yellow spot around radular areas ( Fig. 184View FIGURES 183–192). A “striped-pattern” (described below) is usually present on head and thorax, and variably on abdomen ( Fig. 16View FIGURES 12–22), except for M. pterogynis  sp. nov., in which it is completely absent ( Figs 127View FIGURES 123–132, 157View FIGURES 148–162), and M. holocalycis  sp. nov. ( Figs 118View FIGURES 113–122, 148View FIGURES 148–162), M. ochra  sp. nov. ( Figs 123View FIGURES 123–132, 153View FIGURES 148–162) and M. pallida  sp. nov. ( Figs 124View FIGURES 123–132, 154View FIGURES 148–162), where it is rather faint, and restricted to thorax in the first and last species.

Striped-pattern. Occiput light to white. Vertex with stripe present on either side of coronal suture longitudinally, along lateral margins obliquely and along posterior margin transversely; dot adjacent to lateral ocellus and on anteorbital tubercle. Anteoccipital sclerite light to white. Gena with spot laterally between antenna and eye; genal process with transversal stripe at base. Pronotum with two longitudinal stripes medially and spot on each lateral tubercle, sometimes with additional markings. Mesopraescutum with longitudinal stripe medially, along lateral margins and spot on posterior margin laterally. Mesoscutum with longitudinal stripe medially, submedially and two sublaterally, sometimes with additional markings laterally. Mesoscutellum with stripe along lateral margins, usually weak towards apex. Metascutellum with two longitudinal stripes medially. Metapostnotum with longitudinal stripe medially, usually confined to posterior half. Parapterum light to white. Mesepisternum with U-shaped marking dorsally with spot below anteriorly. Other thoracic pleurites sometimes with additional markings. Abdominal tergites with spot medially, submedially and laterally; spiracular sclerites sometimes with spot posteriorly.

Although the general arrangement is mostly stable, stripes can be just slightly lighter than general body colour, white or yellow, complete or partially interrupted, wide or narrow, relatively straight or uneven, and with or without dark outline. These variations, along with variations in body colour, occur intraspecifically and are mostly associated with the maturity of the specimens, as younger adults are lighter with faint and more expanded striped-pattern, and older specimens are darker with distinct striped-pattern. Consequently, these characters are diagnostic only to a very limited degree. The few exceptions are M. pterogynis  ( Figs 127View FIGURES 123–132, 157View FIGURES 148–162) with orange body lacking striped-pattern, M. melanothorax  ( Figs 122View FIGURES 113–122, 152View FIGURES 148–162) with dark brown head and thorax, light yellow abdomen, yellowish forewings and fine, yellowish striped-pattern, and M. holocalycis  ( Fig. 118View FIGURES 113–122, 148View FIGURES 148–162) with pale yellow body, faint striped-pattern restricted to thorax and conspicuously dark veins. Variations of the striped-pattern are presented in each species colour description.

Structure. Head slightly wider than mesonotum; inclined at 30° or more from longitudinal body axis ( Figs 103–132View FIGURES 103–112View FIGURES 113–122View FIGURES 123–132). Vertex slightly to strongly concave posteriorly, anteriorly projected and bearing poorly to well-developed longitudinal ridge on either side of coronal suture, weakly to strongly indented around foveae, with anteorbital and lateral ocellar tubercles poorly to well-developed ( Figs 133–162View FIGURES 133–147View FIGURES 148–162); covered with microscopic, sparsely spaced setae; surface microsculpture subrhomboidal. Anteoccipical sclerite developed along anterior half of eye. Gena expanded laterally, covered with short setae; genal process subconical ( Figs 134, 136, 139–141, 144, 145, 147View FIGURES 133–147, 157, 162View FIGURES 148–162) to expanded ( Figs 133, 137, 138, 142, 143, 146View FIGURES 133–147, 148, 150–155, 158View FIGURES 148–162), evenly ( Figs 133, 135, 137, 139, 147View FIGURES 133–147, 160View FIGURES 148–162) or irregularly ( Figs 134, 138, 141, 142View FIGURES 133–147, 150, 155, 162View FIGURES 148–162) narrowing towards acute ( Figs 134, 136, 141, 145View FIGURES 133–147, 158, 161View FIGURES 148–162) to narrowly ( Figs 146View FIGURES 133–147, 151, 159, 160View FIGURES 148–162) or broadly ( Figs 133, 137, 142View FIGURES 133–147, 148View FIGURES 148–162) rounded apex, 0.3–0.9 times as long as vertex along midline, with dorsum slightly expanded basally, apex slightly upturned in lateral view, covered with short to long setae towards apex and two longer subapically; surface microsculpture transversely striate. Antenna 10-segmented, filiform, 1.8–4.4 times as long as head width, segments 7 or 8 always the longest; one single subapical rhinarium present on segments 4, 6, 8 and 9; terminal setae subequal or one seta about half the length of the other, slightly shorter to slightly longer than segment 10. Clypeus, in ventral view, pyriform; in lateral view, protruding anteriorly; covered with numerous short setae and two long setae medially. Labium, in lateral view, with apical segment and sometimes part of median segment visible; apical segment 0.1–0.2 times as long as head width, 0.5–0.8 times as long as median segment length, bearing long setae medially and subapically. Thorax, in lateral view, with dorsal margin weakly to strongly arched. Pronotum declivous, merging smoothly with propleurites laterally, slightly projected posterad medially, bearing three lateral tubercles; propleurites subequal, narrow, elongate, mostly concealed by eye. Forewing obovoid ( Figs 164, 167, 172View FIGURES 163–172, 176View FIGURES 173–182, 186, 191, 192View FIGURES 183–192), oval ( Figs 166, 171View FIGURES 163–172, 177View FIGURES 173–182) to subrhomboidal ( Fig. 37View FIGURES 35–37), rounded apically, 2.3–3.3 times as long as head width, 2.0–2.5 times as long as broad; veins bearing microscopic setae subequal or slightly longer than veins width, irregularly spaced; costal break present; pterostigma present, variously developed, lacking distinct apex; vein Cu 1a strongly arched so that cell cu 1a tall; anal break close to apex of vein Cu 1b; radular spinules forming narrow linear to subtriangular patches in cells m 1, m 2 and cu 1. Surface spinules present, sometimes much reduced, distinctly ( Fig. 38View FIGURES 38–43), moderately ( Fig. 39View FIGURES 38–43) or densely ( Fig. 40View FIGURES 38–43) spaced forming rhomboids or densely spaced forming irregular groups separated from each other ( Fig. 41View FIGURES 38–43), leaving spinulefree spaces along veins ( Fig. 42View FIGURES 38–43) or covering cells up to veins apically ( Fig. 43View FIGURES 38–43). Hindwing with prominent M+Cu 1 vein, costal setae distinctly grouped. Metacoxa bearing horn-shaped, pointed meracanthus; metatibia 0.5–0.9 times as long as head width, bearing distinct genual spine and 1+3+1 apical spurs. Metabasitarsus with two lateral spurs.

Male terminalia ( Fig. 5View FIGURES 5–11). Proctiger, in lateral view, with posterior lobe variously developed, straight or downcurved. Subgenital plate, in lateral view, relatively short, subglobular. Paramere, in lateral view, irregularly lamellar ( Figs 196View FIGURES 193–201, 205, 208View FIGURES 202–210, 211View FIGURES 211–219, 223View FIGURES 220–228, 238View FIGURES 238–246, 253View FIGURES 247–255, 256, 262View FIGURES 256–264, 265View FIGURES 265–273, 280View FIGURES 274–282), sublanceolate ( Fig. 274View FIGURES 274–282), weakly ( Figs 202View FIGURES 202–210, 214, 217View FIGURES 211–219, 229, 232View FIGURES 229–237) to strongly clavate ( Figs 199View FIGURES 193–201, 220View FIGURES 220–228, 235View FIGURES 229–237, 244View FIGURES 238–246, 271View FIGURES 265–273, 277View FIGURES 274–282), or capitate ( Fig. 241View FIGURES 238–246); apex with sclerotised ridge; outer surface covered with long setae mostly in apical two thirds, longer and more densely spaced along posterior margin; inner surface mostly covered with short to long setae, usually longer basally and along posterior margin, often with row of thick setae along apical anterior margin, several thick setae below sclerotised ridge, and group of thick ( Figs 197View FIGURES 193–201, 206View FIGURES 202–210, 266View FIGURES 265–273) or stout ( Figs 194View FIGURES 193–201, 221View FIGURES 220–228, 242View FIGURES 238–246, 248View FIGURES 247–255, 260View FIGURES 256–264) setae on apical posterior margin; in dorsal view, sclerotised ridge differently developed, usually bearing posterior tooth. Aedeagus simple ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 5–11) or complex unipartite ( Figs 8, 9View FIGURES 5–11) or tripartite ( Figs 10, 11View FIGURES 5–11) (described below); end tube of the ejaculatory duct weakly curved; sperm pump with narrow barrel and large end-plates.

Simple aedeagus. The aedeagal head, that bears the end tube of the ejaculatory duct, consists of the single expansion following the aedeagal stem ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 5–11; Brown & Hodkinson 1988, p. 12, Fig. E).

Complex aedeagus. The aedeagal head is modified into two structures that follow the aedeagal stem: 1) the dorsal lobe, which bears the end tube of the ejaculatory duct; and 2) the ventral process, which is expanded apically and bears two subapical tubercles on either side ( Figs 8–11View FIGURES 5–11). This type of aedeagus is divided into two subtypes based on the condition of the dorsal lobe, which can be unipartite, in which the dorsal lobe consists of one single lobe, without subdivisions ( Figs 8, 9View FIGURES 5–11); or tripartite, in which the dorsal lobe is divided in three lobules ( Fig. 10, 11View FIGURES 5–11): one median lobule that bears the end tube of the ejaculatory duct, and two lateral lobules; and basally bears the membranous pouch ( Figs 10, 11View FIGURES 5–11).

Female terminalia ( Fig. 6View FIGURES 5–11). Proctiger, in lateral view, cuneate; dorsal outline slightly to strongly concave distal to circumanal ring, apical extension straight ( Figs 315, 318View FIGURES 313–318, 328View FIGURES 325–330, 333, 340, 342) or sinuous ( Figs 314View FIGURES 313–318, 324View FIGURES 319–324, 326, 330View FIGURES 325–330, 341View FIGURES 337–342); covered with peg-setae, with longitudinal row of dorsomedial long setae along each side; apex straight ( Figs 318View FIGURES 313–318, 333, 340) to strongly upturned ( Figs 320, 323View FIGURES 319–324, 325View FIGURES 325–330, 332, 338); rounded ( Figs 318View FIGURES 313–318, 324View FIGURES 319–324, 333, 335, 337, 340) or obliquely ( Figs 313, 317View FIGURES 313–318, 321View FIGURES 319–324, 326View FIGURES 325–330, 332, 335, 342) or transversally truncate (Figs 332, 341). Circumanal ring double. Subgenital plate, in lateral view, cuneate; apex truncate ( Figs 320View FIGURES 319–324, 331, 338, 340) or well-developed ( Figs 313, 316View FIGURES 313–318, 321View FIGURES 319–324, 330View FIGURES 325–330, 335, 337, 342); ventral outline almost straight ( Figs 323View FIGURES 319–324, 325, 330View FIGURES 325–330, 335) or slightly sinuous ( Figs 314, 316View FIGURES 313–318, 321View FIGURES 319–324), convex ( Figs 316, 318View FIGURES 313–318, 328View FIGURES 325–330) to strongly expanded ( Figs 319, 322View FIGURES 319–324, 326View FIGURES 325–330, 336, 337, 339, 340, 341); covered with short to long setae in median third and ventrally throughout, short setae in apical third and long setae at apex, with or without group of long setae on dorsum subapically, with or without seta-free patch subapically; in ventral view, lateral margins abruptly ( Figs 345, 348, 350, 354, 361View FIGURES 343–362, 368View FIGURES 363–372), strongly ( Figs 343, 347, 356View FIGURES 343–362, 364, 367, 371View FIGURES 363–372) or weakly ( Figs 344, 357, 362View FIGURES 343–362, 370, 372View FIGURES 363–372) narrowing towards rounded ( Figs 344, 356, 359View FIGURES 343–362, 366, 369, 372View FIGURES 363–372), subtruncate ( Figs 343, 346, 351, 362View FIGURES 343–362, 370View FIGURES 363–372) or truncate ( Figs 348, 350View FIGURES 343–362) apex.

Immature. Descriptions by Burckhardt & Brown (1992) and Burckhardt & Queiroz (2020).

Comments. Mitrapsylla  is morphologically relatively homogeneous and differences between species are often confined to the male terminalia. Many characters vary within a species (e.g. shape of genal process, forewing and apex of female proctiger, arching of dorsal margin of thorax and degree of head inclination from longitudinal body axis), extremes are linked by intermediate forms (e.g. length of antenna and genal process), and some are influenced by the specimen coloration, age and preservation (e.g. degree of development of longitudinal ridge of vertex, and anteorbital and lateral ocellar tubercles). Spacing and distribution of surface spinules are sometimes useful for species definition. Characters of females such as the shape of apex of subgenital plate in lateral and ventral view, and the presence or absence of group of setae and seta-free patch on subgenital plate subapically, were useful for the delimitation of some species. Characters with greater value for species identification are principally the paramere shape and, to a lesser extent, the type of aedeagus and details of the shape of the aedeagus and the apical sclerotised ridge. As the taxonomy relies largely on differences in the male terminalia, females and immatures are often difficult to assign with certitude to a particular species. For this reason, we provide here an identification key only for the males.

Prior to this study, Mitrapsylla  contained 24 valid species ( Crawford 1914; Šulc 1914; Crawford 1925; Caldwell 1944; Caldwell & Martorell 1952; White & Hodkinson 1980; Brown & Hodkinson 1988; Burckhardt & Queiroz 2020). Here, we describe 27 new species from Brazil associated with various genera of legumes. Material at hand of additional species, too incomplete for description, suggests that many more Mitrapsylla  species can be expected.

Host-plants are confirmed by the presence of immatures for 25 species and are likely for 11 species. For 15 species no host information is available.

Key to Mitrapsylla  males

1. Head and thorax medium to dark brown, strongly contrasting from whitish to light yellow abdomen and yellowish forewings; striped-pattern very fine or present as scattered spots ( Figs 12View FIGURES 12–22, 23View FIGURES 23–34). Paramere, in lateral view, lamellar; apex rounded or squarish, directed posteriorly ( Fig. 44View FIGURES 44–68). On Machaerium  spp.......................................... M. melanothorax 

- Combination of characters different....................................................................... 2

2. Body light yellowish-orange to orange, lacking distinct striped-pattern ( Figs 13View FIGURES 12–22, 24View FIGURES 23–34). Forewing lacking brown median spot in cells apically ( Fig. 35View FIGURES 35–37); surface spinules fully covering all cells covering cells up to veins ( Fig. 43View FIGURES 38–43). Paramere, in lateral view, lamellar; anterior and posterior margins subparallel; apex squarish, with posterior half expanded dorsally, displaced from plane of anterior half ( Fig. 45View FIGURES 44–68). On Pterogyne nitens  ................................................... M. pterogynis 

- Combination of characters different....................................................................... 3

3. Body pale yellow, contrasting from conspicuously dark veins ( Figs 14View FIGURES 12–22, 25View FIGURES 23–34). Paramere, in lateral view, lamellar; apex with prominent median projection; posterior margin expanded posteriorly in basal third ( Fig. 46View FIGURES 44–68). Aedeagus with dorsal lobe almost as long as ventral process; ventral process with apical expansion weak, considerably smaller than dorsal lobe ( Fig. 47View FIGURES 44–68). On Holocalyx balansae  ........................................................................ M. holocalycis 

- Combination of characters different....................................................................... 4

4. Aedeagus simple ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 5–11; Burckhardt & Queiroz 2020: Figs 139, 141, 143, 145, 147View FIGURES 133–147, 149, 150, 152, 154, 156View FIGURES 148–162)............ 5

- Aedeagus complex ( Figs 8View FIGURES 5–11 ‾11)......................................................................... 15

5. Paramere, in lateral view, clavate or capitate ( Fig. 16View FIGURES 12–22)........................................................ 6

- Paramere, in lateral view, lamellar or irregularly lamellar...................................................... 7

6. GL/VL Ż 0.7. Paramere, in lateral view, clavate. Aedeagus, in lateral view, lacking subapical hook.............. M. viridis 

- GL/VL Ľ 0.6. Paramere, in lateral view, capitate ( Fig. 48View FIGURES 44–68). Aedeagus, in lateral view, with subapical hook ( Fig. 49View FIGURES 44–68)................................................................................................. M. itacoatiara 

7. Forewing slightly angular near apex of vein Rs.............................................................. 8

- Forewing evenly rounded near apex of vein Rs............................................................. 10

8. Forewing with dark subapical band. Aedeagal head, in lateral view, only weakly expanded apically............ M. compta 

- Forewing without dark subapical band, usually with dark marginal spots in the middle of cells. Aedeagal head, in lateral view, strongly expanded apically with a subapical tooth. On Copaifera  spp............................................. 9

9. Forewing membrane infuscate in addition to brown patches along wing margin. Paramere, in lateral view, with slightly angular posterior margin in apical third. On Copaifera oblongifolia  ........................................ M. fumipennis 

- Forewing membrane colourless apart from brown patches along wing margin. Paramere, in lateral view, more or less evenly tapering to blunt apex in apical half. On Copaifera langsdorffii  ...................................... M. copaiferae 

10. Paramere, in lateral view, irregularly lamellar, posterior margin with each an apical and basal projection ( Brown & Hodkinson 1988: 78, Fig. 34GView FIGURES 23–34)........................................................................ M. longicauda 

- Paramere, in lateral view, evenly lamellar, posterior margin lacking projections................................... 11

11. Body dimensions larger: antenna length> 2.0 mm, forewing length> 2.0 mm. Paramere, in lateral view, with slightly narrow apex............................................................................................... 12

- Body dimensions smaller: antenna length <1.9 mm, forewing length <2.0 mm. Paramere, in lateral view, with wide apex. 13

12. GL/VL 0.7–0.9. AL> 2.6 mm, FL> 2.4 mm. Paramere, in dorsal view, with sclerotised apex hook-shaped, forward directed. Aedeagus, in lateral view, with two large subapical spines. On Copaifera langsdorffii  ....................... M. adusta 

- GL/VL 0.5–0.7. AL <2.5 mm, FL <2.5 mm. Paramere, in dorsal view, with sclerotised apex truncate with slightly larger anterior and smaller posterior point. Aedeagus, in lateral view, lacking subapical spines......................... M. repens 

13. Paramere, in lateral view, strongly rounded apically; inner surface lacking a group of dense bristles along posterior margin near apex. Aedeagus, in lateral view, hardly expanded apically.......................................... M. megacerca 

- Paramere different; inner surface with a group of dense bristles along posterior margin near apex. Aedeagus, in lateral view, strongly expanded apically............................................................................. 14

14. Paramere, in lateral view, weakly expanded apically. Aedeagus, in lateral view, with apical expansion about one third length of distal segment................................................................................ M. borealis 

- Paramere, in lateral view, strongly expanded apically. Aedeagus, in lateral view, with apical expansion about half length of distal segment. On Copaifera  spp................................................................ .. M. gloriae 

15. Paramere, in lateral view, sublanceolate ( Fig. 76View FIGURES 69–92)................................................... M. truncata 

- Paramere different................................................................................... 16

16. Paramere, in lateral view, clavate (distinctly widening towards apex) ( Figs 50View FIGURES 44–68 ‾53, 55, 56, 58‾61, 63‾75).............. 17

- Paramere, in lateral view, lamellar or irregularly lamellar lamellar (not or hardly widening towards apex) ( Figs 77, 79, 81, 83View FIGURES 69–92 ‾85, 87, 89, 91).................................................................................... 32

17. Forewing with dark brown median spot in cell r 2 apically ( Fig. 36View FIGURES 35–37). Paramere, in lateral view, clavate; apex deeply indented in anterior half, forming prominent hook in posterior half ( Fig. 50View FIGURES 44–68). On Machaerium amplum  ................... M. hamata 

- Forewing lacking dark brown median spot apically in cell r 2 ( Figs 35, 37View FIGURES 35–37). Paramere different........................ 18

18. Paramere, in lateral view, mitten-shaped, with anterior half strongly expanded dorsally and posterior half deeply concave, expanded posteriorly ( Fig. 51View FIGURES 44–68).................................................................. M. securigera 

- Paramere different................................................................................... 19

19. Paramere, in lateral view, with posterior margin forming a small lobe in apical third ( Figs 52, 53, 55, 56View FIGURES 44–68, arrow)......... 20

- Paramere, in lateral view, with posterior margin not forming a lobe, at most slightly angulated in apical third............ 21

20. Paramere inner surface, in lateral view, bearing group of stout setae on apical posterior margin ( Fig. 53View FIGURES 44–68). Aedeagus, in lateral view, with membranous pouch elongate; ventral process oval ( Fig. 54View FIGURES 44–68).............................. M. domahovskii 

- Paramere inner face, in lateral view, lacking group of stout setae on apical posterior margin ( Fig. 56View FIGURES 44–68). Aedeagus, in lateral view, with membranous pouch small; ventral process oblong-oval ( Fig. 57View FIGURES 44–68).................................. M. halbertae 

21. Paramere, in lateral view, with both margins moderately and gradually expanding towards apex ( Figs 58, 59View FIGURES 44–68); apex irregularly oblique, with subposterior and posterior sclerotised ridge, the former in lower level than the latter ( Figs 59View FIGURES 44–68, 93View FIGURES 93–102). On Machaerium hirtum  ............................................................................. M. machaerii 

- Paramere different................................................................................... 22

22. Head and thorax multi-coloured ( Figs 15, 16View FIGURES 12–22). Paramere, in lateral view, weakly expanded apically ( Figs 60, 61View FIGURES 44–68). Aedeagus tripartite ( Fig. 62View FIGURES 44–68)............................................................................. M. clavata 

- Head and thorax pale yellow, orange, reddish to brownish ( Figs 17View FIGURES 12–22 ‾19), sometimes multi-coloured ( Fig. 20View FIGURES 12–22). Paramere, in lateral view, weakly to strongly expanded apically ( Figs 63View FIGURES 44–68 ‾75). Aedeagus unipartite ( Figs 8View FIGURES 5–11 ‾9)..................... 23

23. Paramere, in lateral view, strongly expanded apically; apical expansion relatively symmetrical; with sclerotised ridge posteriorly ( Figs 63View FIGURES 44–68 ‾68).................................................................................... 24

- Paramere, in lateral view, weakly or moderately expanded apically; apical expansion asymmetrical; with sclerotised ridge medially or subposteriorly ( Figs 69View FIGURES 69–92 ‾75)..................................................................... 28

24. Paramere, in lateral view, with posterior margin indented along median third; with sclerotised ridge in posterior third ( Figs 63, 64View FIGURES 44–68). On Andira fraxinifolia  ..................................................................... M. andirae 

- Paramere, in lateral view, with posterior margin lacking such indention, at most concave subapically; with sclerotised ridge in about posterior half ( Figs 65View FIGURES 44–68 ‾68)........................................................................ 25

25. Paramere, in lateral view, with apex irregularly straight, anterior margin never expanded dorsally ( Fig. 65View FIGURES 44–68). Surface spinules fully covering cells r 1, r 2, m 1, m 2, cu 1 and cu 2. On Sophora tomentosa  .................................. M. itaparica 

- Paramere, in lateral view, with apex slightly or strongly indented; anterior margin weakly or strongly expanded dorsally ( Figs 66View FIGURES 44–68 ‾68). Surface spinules not fully covering fully covering cells r 1, r 2, m 1, m 2, cu 1 and cu 2 ........................... 26

26. Paramere, in lateral view, with apex slightly indented submedially; anterior margin weakly expanded dorsally ( Fig. 66View FIGURES 44–68). Surface spinules restricted to radular areas in cells m1, m2, and cu1, sometimes much reduced......................... M. soror 

- Paramere, in lateral view, with apex strongly indented in anterior third; anterior margin strongly expanded dorsally ( Figs 67, 68View FIGURES 44–68). Surface spinules fully covering cells m 1, m 2, and cu 1, sometimes restricted to radular areas cells m 1, m 2, and cu 1 ...... 27

27. Paramere, in dorsal view, with sclerotised ridge smoothly inward directed, separated from posterior tooth by deep indention ( Fig. 94View FIGURES 93–102). On Andira cujabensis  ............................................................... M. cujabensis 

- Paramere, in dorsal view, with sclerotised ridge slightly sinuous, not separated from posterior tooth by deep indention ( Fig. 95View FIGURES 93–102). On Machaerium villosum  ........................................................................ M. villosi 

28. Head and thorax usually multi-coloured, ventrally darker ( Figs 20View FIGURES 12–22, 26View FIGURES 23–34). AL Ż 1.4 mm. Forewing with radular spines present in cell r 2, sometimes inconspicuous ( Fig. 37View FIGURES 35–37). Paramere, in lateral view, with posterior margin rounded in apical third; sclerotised ridge subposteriorly ( Figs 69, 70View FIGURES 69–92). On Periandra mediterranea  ...................................... M. periandrae 

- Head and thorax pale yellow, orange, reddish to brownish ( Figs 27View FIGURES 23–34 ‾29). AL Ľ 1.3 mm. Forewing with radular spinules some- times present in r 2 but inconspicuous. Paramere, in lateral view, with posterior margin angulate in apical third; sclerotised ridge medially ( Figs 71View FIGURES 69–92 ‾75)................................................................................ 29

29. Surface spinules densely spaced, forming irregular groups somewhat separated from each other ( Fig. 41View FIGURES 38–43), seldom moderately spaced ( Fig. 39View FIGURES 38–43); fully covering all cells. Paramere, in lateral view, with apex squarish, strongly directed posteriorly ( Fig. 73View FIGURES 69–92); in dorsal view, with sclerotised ridge prominent ( Fig. 97View FIGURES 93–102)............................................. M. aurantia 

- Surface spinules distinctly ( Fig. 38View FIGURES 38–43) to moderately spaced ( Fig. 39View FIGURES 38–43); present around radular areas of cells m 1, m 2 and cu 1, sometimes much reduced. Paramere, in lateral view, with apex irregularly rounded to subtruncate, slightly to strongly directed posteriorly ( Figs 74, 75View FIGURES 69–92); in dorsal view, different ( Figs 96, 98, 99View FIGURES 93–102)............................................. 30

30. Genal process, in dorsal view, expanded; with broadly or narrowly rounded apex ( Fig. 27View FIGURES 23–34). Paramere, in lateral view, with anterior margin almost straight in median two quarters, somewhat abruptly curving towards apex ( Fig. 71, 72View FIGURES 69–92); in dorsal view, with sclerotised ridge irregularly inward directed ( Fig. 96View FIGURES 93–102). On Aeschynomene paniculata  ............. M. aeschynomenis 

- Genal process, in dorsal view, subconical, rarely expanded; with subacute or acute apex, rarely rounded ( Figs 28, 29View FIGURES 23–34). Paramere, in lateral view, with anterior margin weakly to strongly sinuous ( Figs 74, 75View FIGURES 69–92); in dorsal view, with sclerotised ridge irregularly straight or subrectangular ( Figs 98, 99View FIGURES 93–102)........................................................... 31

31. Paramere, in lateral view, with anterior margin broadly rounded in apical third; apex irregularly rounded to subtruncate, slightly to strongly directed posteriorly ( Fig. 75View FIGURES 69–92). Surface spinules absent or much reduced around radular areas of cells m 1, m 2 and cu 1. On Desmodium album  ......................................................................... M. didyma 

- Paramere, in lateral view, with anterior margin weakly rounded in apical third; apex subtruncate, slightly directed posteriorly ( Fig. 74View FIGURES 69–92). Surface spinules around radular areas of cells m 1, m 2 and cu 1, sometimes much reduced. On Desmodium adscendens  .................................................................................... M. cubana 

32. Ventral process of the aedeagus, in lateral view, with apical expansion smaller than dorsal lobe ( Figs 78, 80, 82View FIGURES 69–92)......... 33

- Ventral process of the aedeagus, in lateral view, with apical expansion subequal or larger than dorsal lobe ( Figs 86, 88, 90, 92View FIGURES 69–92)................................................................................................ 35

33. Paramere, in lateral view, with posterior margin strongly indented along apical third; apex squarish, following the longitudinal paramere axis ( Fig. 81View FIGURES 69–92). Aedeagus unipartite ( Fig. 8, 9View FIGURES 5–11, 82View FIGURES 69–92)......................................... M. pterodontis 

- Paramere different. Aedeagus tripartite ( Figs 10, 11View FIGURES 5–11, 78, 80View FIGURES 69–92)................................................... 34

34. Paramere, in lateral view, with apex slightly directed posteriorly, irregularly rounded, slightly notched medially; anterior margin convex in apical two thirds; posterior margin subequally expanded in apical third and basal two thirds ( Fig. 77View FIGURES 69–92); in dorsal view, bearing large posterior tooth, slightly directed anteriorly ( Fig. 100View FIGURES 93–102). On Machaerium  sp.............. M. brevigenis 

- Paramere, in lateral view, with apex strongly directed posteriorly, truncate, never notched; anterior margin almost straight before apex; posterior margin strongly concave along apical half ( Fig. 79View FIGURES 69–92); in dorsal view, with wavy sclerotised ridge and blunt posterior tooth, the former in lower level than the latter ( Fig. 101View FIGURES 93–102).................................. M. ceplaciensis 

35. Paramere, in lateral view, with anterior and posterior margins subparallel; apex truncate ( Fig. 83View FIGURES 69–92); in dorsal view, sclerotised ridge bearing small anterior, median and posterior tooth ( Fig. 102View FIGURES 93–102)....................................... M. ochra 

- Paramere different................................................................................... 36

36. Paramere, in lateral view, with apex following the longitudinal paramere axis, rather straight (84, 85, 87)............... 37

- Paramere, in lateral view, with apex weakly to strongly deflected from longitudinal paramere axis, directed posteriorly ( Figs 89, 91View FIGURES 69–92)................................................................................................ 39

37. Genal process, in dorsal view, with apex acute ( Fig. 30View FIGURES 23–34); GL/VL Ľ 0.4. AL/HW Ľ 2.1. Surface spinules much reduced around radular areas of cells m 1, m 2 and cu 1. Paramere, in lateral view, with apex subtruncate ( Fig. 84View FIGURES 69–92)............. M. amazonica 

- Genal process, in dorsal view, with apex narrowly rounded or subacute ( Figs 31, 32View FIGURES 23–34); GL/VL Ż 0.5. AL/HW Ż 2.5. Surface spinules fully covering cells r 1, r 2, m 1, m 2, cu 1 and cu 2. Paramere, in lateral view, with apex irregularly rounded ( Figs 85, 87View FIGURES 69–92). .................................................................................................. 38

38. Genal process, in dorsal view, subconical with subacute apex ( Fig. 31View FIGURES 23–34). Paramere, in lateral view, with posterior margin weakly wavy ( Fig. 85View FIGURES 69–92). Aedeagus unipartite ( Fig. 86View FIGURES 69–92)................................................... M. xanthoptera 

- Genal process, in dorsal view, expanded, with apex subacute or narrowly rounded ( Fig. 32View FIGURES 23–34). Paramere, in lateral view, expanded in apical and two basal thirds ( Fig. 87View FIGURES 69–92). Aedeagus tripartite ( Fig. 88View FIGURES 69–92). On Cassia leptophylla  .................. M. cassiae 

39. Head and thorax yellowish-brown to ochreous, body usually darker ventrally; with striped-pattern ( Figs 21View FIGURES 12–22, 33View FIGURES 23–34). Paramere, in lateral view, with apex strongly rounded ( Fig. 89View FIGURES 69–92). Surface spinules absent or much reduced around radular areas of cells m 1, m2 and cu1; leaving spinule-free spaces along veins ( Fig. 42View FIGURES 38–43). Aedeagus tripartite ( Fig. 90View FIGURES 69–92). On Machaerium  spp.................................................................................................... M. cuspidata 

- Head and thorax light straw-coloured, body ventrally concolorous; lacking distinct striped-pattern ( Figs 22View FIGURES 12–22, 34View FIGURES 23–34). Paramere, in lateral view, with apex slightly notched anteriorly ( Fig. 91View FIGURES 69–92). Surface spinules fully covering all cells; covering cells up to veins apically ( Fig. 43View FIGURES 38–43). Aedeagus unipartite ( Fig. 92View FIGURES 69–92). On Pterodon emarginatus  ............................... M. pallida 

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Psyllidae

Loc

Mitrapsylla Crawford

Rendón-Mera, Diana Isabel, Burckhardt, Daniel, Cavichioli, Rodney R. & Queiroz, Dalva L. 2020
2020
Loc

Mitrapsylla

Burckhardt, D. & Queiroz, D. L. 2020: 34
Brown, R. G. & Hodkinson, I. D. 1988: 61
Crawford, D. L. 1914: 134
1914