Phormosoma bursarium A. Agassiz, 1881, A. Agassiz, 1881

Anderson, Owen F., 2016, A review of New Zealand and southeast Australian echinothurioids (Echinodermata: Echinothurioida) — excluding the subfamily Echinothuriinae—with a description of a new species of Tromikosoma, Zootaxa 4092 (4), pp. 451-488: 480-484

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4092.4.1

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:EA66CAE5-F6CE-44BA-A5FF-67F2BEE6DEE8

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03A4AB67-FFFE-FFAE-FF1D-FE61FA266438

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scientific name

Phormosoma bursarium A. Agassiz, 1881
status

 

Phormosoma bursarium A. Agassiz, 1881  

( Figures 26–27 View FIGURE 26 View FIGURE 27 )

Material examined. 1006 specimens from 216 records (NIWA, Te Papa, MV, AM).

Lord Howe Rise: 1 specimen, 32 ° 26.7 ´ S, 161 ° 46.9 ´ E, 1130–1147 m, MV F 167643; 1 specimen, 32 ° 41.8 ´ S, 162 ° 33.5 ´ E, 855–874 m, MV [TAN0308/079]; 2 specimens, 32 ° 42.5 ´ S, 162 ° 33.9 ´ E, 850–872 m, MV F 167676; 1 specimen, 34 ° 12.4 ´ S, 163 ° 17.2 ´ E, 1076–1083 m, MV [TAN0308/ 91]. West Norfolk Ridge: 6 specimen, 33 ° 49.5 ´ S, 166 ° 58.8 ´ E, 950–987 m, MV F 167641. Norfolk Ridge: 2 specimens, 30 ° 10.7 ´ S, 167 ° 44.2 ´ E, 952 m, NIWA 45067; 3 specimens, 29 ° 53.4 ´ S, 167 ° 48.4 ´ E, 653–656 m, MV [TAN0308/018]. Louisville Ridge: 1 specimen, 42 ° 53 ´ S, 162 ° 25 W, EC 5863 (dry). Northern North Island: 4 specimens, 35 ° 6 ´ S, 172 ° 24 ´ E, EC 1725 (dry); 2 specimens, 35 ° 6 ´ S, 172 ° 24 ´ E, EC 1725 (dry); 2 specimens, 36 ° 0´ S, 172 ° 52 ´ E, 999 m, NIWA 45124; 2 specimens, 36 ° 3.4 ´ S, 173 ° 10.7 ´ E, 929 – 845 m, NIWA 45093; 2 specimens, 36 ° 6.7 ´ S, 173 ° 15.6 ´ E, 848 – 848 m, NIWA 29474; 1 specimen, 36 ° 6 ´ S, 173 ° 16 ´ E, 850 – 850 m, NIWA 29475; 1 specimen, 36 ° 28.7 ´ S, 173 ° 43.8 ´ E, EC 5878 (dry); 2 specimens, 34 ° 40.6 ´ S, 173 ° 50.5 ´ E, NIWA 45065; 1 specimen, 37 ° 6.6 ´ S, 173 ° 54.1 ´ E, EC 5875 (dry); 11 specimens, 37 ° 28.5 ´ S, 173 ° 58.6 ´ E, EC 3979 (dry); 4 specimens, 37 ° 18.1 ´ S, 173 ° 59 ´ E, EC 3959; 6 specimens, 34 ° 39 ´ S, 174 ° 4.2 ´ E, NIWA 45078; 1 specimen, 35 ° 0´ S, 174 ° 24 ´ E, EC 5018 (dry); 3 specimens, 35 ° 0.6 ´ S, 174 ° 40.1 ´ E, 560 m, NIWA 45052; 1 specimen, 35 ° 0.2 ´ S, 174 ° 49.2 ´ E, 625 m, NIWA 59350; 6 specimens, 34 ° 59.5 ´ S, 174 ° 51.9 ´ E, EC 5865 (dry); 1 specimen, 35 ° 8 ´ S, 175 ° 8.5 ´ E, 794 m, NIWA 29518; 1 specimen, 35 ° 0´ S, 175 ° 13 ´ E, 575 m, NIWA 45088; 2 specimens, 36 ° 38.8 ´ S, 176 ° 11 ´ E, 288 m, NIWA 29517. Bay of Plenty: 1 specimen, 37 ° 0.7 ´ S, 176 ° 14.1 ´ E, 289–291 m, NIWA 29470; 7 specimens, 36 ° 40.9 ´ S, 176 ° 14.8 ´ E, 465 m, NIWA 45038; 8 specimens, 36 ° 42.2 ´ S, 176 ° 15.9 ´ E, 520 m, NIWA 45033; 5 specimens, 36 ° 52.5 ´ S, 176 ° 16.1 ´ E, 307 m, NIWA 45037; 4 specimens, 37 ° 3 ´ S, 176 ° 17 ´ E, EC 1058; 2 specimens, 37 ° 6 ´ S, 176 ° 18 ´ E, EC 4134; 2 specimens, 36 ° 48.1 ´ S, 176 ° 18.1 ´ E, 522 m, NIWA 45057; 8 specimens, 37 ° 31 ´ S, 176 ° 18.5 ´ E, EC 4133; 5 specimens, 37 ° 8 ´ S, 176 ° 18.9 ´ E, EC 5856 (dry); 1 specimen, 36 ° 51.8 ´ S, 176 ° 18.9 ´ E, 509–512 m, NIWA 29473; 2 specimens, 36 ° 51.8 ´ S, 176 ° 18.9 ´ E, 509–512 m, NIWA 45070; 1 specimen, 36 ° 40.5 ´ S, 176 ° 19.2 ´ E, 909 m, NIWA 45086; 15 specimens, 36 ° 57.8 ´ S, 176 ° 19.3 ´ E, 535 m, NIWA 29519; 4 specimens, 37 ° 1.2 ´ S, 176 ° 19.5 ´ E, 567–568 m, NIWA 29516; 9 specimens, 36 ° 54.8 ´ S, 176 ° 20.4 ´ E, 588 m, NIWA 45035; 6 specimens, 37 ° 9.9 ´ S, 176 ° 21.7 ´ E, 518 m, NIWA 29508; 2 specimens, 36 ° 21.6 ´ S, 176 ° 23.4 ´ E, 995 m, NIWA 45127; 2 specimens, 37 ° 4.3 ´ S, 176 ° 26.6 ´ E, EC 5870 (dry); 3 specimens, 37 ° 10.6 ´ S, 176 ° 26.6 ´ E, EC 5868 (dry); 3 specimens, 36 ° 30.3 ´ S, 176 ° 30.5 ´ E, 990 m, NIWA 45117; 31 specimens, 37 ° 23.2 ´ S, 176 ° 32.9 ´ E, 525 m, NIWA 29484; 30 specimens, 37 ° 32.3 ´ S, 176 ° 36.3 ´ E, 251 m, NIWA 29505; 8 specimens, 37 ° 32.3 ´ S, 176 ° 36.3 ´ E, 251 m, NIWA 29512; 1 specimen, 37 ° 10.8 ´ S, 176 ° 38.3 ´ E, EC 5858 (dry); 1 specimen, 37 ° 10.8 ´ S, 176 ° 38.3 ´ E, EC 5867 (dry); 20 specimens, 37 ° 27.8 ´ S, 176 ° 39.7 ´ E, 523 m, NIWA 29506; 2 specimens, 37 ° 27.8 ´ S, 176 ° 39.7 ´ E, 523 m, NIWA 29521; 3 specimens, 37 ° 22 ´ S, 176 ° 40 ´ E, EC 5859 (dry); 30 specimens, 37 ° 29.7 ´ S, 176 ° 40.4 ´ E, 460 m, NIWA 29503; 10 specimens, 37 ° 23.5 ´ S, 176 ° 45 ´ E, EC 5855 (dry); 27 specimens, 37 ° 31.7 ´ S, 176 ° 47 ´ E, 570 m, NIWA 29485; 12 specimens, 37 ° 31.7 ´ S, 176 ° 47 ´ E, 570 m, NIWA 29504; 30 specimens, 37 ° 32.5 ´ S, 176 ° 48.6 ´ E, 550 m, NIWA 29486; 20 specimens, 37 ° 32.5 ´ S, 176 ° 48.6 ´ E, 550 m, NIWA 29487; 21 specimens, 37 ° 32.5 ´ S, 176 ° 48.6 ´ E, 550 m, NIWA 29502; 27 specimens, 37 ° 32.5 ´ S, 176 ° 48.6 ´ E, 550 m, NIWA 45048; 1 specimen, 37 ° 18.7 ´ S, 177 ° 3.9 ´ E, 725 – 550 m, NIWA 6609; 1 specimen, 37 ° 23.9 ´ S, 177 ° 6.9 ´ E, EC 5852 (dry); 1 specimen, 37 ° 33 ´ S, 177 ° 18 ´ E, EC 1061; 1 specimen, 37 ° 33 ´ S, 177 ° 18 ´ E, EC 1727 (dry); 2 specimens, 37 ° 32.3 ´ S, 177 ° 30.1 ´ E, EC 2718 (dry); 7 specimens, 37 ° 29.7 ´ S, 177 ° 32 ´ E, EC 3960; 1 specimen, 37 ° 24.7 ´ S, 178 ° 0.2 ´ E, 503 m, NIWA 45064; 2 specimens, 37 ° 46 ´ S, 178 ° 57 ´ E, EC 4097. East coast North Island: 15 specimens, 41 ° 4.7 ´ S, 176 ° 23 ´ E, 446 m, NIWA 29468; 1 specimen, 40 ° 38.6 ´ S, 176 ° 57.4 ´ E, 638–711 m, NIWA 76740; 1 specimen, 40 ° 46.1 ´ S, 176 ° 59.6 ´ E, EC 3896 (dry); 6 specimens, 39 ° 18.3 ´ S, 178 ° 11.3 ´ E, EC 5857 (dry); 1 specimen, 39 ° 18.8 ´ S, 178 ° 13.8 ´ E, 490 m, NIWA 45056; 3 specimens, 39 ° 28.2 ´ S, 178 ° 24.8 ´ E, 865 – 865 m, NIWA 29520. Cook Strait: 1 specimen, 41 ° 56.7 ´ S, 174 ° 37 ´ E, 964– 1005 m, NIWA 63820; 8 specimens, 41 ° 59.1 ´ S, 174 ° 41.9 ´ E, 730 – 685 m, NIWA 64104; 3 specimens, 41 ° 55.9 ´ S, 174 ° 43.2 ´ E, EC 5854 (dry); 2 specimens, 41 ° 53.8 ´ S, 174 ° 55.6 ´ E, 913–948 m, NIWA 64230; 1 specimen, 41 ° 42 ´ S, 175 ° 15 ´ E, EC 5866 (dry); 1 specimen, 41 ° 31.2 ´ S, 175 ° 48.4 ´ E, 746 – 723 m, NIWA 63453; 1 specimen, 41 ° 33.3 ´ S, 175 ° 49.6 ´ E, 917–945 m, NIWA 63410; 1 specimen, 41 ° 27.7 ´ S, 175 ° 53.8 ´ E, 960 – 923 m, NIWA 63553; 1 specimen, 41 ° 24.6 ´ S, 175 ° 53.9 ´ E, 614–670 m, NIWA 63593; 1 specimen, 41 ° 20.2 ´ S, 176 ° 10.9 ´ E, 730 – 687 m, NIWA 63706; 1 specimen, 41 ° 21.8 ´ S, 176 ° 12 ´ E, 998 – 987 m, NIWA 70991. Chatham Rise: 1 specimen, 43 ° 2 ´ S, 174 ° 59 ´ E, EC 2666 (dry); 14 specimens, 43 ° 2 ´ S, 174 ° 59 ´ E, EC 2717 (dry); 4 specimens, 42 ° 57.9 ´ S, 175 ° 27.8 ´ E, EC 3968; 3 specimens, 43 ° 10 ´ S, 175 ° 44 ´ E, EC 7440 (dry); 1 specimen, 44 ° 20 ´ S, 175 ° 46 ´ E, 620–710 m, NIWA 49658; 1 specimen, 42 ° 38.2 ´ S, 176 ° 10.5 ´ E, EC 5869 (dry); 1 specimen, 43 ° 50.4 ´ S, 176 ° 42.4 ´ E, 479 – 479 m, NIWA 33530; 2 specimens, 43 ° 50.4 ´ S, 176 ° 42.4 ´ E, 479 – 479 m, NIWA 33533; 5 specimens, 43 ° 48 ´ S, 177 ° 32.3 ´ E, EC 1726 (dry); 1 specimen, 43 ° 48 ´ S, 177 ° 39.8 ´ E, EC 1730 (dry); 1 specimen, 43 ° 40.4 ´ S, 177 ° 50.5 ´ E, EC 1728 (dry); 1 specimen, 43 ° 40.4 ´ S, 177 ° 50.5 ´ E, EC 1731 (dry); 1 specimen, 42 ° 46.6 ´ S, 178 ° 14.5 ´ E, 957 – 953 m, NIWA 58246; 42 specimens, 44 ° 4.7 ´ S, 178 ° 15.3 ´ E, 935 m, NIWA 29494; 10 specimens, 44 ° 9.4 ´ S, 178 ° 46.8 ´ E, 922 m, NIWA 29477; 6 specimens, 44 ° 9.8 ´ S, 178 ° 50.5 ´ E, 957 m, NIWA 29511; 1 specimen, 43 ° 51 ´ S, 178 ° 55.1 ´ E, 485 m, NIWA 29493; 3 specimens, 42 ° 59.6 ´ S, 178 ° 59.9 ´ E, 534–539 m, NIWA 41426; 2 specimens, 43 ° 48 ´ S, 179 ° 0´ E, 431 m, NIWA 23723; 3 specimens, 44 ° 12.4 ´ S, 179 ° 3.6 ´ E, 959 m, NIWA 29476; 7 specimens, 44 ° 12.4 ´ S, 179 ° 3.6 ´ E, 959 m, NIWA 29500; 1 specimen, 44 ° 8.8 ´ S, 179 ° 5.5 ´ E, 854 m, NIWA 29478; 1 specimen, 43 ° 22.2 ´ S, 179 ° 11.1 ´ E, 414 – 414 m, NIWA 65164; 1 specimen, 43 ° 58.8 ´ S, 179 ° 37.9 ´ E, 531–532 m, NIWA 33547; 1 specimen, 44 ° 15.7 ´ S, 179 ° 53.7 ´ E, 912 m, NIWA 45116; 1 specimen, 43 ° 22 ´ S, 179 ° 56 ´ E, 455 m, NIWA 60080; 1 specimen, 43 ° 50.1 ´ S, 179 ° 0.1 ´ W, 405 m, NIWA 29515; 1 specimen, 44 ° 15 ´ S, 178 ° 59.9 ´ W, 540 m, NIWA 45090; 14 specimens, 44 ° 8.5 ´ S, 178 ° 37.8 ´ W, 482–483 m, NIWA 29483; 1 specimen, 43 ° 37.7 ´ S, 178 ° 36.6 ´ W, 420–426 m, NIWA 33590; 10 specimens, 43 ° 50.5 ´ S, 178 ° 35.4 ´ W, 460–462 m, NIWA 33586; 3 specimens, 44 ° 6.4 ´ S, 178 ° 33 ´ W, 459–460 m, NIWA 33550; 17 specimens, 44 ° 4.1 ´ S, 178 ° 33 ´ W, 451–452 m, NIWA 33582; 1 specimen, 44 ° 18.9 ´ S, 178 ° 14.2 ´ W, 665 m, NIWA 29514; 2 specimens, 44 ° 4.8 ´ S, 177 ° 58.3 ´ W, 474–479 m, NIWA 33561; 5 specimens, 42 ° 59.9 ´ S, 177 ° 36 ´ W, 520–525 m, NIWA 33578; 1 specimen, 44 ° 41.4 ´ S, 177 ° 30.1 ´ W, 1174 m, NIWA 29471; 1 specimen, 44 ° 18 ´ S, 176 ° 50 ´ W, 243 – 173 m, EC 5853 (dry); 2 specimens, 43 ° 1.3 ´ S, 176 ° 6.9 ´ W, 666 m, NIWA 45087; 1 specimen, 42 ° 55.9 ´ S, 175 ° 34.7 ´ W, 905 m, NIWA 45069; 2 specimens, 43 ° 17.4 ´ S, 175 ° 33.7 ´ W, 638–644 m, NIWA 33566. East coast South Island: 1 specimen, 42 ° 37.2 ´ S, 173 ° 42 ´ E, EC 5861 (dry); 1 specimen, 42 ° 55 ´ S, 173 ° 43 ´ E, EC 9360; 1 specimen, 42 ° 40 ´ S, 173 ° 44.6 ´ E, 750 m, NIWA 45042; 2 specimens, 43 ° 14 ´ S, 173 ° 52 ´ E, 552–567 m, NIWA 62821; 3 specimens, 44 ° 5 ´ S, 174 ° 8.6 ´ E, 555 m, NIWA 45098; 1 specimen, 43 ° 59.8 ´ S, 174 ° 19.2 ´ E, 565 m, NIWA 45081; 1 specimen, 42 ° 1.8 ´ S, 174 ° 26.5 ´ E, 885 m, NIWA 45058; 1 specimen, 45 ° 25 ´ S, 174 ° 30 ´ E, 1233 m, NIWA 29460; 2 specimens, 44 ° 2 ´ S, 174 ° 46.6 ´ E, 500 m, NIWA 19013; 30 specimens, 44 ° 2 ´ S, 174 ° 46.6 ´ E, 500 m, NIWA 45106; 25 specimens, 44 ° 2 ´ S, 174 ° 46.6 ´ E, 500 m, NIWA 45108; 1 specimen, 44 ° 7.9 ´ S, 174 ° 50.7 ´ E, 516–518 m, NIWA 33522; 1 specimen, 44 ° 7.9 ´ S, 174 ° 50.7 ´ E, 516–518 m, NIWA 41223. Southern South Island: 4 specimens, 46 ° 29.3 ´ S, 166 ° 25.6 ´ E, 562 m, NIWA 29472; 1 specimen, 46 ° 47.8 ´ S, 166 ° 56.2 ´ E, 800 m, NIWA 45063; 2 specimens, 47 ° 7 ´ S, 168 ° 9 ´ E, NIWA 45099; 1 specimen, 47 ° 9.8 ´ S, 169 ° 28.4 ´ E, EC 1729 (dry); 4 specimens, 47 ° 27.2 ´ S, 169 ° 58.9 ´ E, 941–951 m, NIWA 66711; 1 specimen, 46 ° 38.5 ´ S, 170 ° 59 ´ E, 1275 m, NIWA 45120; 1 specimen, 46 ° 10 ´ S, 171 ° 0.2 ´ E, 731 m, NIWA 45060. West coast South Island: 1 specimen, 42 ° 43 ´ S, 168 ° 42 ´ E, 1256 m, NIWA 34852; 7 specimens, 43 ° 22.5 ´ S, 169 ° 17 ´ E, 478 m, NIWA 45066; 5 specimens, 42 ° 24.3 ´ S, 169 ° 25 ´ E, 1047 m, NIWA 45122; 8 specimens, 43 ° 4.9 ´ S, 169 ° 25.4 ´ E, 729 – 678 m, NIWA 29469; 1 specimen, 42 ° 43 ´ S, 169 ° 45 ´ E, 731 m, NIWA 45100; 3 specimens, 42 ° 47.2 ´ S, 169 ° 51.7 ´ E, 768 m, NIWA 45031; 2 specimens, 42 ° 43 ´ S, 169 ° 52 ´ E, 469 m, NIWA 45102; 4 specimens, 42 ° 39.3 ´ S, 170 ° 0.7 ´ E, 420 m, NIWA 45059; 12 specimens, 42 ° 36.8 ´ S, 170 ° 3.3 ´ E, EC 5860 (dry); 2 specimens, 42 ° 31 ´ S, 170 ° 10 ´ E, 836 m, NIWA 45101; 10 specimens, 42 ° 0´ S, 170 ° 16 ´ E, 748 m, NIWA 45053; 3 specimens, 41 ° 58.5 ´ S, 170 ° 24.5 ´ E, EC 4226; 5 specimens, 42 ° 35.9 ´ S, 170 ° 39.7 ´ E, 201 m, NIWA 45096. Bounty Plateau: 1 specimen, 47 ° 59.3 ´ S, 179 ° 30.4 ´ W, 493 m, NIWA 45084. Campbell Plateau: 2 specimens, 51 ° 59 ´ S, 167 ° 45.2 ´ E, 763 – 754 m, NIWA 66706; 3 specimens, 50 ° 14.4 ´ S, 168 ° 54.7 ´ E, 586–587 m, NIWA 66705; 1 specimen, 49 ° 53.4 ´ S, 169 ° 29 ´ E, 635–644 m, NIWA 66704; 4 specimens, 50 ° 22.7 ´ S, 169 ° 34.2 ´ E, 600–602 m, NIWA 61625; 1 specimen, 49 ° 30 ´ S, 169 ° 59.8 ´ E, 638 m, NIWA 45072; 1 specimen, 49 ° 50 ´ S, 170 ° 13 ´ E, 611 m, NIWA 29492; 3 specimens, 49 ° 50 ´ S, 170 ° 13 ´ E, 611 m, NIWA 45041; 1 specimen, 49 ° 49.7 ´ S, 170 ° 13.9 ´ E, 600 m, NIWA 45079; 1 specimen, 49 ° 50 ´ S, 170 ° 14 ´ E, 593 m, NIWA 29479; 3 specimens, 49 ° 50 ´ S, 170 ° 14 ´ E, 593 m, NIWA 45097; 4 specimens, 49 ° 0.8 ´ S, 170 ° 24.6 ´ E, 730 m, NIWA 45112; 1 specimen, 48 ° 40 ´ S, 170 ° 48.5 ´ E, 814m, NIWA 29434; 6 specimens, 48 ° 58 ´ S, 171 ° 4 ´ E, EC 5871 (dry); 6 specimens, 48 ° 45 ´ S, 172 ° 0´ E, 658 m, NIWA 45054; 2 specimens, 50 ° 34 ´ S, 173 ° 40.3 ´ E, 679 – 674 m, NIWA 66708; 1 specimen, 50 ° 25.5 ´ S, 173 ° 44.4 ´ E, 692 m, NIWA 45076; 1 specimen, 51 ° 1.3 ´ S, 173 ° 49.5 ´ E, 748 – 717 m, NIWA 46086; 5 specimens, 51 ° 1.3 ´ S, 173 ° 49.5 ´ E, 748 – 717 m, NIWA 46087; 4 specimens, 50 ° 58 ´ S, 173 ° 57 ´ E, 832 m, NIWA 29430; 1 specimen, 49 ° 48 ´ S, 176 ° 1 ´ E, 1256 m, NIWA 45126. Challenger Plateau: 1 specimen, 38 ° 34.9 ´ S, 167 ° 8.9 ´ E, 974 – 974 m, NIWA 41280; 2 specimens, 37 ° 37.2 ´ S, 167 ° 23.1 ´ E, 1012 –1014 m, NIWA 33633; 1 specimen, 37 ° 37.2 ´ S, 167 ° 23.1 ´ E, 1012–1014 m, NIWA 33634; 3 specimens, 40 ° 46 ´ S, 167 ° 54.9 ´ E, EC 5879 (dry); 1 specimen, 39 ° 43 ´ S, 167 ° 56 ´ E, 792 m, NIWA 45085; 17 specimens, 37 ° 45.4 ´ S, 168 ° 12.9 ´ E, 700–702 m, NIWA 33631; 3 specimens, 40 ° 50.1 ´ S, 168 ° 14.8 ´ E, EC 5862 (dry); 2 specimens, 40 ° 50.1 ´ S, 168 ° 14.8 ´ E, 1009 m, NIWA 45043; 1 specimen, 37 ° 44.3 ´ S, 169 ° 18.7 ´ E, 691–705 m, NIWA 33630; 6 specimens, 39 ° 27.5 ´ S, 169 ° 36.5 ´ E, EC 9366; 1 specimen, 39 ° 32.6 ´ S, 169 ° 42.9 ´ E, 634–636 m, NIWA 33643; 1 specimen, 39 ° 32.6 ´ S, 169 ° 42.9 ´ E, 634–636 m, NIWA 33644; 1 specimen, 39 ° 32.6 ´ S, 169 ° 42.9 ´ E, 634–635 m, NIWA 33645; 4 specimens, 39 ° 41.5 ´ S, 169 ° 46 ´ E, EC 9367; 9 specimens, 40 ° 7.6 ´ S, 170 ° 12.3 ´ E, 803–804 m, NIWA 33649; 1 specimen, 40 ° 33.1 ´ S, 170 ° 57.3 ´ E, 570 m, NIWA 45068; 3 specimens, 40 ° 51.5 ´ S, 170 ° 58 ´ E, EC 4224; 30 specimens, 40 ° 23 ´ S, 171 ° 6 ´ E, EC 4223; 2 specimens, 40 ° 23 ´ S, 171 ° 6 ´ E, EC 5864 (dry); 13 specimens, 40 ° 39.7 ´ S, 171 ° 6.8 ´ E, 503 – 497 m, NIWA 45055; 1 specimen, 39 ° 38.2 ´ S, 171 ° 37.5 ´ E, 473–491 m, NIWA 33654. Southeast Australia: 1 specimen, 39 ° 3.4 ´ S, 148 ° 37.3 ´ E, 444–468 m, MV F 168942; 1 specimen, 39 ° 1.5 ´ S, 148 ° 44.2 ´ E, 1140–1160 m, MV F 168941; 10 specimens, 41 ° 54.3 ´ S, 148 ° 45.1 ´ E, 1273 – 1190 m, MV [STN 83 SLOPE]; 2 specimens, 35 ° 45 ´ S, 150 ° 30 ´ E, EC 5073 (dry); 1 specimen, 35 ° 45 ´ S, 150 ° 30 ´ E, EC 5877 (dry); 1 specimen, 34 ° 3 ´ S, 151 ° 12 ´ E, EC 1231 (dry); 6 specimens, 35 ° 0´ S, 151 ° 16.2 ´ E, 1100 m, MV [no data]; 1 specimen, 33 ° 54 ´ S, 151 ° 18 ´ E, EC 5074 (dry); 2 specimens, 29 ° 54 ´ S, 153 ° 30 ´ E, EC 5066 (dry); 1 specimen, 29 ° 54 ´ S, 153 ° 30 ´ E, EC 5876 (dry); 2 specimens, 33 ° 28.8 ´ S, 152 ° 13.2 ´ E, 1200 m, AM J 24889. South Australia: 2 specimens, 38 ° 42 ´ S, 141 ° 0´ E, 549–586 m, MV F 168938. Unless stated, all stored in 80 % ethanol.

Size range. up to at least 105 mm TD.

Occurrence. P. bursarium   is widely distributed around New Zealand, being present on all of the major offshore bathymetric features of the region, with a conservative depth range of 243–1190 m (although only two of the New Zealand records were shallower than 500 m), and a total recorded depth range of 173– 1273 m. In Australia they are known from the northwest coast and the east coast off New South Wales (Rowe & Gates 1995) ( Figure 27 View FIGURE 27 ).

The species is also widely known outside of Australasia; throughout the Indo-Pacific, in the Arabian Sea, and off South Africa (e.g. Mortensen 1935, Mironov 1971, Clark and Courtman-Stock 1976).

Remarks. The genus Phormosoma   is most readily distinguished from other genera of echinothurioids by the complete covering of the oral surface by tubercles with large, sunken areoles; giving it a distinctive honeycombed appearance. Also there are no hoofs on the primary spines of the oral surface, which have instead a fleshy sac encasing the end of these more or less club-shaped spines. In fresh specimens in good condition these are sometimes very distinctive and filled with diffuse connective tissue (Emson and Young 1998), but more usually they have been punctured and compressed against the spine, making them fairly inconspicuous. A very distinctive feature of the genus are the aboral fleshy sacs encasing the aboral primary spines. These unusual and delicate sacs, almost never retained on the spines in trawl or dredge-caught specimens, were first noted in images of P. placenta   taken from a submersible (Grassle et al. 1975, Gage & Tyler 1992, Emson & Young 1998).

P. bursarium   was first recognised in New Zealand from specimens collected on the Chatham Rise (Fell, 1958). Subsequently they have been regularly seen in the bycatch of offshore fishing trawlers, and numerous specimens have been collected by fisheries observers and from research surveys. This is a small to medium sized species (mostly <100 mm TD), generally a light brown colour but with a slight red tinge when fresh. The teeth are slender and acutely pointed, similar to those of Sperosoma   , Tromikosoma   , and Kamptosoma   , but distinct from Hygrosoma   and all Echinothuriinae   . Only tridentate and triphyllous pedicellariae are present in Phormosoma   .

Considerable variability among specimens has been noted by earlier authors (Agassiz & Clark 1909, Mortensen 1935, 1940) who had some difficulty in separating the various forms into species. However, the Indo- Pacific P. bursarium   stands out somewhat from the Atlantic P. placenta   due to its generally larger size. Whereas P. placenta   rarely grows to more than 90 mm TD the adult size of P. bursarium   is 100–120 mm TD. About 50 randomly selected examples of the New Zealand specimens were measured, from several stations; about a third were greater than 90 mm TD and the largest were 100–105 mm TD. Another difference between P. placenta   and P. bursarium   is that the primary spines of the aboral side are more curved in the former, and the marginal spines coarser in the latter. The New Zealand specimens differ slightly in that although the marginal spines are more or less distinctly thorny, the aboral primary spines are fairly straight. Both species are well-known and relatively common. The dark red P. verticillatum   , from the Indian Ocean, differs from both these species in that the aboral primary spines are adorned by whorls of spinelets, and it is smaller still—not reaching more than 60 mm TD (Mortensen 1935). The relationship of the fourth member of the genus, P. rigidum   , is discussed in the next section.