Cycadophila (Strobilophila) tansachai Skelley, Xu & Tang

Skelley, Paul, Xu, Guang, Tang, William, Lindström, Anders J., Marler, Thomas, Khuraijam, Jibankumar Singh, Singh, Rita & Rich, Stephen, 2017, Review of Cycadophila Xu, Tang & Skelley (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Pharaxonothinae) inhabiting Cycas (Cycadaceae) in Asia, with descriptions of a new subgenus and thirteen new species, Zootaxa 4267 (1), pp. 1-63 : 55-58

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.575641

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Cycadophila (Strobilophila) tansachai Skelley, Xu & Tang

new species

Cycadophila (Strobilophila) tansachai Skelley, Xu & Tang , new species

Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 B, 2F, 2N, 19A–I, 20A–E

Adult diagnosis. A member of Cycadophila (Strobilophila) as discussed above, most readily distinguished by a combination of characters than any single unique character, and by analysis of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene (GenBank Accession numbers KY356222 View Materials KY365225 View Materials , KY356244 View Materials KY365245 View Materials ). Cycadophila tansachai can be distinguished by the distally dilated protibia bearing narrowly spaced teeth along the apical third of the lateral margin, the distinct furrow on each side of pronotal base, elytral disc being mostly glabrous, the nearly straight basal pronotal margin, the lateral pronotal carina being abruptly curved inward at posterior angle pore which has a small acute projection behind it, and abdominal ventrite V being sexually dimorphic (males with surface evenly coarsely punctate and setose; females with a glossy, glabrous area near the medial apex).

Adult description. Length 4.06–4.53 mm; width 1.6 5– 1.76 mm. Body in dorsal view elongate, sides nearly straight, greatest width at middle of elytra; in lateral view convex dorsally. General body and appendage color solid reddish-brown; dorsal surface distinctly punctate, surface appearing slightly dulled, dorsally appearing glabrous, with short procumbent hairs associated with punctation behind eyes and along lateral sides and declivity of elytra, ventrally mostly covered with short procumbent setae.

Head in dorsal view conical, gradually narrowed apically, surface flat to slightly convex, distinctly punctured; width 1.0 0–1.1 0 mm; dorsal interocular distance 0.63–0.73 mm, head width/dorsal interocular distance ratio 1.45– 1.56, ventral interocular distance 0.45–0.50 mm, head width/ventral interocular distance ratio 2.10–2.17. Eye globular; bordered dorsally with supraocular stria; projected laterally, with large black facets and short, inconspicuous interfacetal setae. Frons with short, dark, subcuticular suture on each side, approximately 1/4 width of frons in length, extending obliquely to lateral margin above and anterior to antennal insertion. Antennal length about 3/4 pronotal width, and slightly longer than head width, antennomere relative lengths from base to end approximately 18:12:12:10:10:10:10:10:17:18:19; antennomere I (scape) fairly large, slightly elongate, antennomere II slightly smaller than III; IV–VIII small, width equals length; club fairly large, IX–XI similar in length, XI globular. Clypeus truncate anteriorly, anterior margin with long setae; densely punctate; somewhat emarginate, with narrow margin. Maxillary palpomeres II, III slightly longer than wide; IV elongate oval, apex densely papillate; relative lengths of II–IV approximately 3:3:5. Labium with mentum pentagonal with carina forming triangular plate projecting medially, lacking distinct lateral pockets; labial palpomere III elongate-oval. Mentum and submentum with moderate punctation and setation, setae short. Gular area smooth, without setae or punctation, except near suture with submentum where a shallow transversely elongate fovea is present bearing dense setose punctures, fovea dark brown.

Thorax with pronotum transverse in dorsal view, with marginal beads on all sides; length/width ratio 0.66– 0.68, convex, nearly parallel-sided; anterior angles rounded; lateral carina with thickened bead, bead bearing scattered setose punctures; posterior angle exteriorly angulate, indented at pore; posterior margin projecting medially; with narrow, short longitudinal furrow posterolaterally, beginning at pore on posterior margin, extending forward and ending abruptly, length of furrows relative to pronotal length 0.13–0.14. Prosternum with anterior margin slightly emarginate, finely denticulate with fringe of long, anteriorly directed setae; posterior prosternal process round and convex. Hypomeron with coarse punctures laterally, medially with longitudinal striations. Scutellar shield transverse, posterior margin projected, pentagonal. Elytra elongate, nearly parallel sided, convex; length/width 3.50–3.67, greatest width near midlength; with marginal bead basally, striae weakly impressed, scutellary striole with 10–13 punctures; intervals of striae with distinct punctures. All elytral punctures bearing a single short seta; seta barely emerging out of puncture. Punctation on meso- and metaventrite distinct. Metaventrite long, convex laterally, slightly impressed medially, metathoracic discrimen extending slightly over half metaventrite length. Legs stout, similar in length; femora compressed laterally; tibiae shorter than femora, dilated to wide apex. Protibia triangularly dilated at apex, apex and apical 1/3 of lateral margin with stout spinules, marginal spinules separated by less than length. Meso- and metatibia less triangularly dilated.

Abdomen with 5 ventrites bearing fine punctures; anterior margin with intercoxal process narrow, with triangular point anteromedially, lateral edges slightly projected, lateral and posterior margins arcuate, converging posteriorly; anterior and posterior margins of ventrites more or less straight; ventrite I lacking subcoxal line, slightly longer medially than II; I–IV each with pair short hairs located adjacent to midline (often abraded); II–IV subequal in length; V slightly longer than IV with lateral margins converging posteriorly to a rounded apex bearing row of short appressed, densely arranged setae; ventrite V surface of male evenly coarsely and rugosely punctate, and entirely setose, female basally with coarse setose punctures, and small glossy glabrous area of fine punctures near medial apex ( Figs. 19 View FIGURE 19 F–G).

Male genitalia (tegmen and median lobe of aedeagus) twisted approximately 45° toward the left side of animal and resting on side. Tegmen sclerotized, triangular, gently twisted; with anterior region ring-like, posterior region sheath-like, posterior margin slightly arcuate; lateral margins gradually converging posteriorly; dorsally with 2 large, elongate, somewhat coniform parameres. Parameres with long setae apically; length/width ratio 2.2 0. Aedeagus with median lobe short, slender, highly sclerotized, apex long and acuminate. Ratio of median lobe length to penile strut length 1:5. Endophallus, when inflated and extruded, basally hemispherical on dorsal side, with distal section of hemisphere covered with spicules ( Figs. 19 View FIGURE 19 H–I); central portion of extruded endophallus appearing tubular, membranous and without spicules or asperities; apical portion (not fully extruded in Figs. 19 View FIGURE 19 H– I) appearing membranous and covered with asperities. Female similar to male, except with pygidium truncate, not as well developed; and dimorphic abdominal ventrite V surface as noted above.

Type locality. Thailand: Chaiyaphum, Sai Thong Nat. Park, 15°53.835'N, 101°27.260'E. GoogleMaps

Range. Thailand (Chiang Mai, Chaiyaphum; Kanchanaburi, Sa Kaeo, Sariburi).

Material examined. Holotype (by designation) male with the following labels: 1) [rectangular; white; printed in black ink] “ THAILAND: Chaiyaphum, Sai Thong Nat. Park, N 15°53.835, E101°27.260, 862m, ex ♂ cone Cycas elephantipes hybrid, 2-II-2011, W. Tang, A. Lindstrom et al. ”; 2) [rectangular; red; printed in black ink] “ HOLOTYPE ♂ Cycadophila tansachai P. Skelley, G. Xu & W. Tang 2 0 1 7”. Deposited in the FSCA . Allotype ( FSCA) and 178 paratypes: THAILAND: [Chiang Mai] SW of Fang , 19°38'N, 99°07'E GoogleMaps , 640m, 7 Feb. 1995, W. Tang, S.- L. Yang, P. Vatcharakorn,ex pollen-shedding ♂ strobilus of Cycas pectinata in disturbed forest on limestone soil, SLY 690 (4); Chaiyaphum, Sai Thong Nat. Park, 15°53.835N, 101°27.260E GoogleMaps , 862m, ex ♂ cone Cycas elephantipes hybrid, 2-II-2011, W. Tang, A. Lindstrom et al. (holotype & allotype, FSCA, 124), Pa Hin Ngam Nat. Park, dry forest along ridge, 15°38.732N, 101°23.483E, 850 m, 2-II-2011, W. Tang, A. Lindstrom et al. (17); 15°46'N, 101°55'E, 30 May 1996, S. –L. Yang, ex ♂ strobilus of Cycas elephantipes , SLY 810 (3); Kanchanaburi Prov., near Thon Pha Phum , 14°53'N, 98°49'E, 700m, 11 Feb. 1995, W. Tang, S.- L. Yang, P. Vatcharakorn,ex pollen-shedding ♂ strobilus of Cycas pectinata in disturbed forest, SLY 706 (9); SLY 707 (5) GoogleMaps ; Loei Prov., Wat Pha Sawan, Karst cliff, 17°07.15N, 101°56.00E GoogleMaps , 300 m, ex ♂ cone Cycas petraea , 3-II-2011, W. Tang, A. Lindstrom, A. Vogel et al. (5); [Sa Kaeo] near Aranyaprathet, 13°22'N, 102°18'E GoogleMaps , 370m, 25 Apr. 1996, W. Tang, ex ♂ strobilus of Cycas clivicola lutea in limestone cliffs, WT 21 (5); WT 22 (4); [Sariburi] near Sariburi, 14°41'N, 100°47'E, 370m, 12 Feb. 1995, W. Tang, S.-L. Yang, P. Vatcharakorn, ex pollen-shedding ♂ strobilus of Cycas tansachana on limestone mountains in seasonally dry vegetation, SYL 715 (7). Paratypes deposited at ANIC, BMNH, FSCA, IZCAS, MNHN, NHMB, NZAC, USNM.

Etymology. In honor of Mr. Kampon Tansacha, Director of Nong Nooch Tropical Botanical Garden in Thailand for his logistical and financial support of cycad beetle research.

Remarks. The detection of both adults and larvae together in cones of populations of Cycas petrea indicates that this is one of at least three species of Cycadophila that feeds and reproduces in Cycas cones. The two other species with DNA evidence indicating that larvae feed and develop in cones are Cycadophila debonica and C. fupingensis ( Xu et al. 2015) . The host for this species, the Cycas pectinata species complex, is widely distributed from Vietnam westward to Bihar State in India. The Cycas pectinata species complex includes C. elephantipes , C. pectinata , C. petraea , C. tansachana and C. clivicola lutea in Thailand ( Yang & Meerow 1996; Lindstrom & Hill 2002). Geographical range and morphological variation of this host complex in India ( Singh & Singh 2014) suggests that there may be recent speciation in the Cycadophila tansachai complex in that region, as supported by the similarities between it and C. assamensis .


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