Ballerio, Alberto, Gill, Bruce D. & Grebennikov, Vasily V., 2011, Illustrated overview and identification key to Cameroonian Ceratocanthinae beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Hybosoridae) with description of four new species, Zootaxa 2892, pp. 1-24: 23

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http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.277641

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Ceratocanthinae   of the Guineo-Congolian forest block

The Guineo-Congolian forest block has the following seven Ceratocanthinae   genera strictly endemic to it: Baloghianestes Paulian, 1968   , Callophilharmostes Paulian, 1968   , Carinophilharmostes Paulian, 1968   Chaetophilharmostes Paulian, 1977   , Congomostes Paulian, 1968   , Petrovitzostes Paulian, 1977   , and Pseudopterorthochaetes Paulian, 1977   ( Ocampo & Ballerio 2006; Ballerio 2008). Additionally, the genus Melanophilharmostes Paulian, 1968   is known from the Guineo-Congolian forest block and from the Kakamega forest, Kenya (Ballerio, unpublished data), which is considered as the easternmost fragment of the Guineo-Congolian block. The genus Philharmostes Kolbe, 1895   is represented in the area by the endemic subgenus Holophilharmostes Paulian, 1968 and by some distinctive species currently placed in the nominotypical subgenus (whose type species is from Madagascar), and are strongly differentiated from these representatives occurring elsewhere in Africa. The distribution pattern displayed by species in the area is interesting because of the occurrence of many species, including the flightless ones, across very extensive areas and encompassing both the forests of the Gulf of Guinea and of the Congo basin. This suggests that the distribution patterns may be influenced by recent biogeographical events, with few localized endemics, making it difficult to find speciation centres and areas of endemism within the block.

From a systematics point of view, the study of this fauna is complicated by numerous species known only by the type series or by very few additional specimens, as well as by the existence of a few species whose types should be in the Museo do Dundo ( Angola). The identity of these species, all described by Martínez (1970), will remain problematic until the type material (if still existing) becomes available for study. Paulian (1977) attempted to synonomize some of Martínez’s species, but his actions were tentative, being based on original descriptions only (see Ocampo & Ballerio 2006).