Holothele longipes (L. Koch, 1875)

Guadanucci, José Paulo Leite, Perafán, Carlos & Valencia-Cuéllar, Dayana, 2017, The genus Holothele Karsch, 1879: the identity of the type species (Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae), Zoosystema 39 (2), pp. 263-271: 265-270

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5252/z2017n2a5

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:945FE92F-7AD3-4EE3-8B1E-A8787644EA1D

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03A00F1A-FFAA-BE6F-AD4B-CFDACAEF9070

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Holothele longipes (L. Koch, 1875)
status

 

Holothele longipes (L. Koch, 1875)  

( Figs 1-5 View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG )

Chaetopelma longipes L. Koch   in Ausserer, 1875: 174, pl. 6, figs 20, 21.

Holothele recta Karsch, 1879: 544   . — Rudloff 1997: 10, n. syn.

Stichoplastus ravidus Simon, 1889: 208   . — Rudloff 1997: 10, figs 1, 2.

Stichoplastus sanguiniceps   F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1898: 895, n. syn.

Dryptopelmides rondoni Lucas & Bücherl, 1972: 234   , figs 1-4, n. syn.

Dryptopelmides ludwigi Strand, 1907: 19   , n. syn.

Holothele longipes   – Rudloff 1997: 9.

Holothele rondoni   – Rudloff 1997: 10.

TYPE MATERIAL. — Holotype ♀ of Holothele recta   ( ZMB 457), from Caracas, Venezuela, Gollmar 1879, examined. — Syntypes, 1 ♂, 2 ♀ and 2 juveniles of Stichoplastus ravidus   (MNHN-AR-AR4625),

from San Esteban, Venezuela, examined (note: there are several places named San Esteban in Venezuela. Simon (1889) explored within the limits of the provinces of Carbobo and Guzman Blanco, that includes to date Aragua, Guárico, Miranda, Nueva Esparta and Federal District. He further mentions that San Esteban is two hours from Puerto Cabello, Carabobo, and that he explored the forest at the banks of San Esteban River, near Puerto Cabello). — Holotype ♂ of Chaetopelma longipes   ( BMNH 19.9.18.5728), from Puerto Cabello, Carabobo, Venezuela, examined. — Holotype ♀ of Stichoplastus sanguiniceps   ( BMNH 1895.5.3.1), from Trinidad, J. H. Hart, examined. — Holotype ♂ and paratype ♀ of Dryptopelmides rondoni   ( IBSP 4090), from Iauaretê, Amazonas, Brazil, A. R. Hoge, F. Saliba and N. P. Santos, Jan.1971, examined. — Holotype ♀ of Dryptopelmides ludwigi   , from Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, not examined, presumably lost.

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Bolívia. La Paz, Coroico, 4532 m a.s.l., 1 ♂, NMW.

Brazil. Amazonas: Iauaretê : 1 ♂, 1 juv., IBSP 4090 View Materials   ; Manaus: Rio Jacaré , 1 ♂, IBSP 168490 View Materials , 17.XI.1996, N. Gordon   ; Santa Maria : 1♀, MZSP 21504 View Materials   ; 1 ♀, MZSP 21507 View Materials   ; Mato Grosso: Apiacás : 1 ♂, MZSP 18046 View Materials , 10-15.II.1997, G. Skuk, V. X. Da Silva   .

Colombia. Amazonas: La Pedrera, Quebradon , El Ayo , 1°35’S, 69°31’W, 85 m a.s.l., 1 ♂, ICN-Ar 6852, V.2002, J. Pinzón. Atlántico: Barranquilla, 10°57’50”N, 74°47’47”W, 30 m a.s.l., 1 ♂, ICN-Ar 042, X.1963. — Bolívar: Turbaco: Finca El Huerto, 10°22’19”N, 75°20’58.8”W, 102 m a.s.l., 1 ♀, ICN-Ar 8049 GoogleMaps   ; Jardín Botánico, 10°21’14”N, 75°25’41.5”W, 131 m a.s.l., 1 ♀, ICN-Ar 8053, 7.VII.2015, A. Sabogal & C. Cantor. — Cesar: Valledupar, Ecoparque Los Besotes : Monte Puma , 10°34’0.6”N, 73°17’2”W, 950 m a.s.l., 1♀, ICN-Ar 8051, 19.VII.2015, Grupo Carbio GoogleMaps   ; Los Zainos, 1 ♂, ICN-Ar 8052, 18.VII.2015, Grupo Carbio. — Cundinamarca: La Calera , El Manzano , PNN Chingaza , Río Blanco , Palacio , Laguna Blanca , 4°41’24”N, 73°51’21”W, 2930 m a.s.l., 1 ♂, IavH, 19-21. XI.2003, E. González GoogleMaps   ; Mesitas del Colegio, Santa Cecilia, Finca El Naranjal , 4°45’28”N, 73°24’27”W, 1000 m a.s.l., 1♂, ICN-Ar 8047, 23-30.XII.2011, A. García & J. Diaz. — Guaviare: San José de Guaviare, Playa Guio , 2°34’22”N, 72°38’45”W, 213 m a.s.l.: 2♂, ICN-Ar 8048, 28.X.2012, N. Téllez GoogleMaps   ; 1♂, ICN-Ar 8050, 10.X.2013, E. Flórez. — Meta: Acacias, La Esmeralda, Finca Versalles , 3°25’47”N, 74°5’3”W, 515 m a.s.l., 1 juv., 21.IX.2004, E. Flórez GoogleMaps   ; Guamal , 1 ♂, coll. DW KS286   ; Puerto Gaitán, Carimagua , 4°18’48”N, 72°4’54”W, 160 m a.s.l., 22.IV.2012, D. Martínez GoogleMaps   ; San Juan de Arama, Reserva La Macarena, 3°22’12”N, 73°52’22”W, 450 m a.s.l., 1 juv., 18.I.1992, F. Guzmán & S. Espinoza. — Norte de Santander: La Donjuana : 1♂, MZSP 28381 View Materials , 19.XI.2001, D.Weinmann GoogleMaps   ; Pamplonita : 1 ♀, MZSP 28380 View Materials , 2.X.1998, D. Weinmann   ; 1 ♂, MZSP 28382 View Materials   ; 1 ♀, MZSP 28384 View Materials   ; 1 ♀, MZSP 28383 View Materials , 2.X.1998, D. Weinmann   ; San Jose de Avila: 1 ♂, SMF 10101 View Materials . — Santander: Bolívar, Portachuelo , Verbeo , Cueva La Olla , 5°59’22”N, 73°46’13”W, 2050 m a.s.l., 2 juv., ICN-Ar 6960, 19.VII.2008, M. Hoyos GoogleMaps   ; Cabrera, Cueva del Indio de Doña Joaquina, 6°35’36”N, 73°14’52”W, 1000 m a.s.l., ICN-Ar 6957: 2 ♀, ICN-Ar 6958, 1 ♀, 14.VII.2007, Grupo de Bioespeleología GoogleMaps   ; Villanueva, Agua Fría, Cueva del Nitro, 6°40’19”N, 73°10’29”W, 1500 m a.s.l., 1 ♀, 6 juv., ICN-Ar 6961, 13.VII.2007, Grupo de Bioespeleología GoogleMaps   ; Zapatoca, Cueva , 6°48’54”N, 73°16’6”W, 1 ♀, ICN-Ar 8054, V.2008, C. Perafán & F. Pérez Miles. — Sucre: La Garita: 1 ♀ juv., ZMUH, W. Fritsche, 26.IX.1912 GoogleMaps   ; San Marcos, Bocapuerta, 8°39’35”N, 75°7’41”W, 35 m a.s.l., 1♀, ICN-Ar 6838, 19.X.2004, Estudiantes Sistemática Animal. — Vaupés: Taraira , Bajo Río Apaporis , Lago Taraira , Estación Biológica Caparú , 0°29’38”N, 69°40’1”W, 200 m a.s.l., 2 ♂, ICN-Ar 2003, J. Pinzón GoogleMaps   .

French Guiana. Montsinery-Tonnegrande: Emerald Jungle Village, 1 ♂, IBSP 168520, 4°47’5”N, 52°25’21”W, 9.IV.1999, R. C. West.

Peru. Loreto: Río Momón, Amazon Camp : 1 ♀, IBSP 168508 View Materials   ; 1 ♀, IBSP 168524 View Materials   ; 1 ♂, IBSP168523 View Materials , 8.XI.1993, R. C. West   ; 1 juv., IBSP 168521 View Materials , 6.X.1993, W. Lamar   ; 1 ♀, IBSP 168525 View Materials , II.1993, T. Mason   .

Surinam. Wanica: Lelydorp, 1 ♀, AMNH, 1.XII.1938, Geiskes.

Trinidad & Tobago. Arima: 1 ♀, AMNH, 23.VII.1979, R. Mendez   ; 1 juv., AMNH, 23.VII.1979, L. N. Sorkin. — Caparo : 1 ♀, AMNH, 15.III.1910, P. B. Whelpley   ; 2 ♀, AMNH, 16.II.1910, P. B. Whelpley. — Port-of-Spain: 1 ♀, AMNH, 2.VII.1965, Erik N. Kjellesvig-Waering. — Tamana: Deep Park Tamana Cave : 1 ♀, BMNH 1971 /296, 19.I.1968, Darlington   ; 1 ♀, 1 juv., BMNH 1971 /231, 13.XII.1968, Darlington   ; 1 ♂, BMNH 1971 /298, 5.III.1968, Darlington   ; 1 ♂, BMNH 1971 /293, 21.X.1968, Darlington   ; 1 ♂, BMNH 1971 /294, 16.XII.1968, Darlington   ; 2 juv., BMNH 1971 /297, 16.X.1968, Darlington. — Toco : 1♂, AMNH, 14.II.1965, Erik N. Kjellesvig-Waering   .

Venezuela. Amazonas: San Pedro: 1 ♂, IBSP 168491 View Materials , 2.X.1991, R. C. West. — Aragua: Parque Nacional Henri Pittier : 1 ♂, NRS, 12-30.XI.1997, T. Pape   ; Maracay: 3 ♂, ZSM, 1939, C. Vogl. Anzoategui: Romerito : 1 ♂, MZSP 28387 View Materials   ; 2 ♀ MZSP 28388-28389 View Materials   ; 1 ♂, MZSP 28385 View Materials . — Distrito Federal: Caracas: 1 ♀, coll. DW KS73. — Bolívar: Las Trincheras : 1 ♀, ZMUC 595   ; 1 ♂, 1 juv.,

ZMUC 243, C. Levinsen, 18.XII.1991. — Carabobo: Puerto Cabello : 1 ♀, ZMUH, Lievers, X.1993   ; 1 ♀, NMW, R. Riemann, 1-5.II.1989   ; 1 ♂, IBSP 168506 View Materials , 5.X.1998, H. Bauer   ; Rancho Grande, 1 ♂, MZSP 28386 View Materials . — Falcon: San Esteban : 1 ♂, 2 ♀, 1 juv., MNHN   ; San Luis: 1 ♀, MZSP 28390 View Materials , 11 View Materials °07’66.5”N, 69°40’66.4”W, 21.IX.2002, D. Weinmann & F. Pribik. — Mérida: Mérida: 7♂, 3 ♀, 1 juv., MNHN-AR-AR4626   ; 1 ♂, BMNH 03.7.1.130   ; 1 ♂, BMNH 1905.3.31.24-26   ; La Azulita : 1 ♂, MZSP 28391 View Materials , 26.IX.2002, D. Weinmann   ; 1♀, MZSP 28392 View Materials , 26.IX.2002, D. Weinmann   ; Parque Nacional Sierra de la Culata , 3000 m a.s.l., 1♂, 1 ♀, BMNH 03.7.1.128-129   ; 1♂, BMNH 05.3.31.61-70. — Monagas: Caripito : 3 ♀, AMNH, 15-31.III.1942, NY Zool. Soc   .; 1 ♀, AMNH, No. 4220; 1 ♀, AMNH, 10-20.V.1945, W. Beebe et al. — Táchira: San Juan de Colón: 1 ♂, MZSP 28393 View Materials , 08°07’52.8”N, 70°14’10.4”W, 23.IX.2002, D. Weinmann, F. Pribik GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♀, MZSP 28394 View Materials   ; 1 ♀, MZSP 28395 View Materials   .

TYPE LOCALITY. — Venezuela. Puerto Cabello, Estado Carabobo.

DIAGNOSIS. — Females can be distinguished by the spermathecae receptacula elongate, with a narrow base, slightly swollen at the apical end, bearing or not lobes on the inner ventral face, these lobes may vary in size and number ( Figs 1F, G View FIG ; 4 View FIG A-F). Males are distinguished by the morphology of the palpal bulb, which is long, thin, and slightly curved ( Fig. 1 View FIG B-D), by the morphology of the tibial apophysis, formed by two branches, retrolateral with a tapering tip ( Fig. 1E View FIG ), and by the presence of a intercheliceral intumescense. Males differ from the small species from the Caribbean ( H. sulfurensis Maréchal, 2005   , H. culebrae   , H. denticulata   and H. shoemakeri   ) by the absence of a twisted embolus with small keels. Females differ from those species by the shape of spermathecae, which bear lobes (except the specimens inhabiting caves).

COLORATION. — Males and females with legs and palps black; carapace covered with setae that may vary from red to black, setae around carapace red; abdomen covered with setae that vary from black to red; chelicerae covered with setae of the same color as those on carapace ( Figs 2 View FIG , 3 View FIG ).

DISTRIBUTION. — H. longipes   occupies a wide geographic range of northern South America. It is distributed from the 0 m a.s.l. in Trinidad and Tobago, along the Caribbean coast of Colombia and Venezuela, and the Atlantic coast of Surinam, to above 2000 m a.s.l. on the eastern cordillera of Colombia. It is registered for Bolivia, Peru, Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela and Suriname ( Fig. 5 View FIG ).

NATURAL HISTORY. — This species has managed to conquer different environments within a wide altitudinal gradient. It inhabits humid forests of the Brazilian and Colombian Amazon, Andean forests and grasslands, and coastal savannahs of Colombia and Venezuela. They have been found especially under rocks and logs, and also within human constructions. So its ecological plasticity is evident. Additionally, some specimens have been found inside the caves from Santander, Colombia. These specimens are only few females and juveniles, and show no troglomorphic adaptations. Therefore, it is possible to assume that these specimens are using caves as temporary refuge.

EMENDED DESCRIPTION

Female (holotype ♀ of H. recta   )

Total length 16. Carapace: length 6.7; width 5.6. Eye tubercle: length 0.9; width 1.3. Labium: length 0.8; width 1.3. Sternum: length 3; width 2.9. Cheliceral basal article with 14-15 teeth. Labium nearly as wide as long bearing more than 50 cuspules. Maxilla with more than 100 cuspules. Sternum rounded, sigilla one diameter from margin. Thoracic furrow slightly recurved. Palpal and legs segments lengths: palp: femur 3.9/ patella 2.4/ tibia 2.9/ tarsus 2.8/ total 12. Leg I: femur 4.4/ patella 2.5/ tibia 3.6/ metatarsus 2.9/ tarsus 2.2/ total 15.6. II: 4.7/ 2.8/ 3.7/ 3.2/ 2.4/ 16.8. III: 4.4/ 2.4/ 3.2/ 4/ 2.4/ 16.4. IV: 5.7/ 2.7/ 5.1/ 6/ 3/ 22.5. Spines: tarsi without spines. Palp: femur (d) 0-0-p1, tibia (v) 1-2-ap3, (p) 0-1-0. Legs: I: femur (d) 0-0-p1, tibia (v) 0-1-ap1, metatarsus (v) 1-1-ap1. II: femur (d) 0-0-p1, tibia (v) 0-1-ap2, (p) 1-1-0, metatarsus (v) 1-1-ap1. III: femur (d) 0-0-2, patella (p) 1, (r) 1, tibia (v) 2-2-ap3, (p) 1-1-0, (r) 1-1-0, metatarsus (v) 3-1-2+ap3, (p) 1-1-1, (r) 1-1-1. IV: femur (d) 0-0-2, tibia (v) 2-2-ap3, (p) 0-1-0, (r) 1-1-1, metatarsus (v) 2-2-2+ap3, (p) 0-1-1, (r) 1-1-1. Spermathecae formed by two receptacula longer than wide, without lobes. Scopula on metatarsi: I totally occupied, II 3/4 occupied, III half occupied and IV less than half occupied. Tarsal scopula I-IV divided. Tarsal claws with a median row of small teeth, clavate trichobothria in tow rows, divided by a central row of thin long setae. Tarsus IV cracked. Eyes: anterior row procurved, posterior slightly recurved, clypeus absent (note: the holotype specimen described above is a juvenile ♀, as already noted by Rudloff (1997), because it does not have well sclerotized genital opening and the divison of the anterior tarsal scopula is very wide. Moreover, the size of the specimen is very small, unlike the adult representatives of this species. Although it presents a spermathecae, it is well known that juvenile theraphosids have undeveloped receptacula ( Schiapelli & Gerschman de Pikelin 1962). We, therefore, present a description based on the type material of Stichoplastus ravidus   (junior synonym of H. longipes   ), in order to provide a description based on an adult specimen.

Male (MNHN-AR-AR4625, Syntype adult male of Stichoplastus ravidus   )

Total length 28.8. Carapace: length 12.6; width 10.9. Eye tubercle: length 1.4; width 1.7. Labium: length 1.2; width 2.1. Sternum: length 5.2; width 4.7. Cheliceral basal article with 15 teeth, intercheliceral intumescence present. Labium nearly as wide as long bearing fewer than 90 cuspules. Maxilla with more than 100 cuspules. Sternum rounded, sigilla one diameter from margin. Thoracic furrow slightly recurved. Palpal and legs segments lengths: Palp: femur 6.8/ patella 4.2/ tibia 5.8/ cymbium 2/ total 18.8. Leg I: femur 11.7/ patella 6.2/ tibia 10.8/ metatarsus 8.8/ tarsus 6/ total 43.5. II: 10.9/ 5.6/ 9.6/ 9/ 5.5/ 40.6. III: 10/ 4.8/ 8.2/ 10.8/ 5.2/ 39. IV: 12.4/ 5.1/ 11.2/ 14.8/ 7/ 50.5. Spines: Tarsi without spines. Palp: femur (d) 0-1-p1, patella (p) 1, tibia (v) 2-1-0, (p) 0-1-1. Leg I: femur (d) 0-2-1, tibia (v) 2-2-ap1, (p) 1-1-2, metatarsus (v) 1-1-ap1. II: femur (d) 0-1-2, patella (p) 1, tibia (v) 2-2-ap3, (p) 1-1-0, metatarsus (v) 2-1-ap1, (p) 0-1-0. III: femur (d) 3-3-4, patella (p) 1, (r) 1, tibia (v) 3-3-ap3, (p) 1-1-0, (r) 1-1- 0, metatarsus (v) 2-2-2+ap3, (p) 1-1-1, (r) 1-1-1. IV: femur (d) 3-4-4, patella (p) 1, (r) 1, tibia (v) 2-1-ap3, (p) 1-1-1, (r) 1-1-2, metatarsus (v) 3-3-ap3, (p) 1-1-1, (r) 1-1-2. Male palpal bulb with long, thin, and slightly curved embolus. Tibial apophysis formed by two branches. Retrolateral long, tapered, bearing a spine on its midlength. Prolateral short bearing spines on the base. Metatarsus I bends laterally to the prolateral branch. Scopula on metatarsi: I totally occupied, II 3/4 occupied, III nearly more than half occupied, IV less than half occupied. Scopula on tarsi I-IV divided.Tarsal claws with a median row of small teeth, clavate trichobothria in two rows, divided by a central row of long and thin setae. Tarsus IV cracked. Eyes: anterior row procurved, posterior slightly recurved, clypeus absent.

Female (MNHN-AR-AR4625 Syntype adult ♀ of Stichoplastus ravidus   )

Total length 46.8. Carapace: length 14.8; width 12. Eye tubercle: length 2.3; width 1.7. Labium: length 1.8; width 2.5. Sternum: length 5.8; width 5.6. Cheliceral basal article with 17-19 teeth. Labium nearly as wide as long, bearing more than 80 cuspules. Maxilla with more than 100 cuspules. Sternum rounded, sigilla one diameter from margin. Thoracic fovea slightly recurved. Palpal and legs segments lengths: palp: femur 8.1/ patella 4.8/ tibia 6.1/ tarsus 5.4/ total 24.4. Leg I: femur 11.1/ patella 6.9/ tibia 9.1/ metatarsus 7.5/ tarsus 4.9/ total 39.5. II: 9.7/ 6/ 7.8/ 7.3/ 4.8/ 35.6. III: 9.4/ 5.2/ 6.9/ 9.4/ 4.8/ 30.9. IV: 12.4/ 6/ 10.8/ 14.2/ 5.5/ 48.9. Spines: Tarsi without spines. Palp: femur (d) 0-0-p1, tibia (v) 1-2-ap3, (p) 1-1-0. Leg I: femur (d) 0-0-p1, tibia (v) 1-1-ap3, metatarsus (v) 1-1-ap1. II: femur (d) 0-0-p1, tibia (p) 1-1-0, (v) 1-1-ap3, metatarsus (v) 1-1-ap1. III: femur (d) 0-0-2, patella (p) 1, (r) 1, tibia (v) 1-2-ap3, (p) 1-1-0, (r) 1-1-0, metatarsus (v) 3-3- ap3, (p) 1-1-1, (r) 1-1-1. IV: femur (d) 0-0-2, patella (r) 1, tibia (v) 2-3-ap3, (p) 1-1-0, (r) 1-1-0, metatarsus (v) 2-4-ap3, (p) 1-1-1, (r) 1-1-1. Spermathecae formed by two receptacula longer than wide bearing small lobed on the inner basal portion (note: in some specimens, these lobes may be located on the ventral side of the receptaculum). Scopula on metatarsi: I totally occupied, II 3/4 occupied, III more than half occupied, IV less than half occupied.Tarsal scopula I-IV divided.Tarsal claws, clavate trichobothria, tarsus IV and eyes as in male.

ZMB

Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)

IBSP

Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo

NMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

ZMUH

Zoological Museum, University of Hanoi

ZSM

Bavarian State Collection of Zoology

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Theraphosidae

Genus

Holothele

Loc

Holothele longipes (L. Koch, 1875)

Guadanucci, José Paulo Leite, Perafán, Carlos & Valencia-Cuéllar, Dayana 2017
2017
Loc

Holothele longipes

RUDLOFF J. P. 1997: 9
1997
Loc

Holothele rondoni

RUDLOFF J. P. 1997: 10
1997
Loc

Dryptopelmides rondoni Lucas & Bücherl, 1972: 234

LUCAS S. & BUCHERL W. 1972: 234
1972
Loc

Dryptopelmides ludwigi

STRAND E. 1907: 19
1907
Loc

Stichoplastus ravidus

RUDLOFF J. P. 1997: 10
SIMON E. 1889: 208
1889
Loc

Holothele recta

RUDLOFF J. P. 1997: 10
KARSCH F. 1879: 544
1879
Loc

Chaetopelma longipes

AUSSERER A. 1875: 174
1875