Pauropsalta, Goding & Froggatt, 1904

Owen, Christopher L. & Moulds, Max S., 2016, Systematics and Phylogeny of the Australian Cicada Genus Pauropsalta Goding and Froggatt, 1904 and Allied Genera (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettini), Records of the Australian Museum 68 (4), pp. 117-200: 126-131

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.3853/j.2201-4349.68.2016.1598

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/039DA814-D07E-FF89-48DA-1EE8FA8CF8A2

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Pauropsalta
status

 

Key to species of Pauropsalta   and allied genera

Pauropsalta   and allied genera share a sclerotized endotheca that lacks a ventral support and all share an infuscation at the distal end of hind wing vein 2A except most species in the genus Palapsalta   .

1 Fore wing veins M and CuA with their stems meeting the basal cell completely fused as one (view carefully under magnification) ............................................. 29

—— Fore wing veins M and CuA with their stems meeting the basal cell closely abutted or parted, not fused as one ......................................................................... 2

2(1) Fore wing basal membrane predominantly grey to brown or black .......................................................................................................................................... 3

—— Fore wing basal membrane predominantly orange or red ....................................................... 21

3(2) Hind wing with 6 apical cells (if 6 in one wing and 5 in the other then treat as 5) .......................................................................................... Pauropsalta infuscata  

—— Hind wing with 5 apical cells .................................................................................................... 4

4(3) Pronotum with an adjacent pair of circular black dots on midline adjacent to pronotal collar distinctly separated from any other dark colour (view under low magnification) .................................................................... 5

—— Pronotum lacking such spots, although often with black markings but not like circular dots .................................................................................................... 6

5(4) Anteclypeus predominantly pale yellow or muddy yellow; found in Northern Territory ....................................................................................... Pauropsalta kriki  

—— Anteclypeus predominantly black (there is some yellow); found in northern Queensland ............................................................................... Pauropsalta elgneri  

6(4) Length of rostrum reaching to at least apices of hind coxae ..................................................... 7

—— Length of rostrum reaching to about apices of mid coxae ...................................................... 13

7(6) Male ........................................................................................................................................... 8

—— Female (not available for herveyensis   ) .................................................................................... 18

8(7) Abdomen not rounded in cross section, the epipleurites reflexed inwards from junction with tergites on underside of abdomen .................................................................................................................................... 9

—— Abdomen completely rounded in cross section, the epipleurites not reflexed inwards ................................................................................................................ 10

9(8) Pronotum black with reddish brown and yellow markings ........................... Pauropsalta opaca  

—— Pronotum black with yellow markings ................................................. Pauropsalta herveyensis  

10(8) Abdominal tergite 8 entirely or partly jet black ...................................................................... 11

—— Abdominal tergite 8 yellowish brown to dark brown but never partly jet black ......................................................................................................................... 12

11(10) Pronotum predominantly black with yellow markings .............................. Pauropsalta walkeri  

—— Pronotum black with yellow and brown/reddish brown markings .............. Pauropsalta infrasila  

12(10) Submedian sigilla partly dark brown or black and partly yellowish brown, not uniformly coloured; male genitalia with apical part of endotheca not bifurcate .......................................................... Pauropsalta agasta  

—— Submedian sigilla black or dark brown throughout, uniformly coloured; male genitalia with apical part of endotheca bifurcate ................ Pauropsalta adelphe  

13(6) Length of body including head longer than 20 mm; found in Queensland ................................................................................................... Pauropsalta ewarti  

—— Length of body including head equal to or shorter than 20 mm; found in South Australia or Western Australia ....................................................................... 14

14(13) Male ......................................................................................................................................... 15

—— Female ............................................................... Pauropsalta accola   , P. confinis   or P. contigua  

15(14) Dorsal portion of tergite 1 hidden ........................................................................................... 16

—— Dorsal portion of tergite clearly visible ................................................................................... 17

16(15) Pygofer entirely black ................................................................................ Pauropsalta extensa  

—— Pygofer substantially muddy yellow, especially on upper pygofer lobes and dorsal beak ................................................................................. Pauropsalta confinis  

17(15) Male fore wing length usually longer than 19.7 mm, if less than 19.7 (there are no records below 19.5 mm) then male aedeagus with pseudoparameres lying immediately adjacent to endotheca in lateral view ............................................................................................... Pauropsalta accola  

—— Male fore wing length never longer than 19.7 mm, if above 19.4 mm then male aedeagus with pseudoparameres lying high above endotheca ....................................................................................... Pauropsalta contigua  

18(7) Pronotum black with brownish red markings ......................................................................... 19

—— Pronotum black or brown with yellow or dark brown markings ............................................ 20

19(18) Black markings on abdomen confined to dorsal half; male abdomen inflated ............................................................................................... Pauropsalta infrasila  

—— Black markings on abdomen extended to lower lateral region; male abdomen not inflated ............................................................................ Pauropsalta opaca  

20(18) Pronotum black with yellow markings ....................................................... Pauropsalta walkeri  

—— Pronotum brown with dark brown markings ......................... Pauropsalta adelphe   or P. agasta  

21(2) Rostrum reaching to or slightly beyond apices of mid coxae ................................................. 22

—— Rostrum reaching at least to apices of hind coxae .................................................................. 24

22(21) Fore wing veins M and CuA with their stems meeting the basal cell completely separated (view ×10 magnification) ................................. Uradolichos rotunda  

—— Fore wing veins M and CuA with their stems meeting the basal cell closely abutted .................................................................................................................. 23

23(22) Tergites mostly black or bright orange .................................................... Pauropsalta katherina  

—— Tergites mostly brown or yellowish brown ............................................... Pauropsalta sinavilla  

24(21) Tergites 4–6 bright orange ...................................................................................................... 25

—— Tergites 4–6 brown, orange or red with dark brown to black markings .................................................................................................................................. 26

25(24) Not distinguishable by outward appearance; male genitalia with apex of aedeagus with wide lateral wing; west of the Great Sandy Desert, Western Australia ............................................................... Pauropsalta extrema  

—— Male genitalia with apex of aedeagus lacking lateral wings; distributed east of the Great Sandy Desert, Western Australia .................... Pauropsalta similis  

26(24) Head width equal to or less than 4.9 mm .................................................. Pauropsalta borealis  

—— Head width greater than 4.9 mm ............................................................................................. 27

27(26) Forewing length more than 23 mm ......................................................................................... 28

—— Forewing 23 mm or less ..................................................................... Pauropsalta melanopygia  

28(27) Black markings on abdomen confined to dorsal half; male abdomen inflated ....................................................................................... Pauropsalta infrasila  

—— Black markings on abdomen extended to lower lateral region; male abdomen not inflated ............................................................................ Pauropsalta opaca  

29(1) Hind wing with 5 apical cells (if 5 in one wing and 6 in the other then treat as 5) ......................................................................................................................... 30

—— Hind wing with 6 apical cells .................................................................................................. 64

30(29) Length of fore wing greater than or equal to 20 mm ............................................................... 31

—— Length of fore wing less than 20 mm ...................................................................................... 34

31(30) Fore wing broad, ratio of width to length about 2.3–2.5 ............................. Pauropsalta mneme  

—— Fore wing of usual proportions, ratio width to length 2.7 or greater ...................................................................................................................................... 32

32(31) Tergites mostly brown .......................................................................... Relictapsalta nigristriga  

—— Tergites mostly black .............................................................................................................. 33

33(32) Rostrum reaching apices of mid coxae ......................................................... Pauropsalta accola  

—— Rostrum reaching almost to apices of hind coxae .................................... Pauropsalta castanea  

34(30) Dorsolateral interior of pronotum with dark red or reddish brown markings (view under magnification) ...................................................................................... 35

—— Dorsolateral interior of pronotum lacking dark red or reddish brown markings ....................................................................................................................... 38

35(34) Male ......................................................................................................................................... 36

—— Female .................................. Pauropsalta accola   or P. conflua   (female of P. juncta   unknown)

36(35) Upper pygofer lobe brown or black ........................................................................................ 37

—— Upper pygofer lobe mostly yellow ............................................................... Pauropsalta accola  

37(36) Upper pygofer lobe triangular ..................................................................... Pauropsalta conflua  

—— Upper pygofer lobe semi-circular ................................................................. Pauropsalta juncta  

38(34) Rostrum reaching to or slightly beyond apices of mid coxae ................................................. 40

—— Rostrum reaching at least to apices of hind coxae .................................................................. 39

39(38) Length of body including head less than or equal to 17.1 mm .................... Atrapsalta emmotti  

—— Length of body including head greater than 17.1 mm ............................. Pauropsalta castanea  

40(38) Pronotal collar edged brown to reddish brown ....................................................................... 41

—— Pronotal collar edged yellow, orange or red ............................................................................ 46

41(40) Male ......................................................................................................................................... 42

—— Female ..................................................................................................................................... 44

42(41) Upper pygofer lobes black ...................................................................................................... 43

—— Upper pygofer lobes brown or muddy yellow ................................................ Atrapsalta collina  

43(42) Upper pygofer lobe (visible without dissection) hooked downwards terminally ............................................................................................. Atrapsalta fuscata  

—— Upper pygofer lobe terminally rounded, paddle-like blinkers .................... Atrapsalta corticina  

44(41) Fore wing length greater than 19.4 mm ...................................................... Atrapsalta corticina  

—— Fore wing length 19.4 mm or less ........................................................................................... 45

45(44) Abdomen below entirely black ....................................................................... Atrapsalta fuscata  

—— Abdomen below not entirely black ................................................................ Atrapsalta collina  

46(40) Pronotal collar edged yellow or orange ................................................................................... 47

—— Pronotal collar edged red ......................................................................................................... 52

47(46) No markings on mesonotum, completely black ...................................................................... 48

—— Red, yellow or orange markings on mesonotum ..................................................................... 50

48(47) Black tergites edged orange; found in Queensland and New South Wales ............................................................................................................................. 49

—— Black tergites edged yellow; found in Western Australia and South Australia ................................................................................................ Atrapsalta dolens  

49(48) Male upper pygofer lobe apex dark and hooked downwards ................... Popplepsalta ayrensis  

—— Male upper pygofer lobe apically pale and weakly hooked downwards or rounded and bulbous ................................................... Popplepsalta annulata   group*

50(47) Fore wing longer than 19 mm; found in Western Australia ......................... Pauropsalta accola  

—— Fore wing shorter than 19 mm; found in all States ................................................................. 51

51(50) Tergites mostly orange and wide ......................................................... Graminitigrina bowensis  

—— Tergites black and edged yellow ......................... Popplepsalta ayrensis   or P. annulata   group*

52(46) Sternites orange or yellow, sometimes with a black fascia along midline ..................................................................................................................................... 57

—— Sternites black (sometimes brown) or black edged yellow (consider black if majority of sternites are black except for area adjacent to epipleurites) ........................................................................................................... 53

53(52) Male ......................................................................................................................................... 58

—— Female ..................................................................................................................................... 54

54(53) Ovipositor sheath projecting 1 mm (from Western Australia) ..................... Pauropsalta accola  

—— Ovipositor sheath projecting much less than 1 mm (from Queensland or NSW) .......................................................................................................................... 55

55(54) Fore wing length greater than 19.4 mm ...................................................... Atrapsalta corticina  

—— Fore wing length 19.4 mm or less ........................................................................................... 56

56(55) Abdomen below entirely black ............................................ Atrapsalta fuscata   or A. encaustica  

—— Abdomen below not entirely black Atrapsalta collina   , A. corticina   , .......................................................................................................... A. encaustica   or A. furcilla  

57(52) No markings on mesonotum ........................................................................... Atrapsalta dolens  

—— Yellow markings on mesonotum ................................................................... Atrapsalta siccana  

58(53) Upper pygofer lobes black ...................................................................................................... 59

—— Upper pygofer lobes brown or muddy yellow ......................................................................... 61

59(58) Upper pygofer lobe (visible without dissection) hooked downwards terminally ...................................................................................................................... 60

—— Upper pygofer lobe terminally rounded, paddle-like blinkers .................... Atrapsalta corticina  

60(59) Apex of endotheca (requires dissection) when viewed end on with broad dorsal and ventral lips, and spined all around ........................ Atrapsalta encaustica  

—— Apex of endotheca when viewed end on with narrow dorsal and ventral lips, and lacks spines across dorsal lip ............................................... Atrapsalta fuscata  

61(58) Upper pygofer lobe (visible without dissection) tapering throughout most of its length to a rounded point ......................................... Pauropsalta accola  

—— Upper pygofer lobe tending parallel-sided and widening distally .......................................... 62

62(61) Upper pygofer lobes brown ............................................................................ Atrapsalta collina  

—— Upper pygofer lobes muddy pale yellow ................................................................................ 63

63(62) Apex of endotheca (requires dissection) when viewed end on with broad dorsal and ventral lips, and spined all around ........................ Atrapsalta encaustica  

—— Apex of endotheca when viewed end on with narrow dorsal and ventral lips, and lacks spines across dorsal lip .............................................. Atrapsalta furcilla  

64(29) Costa and/or R+Sc red, reddish orange, or reddish brown ...................................................... 65

—— Costa and/or R+Sc brown or yellow ....................................................................................... 71

65(64) Fore wing with no infuscation between CuP+1A and 2A+3A ................................................ 66

—— Fore wing with slight infuscation between CuP+1A and 2A+3A ............................................. 69

66(65) Fore wing at least 26 mm long ......................................................... Popplepsalta rubristrigata  

—— Fore wing less than 26 mm long ............................................................................................. 67

67(66) Sternites mostly black along midline ...................................................................................... 68

—— Sternites mostly red or orange along midline .......................................... Palapsalta circumdata  

68(67) Fore wing no longer than 19 mm ................................................................ Haemopsalta rubea  

—— Fore wing 20 mm or longer ..................................................................... Popplepsalta aeroides  

69(65) Tergite 2 entirely black; male upper pygofer lobe terminating to a long sharp point .......................................................................................... Falcatpsalta aquilus  

—— Tergite 2 black with yellow, red or brown hind margin (at least in part); male upper pygofer lobe terminating in a broad rounded end ........................................... 70

70(69) Abdomen below with a distinct broad black fascia along midline .............. Haemopsalta rubea  

—— Abdomen below lacking a distinct broad black fascia along midline .................................................................................................. Haemopsalta flammeata  

71(64) Anterior lateral margins with at least some tergites coloured orange ...................................................................................................................................... 72

—— Anterior lateral margins of tergites coloured black ................................................................. 76

72(71) Black markings along midline of tergites ................................................................................ 73

—— Orange or orange brown markings along midline of tergites .................................................. 74

73(72) Black markings along midline of tergites wider around midline and thinning laterally .................................................................................. Palapsalta virgulata  

—— Black markings on tergites about the same width on midline and laterally .................................................................................................... Palapsalta circumdata  

74(72) Tergites 1 and 2 orange ..................................................................................... Palapsalta eyrei  

—— Tergites 1 and 2 brown, sometimes tending black .................................................................. 75

75(74) Pronotum black with yellow markings ........................................................... Palapsalta palaga  

—— Pronotum brown with yellow markings ....................................................... Palapsalta vitellina  

76(71) Large white or pale brown spot on lateral sides of abdomen covering tergites 3–5 ..................................................................................... Palapsalta serpens  

—— No large white or pale brown spot on side of abdomen .......................................................... 77

77(76) Tergites mostly reddish orange (sometimes reddish brown) with black markings along midline .................................................................... Haemopsalta aktites  

—— Tergites black and usually edged yellow or orange ................................................................ 78

78(77) Pronotal collar entirely orange-brown or yellow-brown ............ Popplepsalta annulata   group *

—— Pronotal collar black, often edged reddish-brown on posterior margin ...................................................................................................................................... 79

79(78) Male ......................................................................................................................................... 80

—— Female ..................................................................................................................................... 81

80(79) Opercula entirely jet black ..................................................................... Haemopsalta georgina  

—— Opercula black on basal half or so, otherwise pale muddy yellow ...................... Atrapsalta vinea  

81(79) Membranes at wing bases with reddish orange; leg joints often showing similar reddish orange .............................................................. Haemopsalta georgina  

—— Membranes at wing bases muddy pale yellow or grey; leg joints often showing muddy yellow ............................................................................ Atrapsalta vinea  

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Cicadidae