Pauropsalta ewarti, Owen & Moulds, 2016

Owen, Christopher L. & Moulds, Max S., 2016, Systematics and Phylogeny of the Australian Cicada Genus Pauropsalta Goding and Froggatt, 1904 and Allied Genera (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettini), Records of the Australian Museum 68 (4), pp. 117-200: 147-149

publication ID 10.3853/j.2201-4349.68.2016.1598

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scientific name

Pauropsalta ewarti


Pauropsalta ewarti   n.sp.

Fig. 19 View Figure 19 , Pl. 4

Pauropsalta ewarti Owen et al., 2015: 261   , 272, nomen nudum.

Types. Holotype male (molecular voucher 04.AU.QL.HMT.13; GenBank accessions: KM377157, KM377337, KM377435, KM668293), Herberton , Queensland, 943 m, 17°23.2'S 145°22.7'E, 9.i.2004, Cooley,Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( QM) GoogleMaps   . Paratypes — QUEENSLAND: 1♂ (genitalia prep.PAU 52), Walsh’s Pyramid, nr Gordonvale , 18.ii.1983, G, Wood   ; 7♂♂ (two genitalia preps.JH2, JH3), Herberton , 943 m, 17°23.2'S 145°22.7'E, 9.i.2004, Cooley, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( MSM) GoogleMaps   . 1♂ (genitalia prep.JH1), Herberton , 943 m, 17°23.2'S 145°22.7'E, 9.i.2004, Cooley, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( AE) GoogleMaps   . 1♂, Herberton , 943 m, 17°23.2'S 145°22.7'E, 9.i.2004, Cooley, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( DE) GoogleMaps   . 1♂, 1♀, Top of Herberton Range. 17°20'32'S 145°25'02'E, 27.xii.2007, L. Popple & A. McKinnon, 384-0001 to 383-0002   ; 1♂, Herberton district , 17°23'22"S 145°21'02"E, 7.xii.2008, L. Popple & D. Emery, 384-0003 ( LP) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution ( Fig. 19 View Figure 19 ). Known from just two localities in northeastern Queensland; Herberton at the drier southwestern edge of the Atherton Tableland, and Walshs Pyramid south of Gordonvale. There are records for December, January and mid February.

Habitat. Dry open eucalypt forest where adults prefer the upper branches of trees of medium height.


Male (Pl. 4). Head wider than lateral margins of pronotal collar but narrower than lateral angles; dominantly black with yellowish brown spot at posterior midline. Postclypeus black with yellowish brown markings; usually a partly yellowish brown dorsally; a yellowish brown mark on midline around most anterior portion; lateral, and usually posterior, margins yellowish brown; transverse ridges and central groove distinct. Anteclypeus black. Rostrum black, tending brown proximally, reaching to or near bases of hind coxae.Antennae brown. Supra-antennal plates black, edged yellowish brown along anterior margin to varying degrees.

Thorax. Pronotum black with yellowish brown markings; fascia along midline yellowish brown, usually extending from or near head towards or almost to pronotal collar; a yellowish brown marking on either side of midline dorsally, abutting and/or on anterior margin of pronotal collar; a yellowish brown marking extending from head against inner margin of paramedian fissure, variable in length; sometimes yellowish brown patches laterally to varying degrees; pronotal collar yellowish brown; lateral angles sometimes black to varying degrees; lateral margin not, or barely, ampliate. Mesonotum primarily black with yellowish brown or reddish brown markings; usually a yellowish brown or reddish brown marking on either side from, or near, anterior arms or the cruciform elevation to, or almost to, pronotum between lateral and submedian sigilla, this marking projecting inwards to varying degrees around its mid length sometimes meeting and sometimes extending along midline, and sometimes surrounding scutal depressions; lateral margins usually yellowish brown; cruciform elevation yellowish brown and black, sometimes muddy brown, anterior arms usually yellowish brown, posterior arms usually brown, sometimes proximally black, black between anterior and posterior arms, often a black fascia down midline. Metanotum black at hind wing base, remainder reddish brown, sometimes black at dorsal midline.

Legs. Fore legs mostly black but with a brown to reddish brown fascia to varying degrees along anterior and exterior length of femora, sometimes a brownish red fascia along lateral interior of femora; femora with spines black; tarsi usually with two yellowish brown patches; pretarsal claws yellowish brown tending black distally. Mid and hind legs mostly black or brown tending dark brown; coxae with proximal margin edged brown; yellowish brown fascia along anterior, interior, exterior length of femora; tibiae brown tending black distally; tarsi sometimes with two yellowish brown patches. Meracanthus black with outer lateral margin and apex pale yellow.

Wings. Hyaline. Fore wing with fused stem of veins M and CuA not complete, the veins abutted rather than fused as one; venation brown; inconspicuous infuscation distally on clavus; basal membrane muddy brown. Hind wing with 5 apical cells; venation brown except for pale yellowish brown 2A and 3A; plaga muddy white to brown; black infuscation on wing margin at distal end of vein 2A.

Opercula. For the most part not reaching distal margin of tympanal cavity; widely separated; a low rounded swelling of epimeron 3; black, sometimes yellowish brown on distal half.

Timbals with four long ribs spanning the width of timbal membrane and one much shorter anterior rib terminating about level with lower end of adjacent intercalary rib

Abdomen. Tending triangular in cross section with epipleurites reflexed inwards from junction with tergites. Tergites black with reddish brown and yellow markings. Tergite 1 black; tergites 2–8 black with posterior margin reddish brown to varying degrees, sometimes a reddish brown spot adjacent to posterior margin on dorsal midline, extreme posterior margin usually narrowly edged orange. Sternite I brownish black with muddy yellow dorsally; sternites II mostly black or nearly so; sternites III–VII orange, sometimes with posterior margin yellowish orange to varying degrees; sternite VIII yellowish brown.

Genitalia ( Fig. 19 View Figure 19 ). Pygofer upper lobe narrow and long, in lateral view gradually tapering to a rounded apex, apex slightly down-curved. Basal lobe longer than wide, rounded in lateral view, flat, not turned inwards. Secondary basal pygofer lobe small, in lateral view tending linear, the upper half broadly rounded. Median lobe of uncus tending triangular with a narrow rounded apex. Claspers clawlike, flattened and narrow in dorsal view, distally slightly diverging, concave below. Aedeagus with pseudoparameres inconspicuous, translucent, hair-like, lying adjacent to dorsal surface of endotheca, arising at about one quarter length of endotheca and very short. Endotheca long, parallel sided, circular in cross-section; apex divided into a pair of similar flat lobes, in lateral view these paddle-like, in dorsal view diverging more or less in a Y-shape.

Female. Female is similar to male, ovipositor sheath extends c. 1.5 mm past termination of abdomen.

Measurements. Range and mean (in mm) for 10♂♂; includes smallest and largest of available specimens. Length of body: 20.3–24.3 (22.1). Length of fore wing: 26.9–29.6 (28.3). Width of fore wing: 9.4–10.3 (9.7). Ratio length/width of fore wing: 2.8–3.0 (2.9). Width of head (including eyes): 6.7–7.4 (7.0). Width of pronotum (across lateral angles): 6.9–8.0 (7.5).

Distinguishing features

Distinguished from most other species of Pauropsalta   in having the stems of fore wing veins M and CuA closely abutted rather than fused as one. Amongst those species with abutted veins care should be taken not to confuse this species with Pau. opaca   or Pau. herveyensis   . Distinguished from both by having a rostrum that barely reaches the bases of the hind coxae; those of Pau. opaca   and Pau. herveyensis   extend clearly beyond the bases and usually to the apices of the hind coxae.

Male genitalia are unique in having an aedeagus with pseudoparameres that are very short, hair-like, translucent and virtually indiscernible, and an endotheca that has its apex divided into a pair of paddle-like lobes rounded apically.

Etymology. Named after Tony Ewart who has contributed significantly to the revision of Pauropsalta species   and other Australian cicadas.

Song ( Fig. 19 View Figure 19 ). The song is composed of a series of pulses and echemes. Pulses usually occur for 5–9 s. Echemes follow each series of pulses and each echeme lasts for nearly 3 s. The frequency of the song occurs between 2 kHz and 24 kHz, with the dominant frequency between 4 kHz and 11 kHz.


Queensland Museum


Marine Science Museum, Tokai Univ.


Laboratory of Palaeontology














Pauropsalta ewarti

Owen, Christopher L. & Moulds, Max S. 2016

Pauropsalta ewarti

Owen, C & Marshall, K 2015: 261