Pauropsalta castanea Goding & Froggatt, 1904

Owen, Christopher L. & Moulds, Max S., 2016, Systematics and Phylogeny of the Australian Cicada Genus Pauropsalta Goding and Froggatt, 1904 and Allied Genera (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettini), Records of the Australian Museum 68 (4), pp. 117-200: 139-141

publication ID 10.3853/j.2201-4349.68.2016.1598

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Pauropsalta castanea Goding & Froggatt, 1904


Pauropsalta castanea Goding & Froggatt, 1904  

Fig. 15 View Figure 15

Pauropsalta castanea Goding & Froggatt, 1904: 617–618   ; Owen et al., 2015: 260.

Goding & Froggatt (1904) described castanea   from a teneral female from Karth and deposited in the South Australian Museum. However, the specimen labelled as type in that museum does not match the original description and bears a locality label “Devonport Tas”. Another specimen labelled as the type of Pau. castanea   is in the ANIC, ex Macleay Museum. This specimen does match the original description with its unique teneral colouring and we considered this the true type. Burns (1957) placed Pau. castanea   as a junior synonym of Melampsalta abdominalis   (now Yoyetta abdominalis   ) but this synonymy is clearly incorrect and we recognize Pau. castanea   as a species distinct from Y. abdominalis   . Owen (2015) previously took Pau. castanea   from synonymy with Y. abdominalis   but gave no explanation for doing so.

Material examined. Holotype female (in ANIC) and the erroneously labelled type (in SAM) as mentioned above, plus the following specimens. NEW SOUTH WALES: 1♂ (molecular voucher 11.AU.NS.FOW.01, song recorded) Fowlers Gap, c. 105 km N of Broken Hill, New South Wales, 183 m, 31°05.234'S 141°42.593'E, 10.i.2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall ( AM). 1♂, 1♀, Fowlers Gap, 21–23.xii.2005, George Hangay ( AE). 1♂, Fowlers Gap , c. 105 km N of Broken Hill, 183 m, 31°05.234'S 141°42.593'E, 10.i.2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall; 1♀, Eurlow Ck , 74 km N of Broken Hill, 248 m, 31°22.328'S 141°36.713'E, 10.i.2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall ( LP). 2♂♂ (1 genitalia prep. PAU341), Fowlers Gap , c. 105 km N of Broken Hill, 183 m, 31°05.234'S 141°42.593'E, 10.i.2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall; 2♂♂, 1♀, Fowlers Gap , 21–23.xii.2005, George Hangay ; 1♀, Eurlow Ck , 74 km N of Broken Hill, 248 m, 31°22.328'S 141°36.713'E, 10.i.2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall; 2♂♂, E edge of Wilcannia , Barrier Hwy nr Darling River , 73 m, 31°33.703'S 143°22.877'E, 11.i.2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall ( MSM). SOUTH AUSTRALIA: 1♂, SE side of Wilmington , 337 m, 32°39.332'S 138°06.144'E, 8.i.2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall; 1♂ (molecular voucher 11.AU.SA.PBE.02), Barrier Hwy , 2.3 km NE of rd to Peterborough , 521 m, 32°56.412'S 138°59.476'E, 9.i.2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall ( AM). 2♂♂, 1♀, Evelyn Ck , 2 km N of Mt Willoughby Hsd, 6.ii.1984, M.S. and B.J. Moulds; 1♂, Balcanoona , Flinders Ranges , 1.iii.1984, R. H. Fisher; 1♀, Germein Gorge , E of Port Germein, 18.xi.1985, M.S. and B.J. Moulds; 1♀, Pichi Richi Pass , near Port Augusta , 17.i.1976, M.S. and B.J. Moulds; 2♂♂, Broken Hill , 31°57.817'S 141°26.030'E, 304 m, 4.ii.2007, K. Hill, D. Marshall; 1♂, south edge of Broken Hill , 31°59.405'S 141°26.956'E, 296 m, 4.ii.2007, K. Hill, D. Marshall; 1♂, 5 km W of Wilmington, 442 m, 32°39.211'S 138°02.946'E, K. Hill, D. Marshall; 1♀, Horrock’s Pass , E of Port Augusta, 26.i.1989, M.S. and B.J. Moulds ( MSM); 1♂, 1♀, Wilmington , 340 m, 32°39.703'S 138°06.591'E, 7.i.2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall ( SAM); 1♂ (molecular voucher 07.AU.SA.HWK.01; GenBank accessions: KM377182,KM377267, KM377453,KM377610, KM668278), Hawker information centre on main road through town, -31.8894 ° 138.4200°, 2.iii.2007, D. Marshall and K. Hill ( UCS). GoogleMaps  

Distribution ( Fig. 15 View Figure 15 ). South Australia where it has been taken at Evelyn Creek near Mount Willoughby Homestead (some 150 km north of Coober Pedy), on the edge of the Flinders Ranges and in the mountains east of Port Augusta as far south as Peterborough, and far western New South Wales from Broken Hill north to Fowlers Gap and at Wilcannia on the Darling River. It is a locally common species and can be found in most years at Horrocks Pass west of Wilmington in South Australia and at Fowlers Gap north of Broken Hill in New South Wales. There are records for mid November to early March.

Habitat. Primarily associated with Eucalyptus camaldulensis   , nearly always growing along water courses that are often dry. Adults are usually found on the upper branches, sometimes at considerable height.


Male. Head with eyes of live specimens cherry red; wider than lateral margins of pronotal collar; dominantly black with muddy yellow spot at posterior midline. Postclypeus jet black usually (but not always) with pale yellow or brown markings; usually muddy yellow or pale reddish brown markings on dorsal area variable in extent; usually a muddy yellow or brown mark on midline around most anterior portion; usually lateral margins muddy yellow or brown; transverse ridges and central groove distinct; central groove with muddy yellow or brown marking about mid length. Anteclypeus jet black. Rostrum black tending brown proximally, reaching to or just beyond bases of hind coxae. Antennae black. Supraantennal plates black, sometimes edged reddish brown along anterior margin.

Thorax. Pronotum black, usually with brown and pale yellow markings; fascia along midline pale yellow, usually extending from near head towards or almost to pronotal collar, often discontinuous; sometimes a transverse muddy yellow marking on either side of midline dorsally abutting and/or on anterior margin of pronotal collar; pronotal collar between lateral angles black with posterior margin edged muddy yellow or brown to varying degrees; lateral margin of pronotal collar not, or barely, ampliate. Mesonotum primarily black with pale yellow or brown markings; usually a reddish brown marking on either side from, or near, anterior arms or the cruciform elevation to, or almost to, pronotum between lateral and submedian sigilla, this marking projecting inwards to varying degrees around its mid length and sometimes meeting; sometimes a pale yellow blotch between anterior arms of cruciform elevation; lower lateral area sometimes with a pale yellow streak; scutal depressions occasionally visible as black dots surrounded by pale yellow; cruciform elevation nearly always pale yellow, rarely nearly all black; anterior arms tending black distally to varying degrees, often a black fascia down midline. Metanotum black at hind wing base, remainder pale yellow or brown, sometimes black near dorsal midline.

Legs. Fore legs mostly black but with a pale yellow fascia to varying degrees along exterior and anterior length of femora; femora with spines black tending brown distally; pretarsal claws black with brown apices. Mid and hind legs mostly black with pale yellow markings; coxae with proximal margin edged pale yellow; femora black tending pale yellow distally; mid leg tibiae black; hind leg tibiae black tending pale yellow distally; tarsi black sometimes tending pale yellow to brown proximally. Meracanthus black with outer lateral margin and apex pale yellow.

Wings. Hyaline. Fore wing with fused stem of veins M and CuA complete, the veins fused as one; venation brown; infuscation distally on clavus; basal membrane grey to black. Hind wing with 5 apical cells; venation brown except for pale yellowish brown 2A and 3A; plaga muddy white to grey; black infuscation on wing margin at distal end of vein 2A, proximal side of 3A, and partly on anal lobe.

Opercula. For the most part not reaching distal margin of tympanal cavity; widely separated; flat other than a low rounded swelling of epimeron 3; black, sometimes yellowish brown on distal half.

Timbals with four long ribs spanning the width of timbal membrane and one much shorter anterior rib terminating level with upper end of adjacent intercalary rib.

Abdomen. Tending triangular in cross section with epipleurites reflexed inwards from junction with tergites. Tergites black with orange to orange brown markings; tergite 1 black; tergites 2–7 black with posterior margin orange to orange brown to varying degrees; tergite 8 black with orange posterior margin, widest around midline. Sternite I black; sternites II black with posterior margin orange to varying degrees; sternites III–VII orange to muddy orange with black along anterior midline; sternite VIII orange to muddy orange.

Genitalia ( Fig. 15 View Figure 15 ). Pygofer upper lobe wide and long, in lateral view gradually tapering to a broad rounded apex. Pygofer basal lobe flap-like in lateral view, in ventral view slightly turned inward; secondary basal lobe fold-like, in lateral view projecting and broadly rounded. Median lobe of uncus in ventral view duck-bill like, tapering to small rounded point. Claspers claw-like, medium width in dorsal view, concave below, apices tending truncate in dorsal view. Aedeagus with pseudoparameres longer than endotheca, slender, flattened in cross section, lying adjacent for most of endotheca length in lateral view, in dorsal view curved outwards basally, thereafter parallel to each other but distally curved outwards, their apices turned slightly backwards. Endotheca nearly straight, short, parallel-sided, circular in cross-section, apex without ornamentation.

Female. Similar to male. Abdominal segment 9 yellowish brown, with a black or dark brown fascia on either side of midline extending distally from the anterior margin but not reaching posterior margin. Ovipositor sheath extending 1.75–2.0 mm beyond apex of abdomen; dark brown to black.

Measurements. Range and mean (in mm) for 10♂♂ and 10♀♀; includes smallest and largest of available specimens. Length of body: male 16.9–21.9 (20.0); female 19.4–22.3 (21.1). Length of fore wing: male 20.0–25.1 (23.0); female 23.3–27.8 (24.8). Width of fore wing: male 6.9–9.0 (8.3); female 8.2–9.5 (8.8). Ratio length/width of fore wing: male 2.7–2.9 (2.8); female 2.7–3.0 (2.8). Width of head (including eyes): male 5.8–7.0 (6.4); female 6.4–7.0 (6.7). Width of pronotum (across lateral angles): male 6.0–7.5 (6.9); female 7.0–7.6 (7.2)

Distinguishing features

A distinctive species differing from all other species of Pauropsalta   and allied genera (those species with an infuscation on wing margin at the distal end of hind wing vein 2A) in having fore wing veins M and CuA completely fused as one before the basal cell, a rostrum that almost reaches the apices of the hind coxae, a fore wing 20 mm or longer, and a second abdominal segment that is largely jet black.

The male genitalia have a broad, tapering upper pygofer lobe, small beak-like claspers, robust pseudoparameres that lie laterally against the endotheca, and a simple apical termination to the endotheca.

Song ( Fig. 15 View Figure 15 ). The song is composed of a series of consecutive echemes. Each echeme is between c. 5 s and c. 7.5 s in length. The song occurs at a frequencies between 4 kHz and 18 kHz, while plateauing between 4 kHz and 10 kHz.


Australian National Insect Collection


South African Museum


Australian Museum


Laboratory of Palaeontology


Marine Science Museum, Tokai Univ.


University of Connecticut














Pauropsalta castanea Goding & Froggatt, 1904

Owen, Christopher L. & Moulds, Max S. 2016

Pauropsalta castanea

Owen, C & Marshall, K 2015: 260