Pauropsalta extensa Goding & Froggatt, 1904

Owen, Christopher L. & Moulds, Max S., 2016, Systematics and Phylogeny of the Australian Cicada Genus Pauropsalta Goding and Froggatt, 1904 and Allied Genera (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettini), Records of the Australian Museum 68 (4), pp. 117-200: 149-151

publication ID 10.3853/j.2201-4349.68.2016.1598

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Pauropsalta extensa Goding & Froggatt, 1904


Pauropsalta extensa Goding & Froggatt, 1904  

Fig. 20 View Figure 20

Pauropsalta extensa Goding & Froggatt, 1904: 618–619   .

Pauropsalta prolongata Goding & Froggatt, 1904: 618   ; Burns, 1957: 658 (as a junior synonym of Pauropsalta mneme   ); Ewart, 1989: 293. New synonym.

Melampsalta prolongata (Goding & Froggatt)   : Ashton, 1914: 353.

Melampsalta extensa (Goding & Froggatt)   : Burns, 1957: 651.

Pauropsalta extensa Goding & Froggatt   : Duffels and van der Laan, 1985: 301; Owen et al., 2015: 261.

The holotype of Pau. extensa   is a female from the Murray River. There are two specimens labelled as holotype of Pau. prolongata   , one in the ANIC and one in the SAM. It is difficult to say which is the true type, which according to the original description should reside in SAM. However, the specimen in ANIC may be the true type as it bears reddish markings as in the original description rather than dull yellow. But we consider both specimens to be conspecific so it is not a concern which is the true type.

Because the type of Pau. extensa   and Pau. prolongata   are females it is difficult to associate males. We have males (but no females) that are morphologically similar to the female types, notably in the closely abutted stems of fore wing veins M and CuA that are not fused as one, in the head structure including rostrum length, in the unusually concave costa near the arculus, the five apical cells in the hind wings, and in the bold marginal infuscation at the distal end of hind wing vein 2A. These males we consider to be conspecific with the types. Further, three of these males come from close to the Murray River, the type locality of Pau. extensa   .

Burns placed Pauropsalta prolongata   as a junior synonym of Pauropsalta mneme (Walker)   but this cannot be correct. The types of prolongata   in ANIC and SAM both have fore wing veins M and CuA closely abutted for some distance before reaching the basal cell whereas Pau. mneme   has these clearly fused as one before the basal cell. Further, Pau. prolongata   is a slender species whereas Pau. mneme   has a more robust body and much broader fore wings.

Material examined. Holotype of Pau. extensa   , female, bearing labels as follows “ Pauropsalta   / extensa   / G & F. / Murray Riv S.A.” handwritten, “Murray Rr / Scrub??? / Tepper” handwritten, “I.5030.” handwritten, “Type” hand printed on a red disc, “ Pauropsalta extensa   G & F. / S.A. TYPE” produced from typewriter except for the word TYPE handwritten in red ink ( SAM). Presumed holotype of prolongata   , female, bearing three labels as follows “ Pauropsalta   / prolongata   / G. & F. / S. Australia ” in Froggatt’s handwriting, “Type” handwritten in red ink; “On permanent loan from Macleay Museum” printed on white card ( ANIC). Alternative holotype of prolongata   , female, conspecific with presumed holotype, bearing labels as follows “Mt Lofty Ra” handwritten possibly by Goding, “ Pauropsalta prolongata   / type” handwritten,“Type” hand printed on a red disc ( SAM); 1♂ (molecular voucher AU.SA.NGS.01; GenBank accessions: KM377105 View Materials , KM377301 View Materials , KM377412 View Materials , KM377584 View Materials , KM668271 View Materials ), AU.SA.NGS, Bordertown-Pinnaroo Rd, c. 52 km N of Western Hwy, 158 m, 35°49.806'S 140°47.433'E, 5 Jan. 2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall; 3♂♂ (one molecular voucher AU.SA.TBE.01, genitalia prep. PAU512),AU.SA.TBE, 13.5 km E of Tailem Bend on Mallee Hwy, 27 m, 35°17.300'S 139°35.922'E, 6 Jan, 2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall ( AM, MSM).

Distribution ( Fig. 20 View Figure 20 ). South Australia where it is known from Mount Lofty Ranges north of Adelaide, near Tailem Bend on the lower Murray River and from some 60 km north of Bordertown. There are records for early January only.

Habitat. Adults inhabit mallee and other eucalypts where they perch on the trunks and branches.


Male. Head wider than lateral margins of pronotal collar; dominantly black sometimes with muddy yellow spot at posterior midline. Postclypeus jet black with pale yellow or pale reddish brown markings; a muddy yellow or pale reddish brown mark on midline around most anterior portion; lateral margins muddy yellow or pale reddish brown; transverse ridges and central groove distinct. Anteclypeus jet black. Rostrum black, occasionally tending brown proximally, reaching to or beyond apices of mid coxae. Antennae black tending white distally. Supra-antennal plates black.

Thorax. Pronotum black, usually with reddish brown and pale yellow markings; center of pronotum with reddish brown patches; fascia along midline dull yellow, usually extending from near head towards or almost to pronotal collar; pronotal collar between lateral angles black or dark brown with posterior margin edged muddy yellow or reddish brown; lateral margin of pronotal collar not, or barely, ampliate. Mesonotum primarily black with reddish brown markings; usually a reddish brown marking on either side from, or near, anterior arms or the cruciform elevation to, or almost to, pronotum between lateral and submedian sigilla, this marking projecting inwards to varying degrees around its mid length; scutal depressions occasionally visible as black dots surrounded by reddish brown; cruciform elevation muddy yellow, anterior arms with distal ends black, sometimes a black fascia down midline. Metanotum black at hind wing base, remainder reddish brown or muddy yellow, sometimes black near dorsal midline.

Legs. Fore legs mostly black but with a brown to yellowish brown fascia to varying degrees along anterior length of femora, sometimes a brownish fascia along lateral exterior of femora; femora with spines black to dark brown; pretarsal claws black to dark brown. Mid and hind legs mostly black or brown tending dark brown; coxae black; reddish brown along anterior length of femora; tibiae and tarsi brown tending yellowish brown. Meracanthus black sometimes with outer lateral margin and apex pale yellow.

Wings. Hyaline. Fore wing with fused stem of veins M and CuA not complete, the veins abutted rather than fused as one; venation brown and black; costa slightly curving inwards near arculus; minor infuscation distally on clavus; basal membrane grey to black. Hind wing with 5 apical cells; venation brown except for pale yellowish brown 2A and 3A; plaga muddy white to grey to pale brown; strong black infuscation on wing margin at distal end of vein 2A.

Opercula. For the most part reaching to or almost to distal margin of tympanal cavity except at distal outer corner; widely separated; flat other than a low rounded swelling of epimeron 3; black tending dull yellow on distal half.

Timbals with four long ribs spanning the width of timbal membrane and one much shorter anterior rib terminating level with upper end of adjacent intercalary rib.

Abdomen. Tending triangular in cross section with epipleurites reflexed inwards from junction with tergites.Tergites black with dull yellow markings.Tergite 1 black and greatly reduced, not visible at dorsal midline; tergites 2–7 black with posterior margin narrowly edged muddy yellow to varying degrees; tergite 8 black with muddy yellow posterior margin barely discernible. Sternite I black; sternites II–VII black with posterior margin yellow to varying degrees, widest at lateral extremities; sternite VIII black tending yellowish brown distally.

Genitalia ( Fig. 20 View Figure 20 ). Pygofer upper lobe wide and long, in lateral view gradually tapering to a broad rounded apex. Basal pygofer lobe angular in lateral view, flap-like, partly turned inwards. Secondary basal lobe small, domed. Median lobe of uncus a little longer than wide with a rounded apex. Claspers claw-like, but very flattened, apices turned outwards and rather short and conical. Aedeagus with pseudoparameres as long as or a little longer than endotheca, slender, rounded in cross section, lying arched high above endotheca in lateral view, in dorsal view tending parallel to each other but distally slightly diverging, distally swollen before turning outwards and downwards and tapering to a long sharp point. Endotheca straight in lateral view, circular in cross-section, apex more or less square-cut with a very small upturned flat lobe either side and a rim bearing minute spines.

Female. Similar to male but with brown and yellow markings on head and body more extensive. Abdominal segment 9 brown with a black fascia on each side of midline. Ovipositor sheath long, extending 1 mm beyond apex of abdomen; dark brown to black.

Measurements. Range and mean (in mm) for 4♂♂ and 1♀; includes all available specimens. Length of body: male 16–18.5 (17.4); female 19.8. Length of fore wing: male 18.4–20.6 (19.6); female 22.4. Width of fore wing: male 6.1–7.3 (6.8); female 7.5. Ratio length/width of fore wing: male 2.8–3.0 (2.9); female 3.0. Width of head (including eyes): male 5.1–5.5 (5.3); female 5.7. Width of pronotum (across lateral angles): male 5.3–6.0 (5.7); female 6.2.

Distinguishing features

Distinguished from most small black cicadas by having the stems of fore wing veins M and CuA closely abutted on reaching the basal cell rather than fused as one (view under low magnification).

Among those species of small black cicadas with M and CuA abutted Pau. extensa   differs from all except Pau. confinis   in having the dorsal portion of tergite 1 concealed or nearly so, whereas it is clearly visible in the other species. Males differ from Pau. confinis   in having the dorsal beak and upper pygofer lobe black while in Pau. confinis   they are dull yellow. Females differ from Pau. confinis   in having the distal part of abdominal segment 9 and the dorsal beak black (except sometimes for the very tip of the dorsal beak) while and these areas in Pau. confinis   are dull yellow.

The male genitalia are unique in having the pseudoparameres swollen immediately preceding the long tapering apices and the following combination of characters: a large and broad upper pygofer lobe that gradually tapers to a blunt point, an endotheca lacking a ventral support and with its apical rim edged in minute spine-like projections, and a pair of pseudoparameres that arch high above the endotheca in lateral view.

Song. The song is composed of a series of similar echemes at a rate of 2–2.5 per second. The frequency of the song occurs between 6 kHz and 20 kHz, with the dominant frequency between 6 kHz and 10 kHz.


South African Museum


Australian National Insect Collection


Australian Museum


Marine Science Museum, Tokai Univ.














Pauropsalta extensa Goding & Froggatt, 1904

Owen, Christopher L. & Moulds, Max S. 2016

Pauropsalta extensa

Owen, C & Marshall, K 2015: 261

Pauropsalta prolongata

Ewart, A 1989: 293
Burns, A 1957: 658

Melampsalta extensa (Goding & Froggatt)

Burns, A 1957: 651

Melampsalta prolongata (Goding & Froggatt)

Ashton, J 1914: 353