Pauropsalta infuscata Goding & Froggatt, 1904
Owen, Christopher L. & Moulds, Max S., 2016, Systematics and Phylogeny of the Australian Cicada Genus Pauropsalta Goding and Froggatt, 1904 and Allied Genera (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettini), Records of the Australian Museum 68 (4), pp. 117-200: 154-155
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|Pauropsalta infuscata Goding & Froggatt, 1904|
Fig. 23 View Figure 23 , Pl. 4
293; Owen et al., 2015: 261, 273.
Material examined. Syntype of infuscata , male (only known specimen), bearing labels as follows “ Melampsalta / infuscata /G. & F. / Type / S. Australia ” in Froggatt’s handwriting, “Type” handwritten in red ink, “On permanent loan from Macleay Museum University of Sydney” printed on white card ( ANIC) . WESTERN AUSTRALIA: 1♂ (molecular voucher WAU.GIL.02), 56 km S of Norseman, 0.8 km SW of Esperance Hwy , 32°37.714'S 121°32.354'E, 7.ii.2009, K. Hill & D. Marshall ( AM) GoogleMaps . 1♀, 6 km S of Varley , 31.xii.1990, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ( AE) . 1♀, 6 km S of Varley , 31.xii.1990, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ( LP) . 2♂♂ (one genitalia prep. PAU 367), 4♀♀, 6 km S of Varley , 31.xii.1990, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ; 1♂ (molecular voucher WAU.RAT.03), Ravensthorpe , 10.i. 2003, 209 m, 33°35'S 120°04'E, Moulds, Marshall, Hill & Vanderpool GoogleMaps ; 4♂♂ (three genitalia preps. PAU 270, PAU286, PAU 362), Moir’s Rock , 42 km NNW Salmon Gums, 32°39'S 121°25'E, 2.i.1986, 3.i.1987, G. and A. Daniels GoogleMaps ; 1♂ (genitalia prep. PAU 363), Salmon Gums , 32°58'S 121°38'E, 5.i.1987, G. and A. Daniels GoogleMaps ; 1♂, 8 km E Salmon Gums , 32°58'S 121°42'E, 5.i.1987, G. & A. Daniels GoogleMaps ; 3♂♂ (genitalia preps. PAU 278 & PAU 366), 150 km SSW of Coolgardie , 32°10'S 120°34'E, 23.xii.1995, M.S. & B.J. Moulds & K.A. Kopestonsky GoogleMaps ; 1♂ (genitalia prep. PAU 265; molecular voucher 03.AU. WAU.LKA.05; GenBank accessions: KM377135, KM377378, KM377400, KM377601, KM668248), Lake Douglas, nr Kalgoorlie , 369 m, 30°51'S 121°23'E, 15.i.2003, Moulds, Hill, Marshall & Vanderpool GoogleMaps ; 1♂ (molecular voucher WAU.GIL.01 and genitalia prep.PAU 322), 56 km S of Norseman, 0.8 km SW of Esperance Hwy , 32°37.714'S 121°32.354'E, 7.ii.2009, K. Hill & D. Marshall GoogleMaps ; 2♀♀, Newmann’s Rocks , 50 km W of Balladonia Motel, 32°06'S 123°10'E, 31.xii.1986, G. & A. Daniels GoogleMaps ; 1♂ (voucher # WA.NOE.08), 27 km NW of Balladonia , 32°13.526'S 123°22.660'E, 237 m, 20.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( MSM) GoogleMaps . SOUTH AUSTRALIA: 1♂, Quorn , 289 m, 32°20.820'S 138°02.105'E, 08.i.2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall ( AE) GoogleMaps . 1♂, Quorn , 289 m, 32°20.820'S 138°02.105'E, 08.i.2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall ( LP) GoogleMaps . 1♂ (genitalia prep. PAU 354), 55 km ESE of Kimba, on Kimba / Iron Knob road, 12.xii.1995, M.S. & B.J. Moulds & K.A. Kopestonsky ; 7♂♂ (two molecular vouchers 11.AU.SA.QUO.02, 11.AU. SA.QUO.03 and two song recorded), 2♀♀, Quorn , 289 m, 32°20.820'S 138°02.105'E, 08.i.2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall GoogleMaps ; 1♂ (1 molecular voucher 11.AU.SA.PBE.01 and song recorded), Barrier Hwy, 2.3 km NE of rd to Peterborough , 521 m, 32°56.412'S 138°59.476'E, 9.i.2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall ( MSM) GoogleMaps . VICTORIA: 1♂ (molecular voucher 10.AU.VIC.MSP.10 and song recorded), 21 km S of Bambill , 74 m, 34°35.8'S 141°29.8'E, 3.ii.2004, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( MSM) GoogleMaps . NEW SOUTH WALES: 2♂♂, 1♀, Round Hill NR, 32°57'06"S 146°04'53"E, 21.xi.2010, S12588 View Materials , L. W. Popple, D. Emery, 693-0001 to 693-0003 ( LP) GoogleMaps .
Distribution ( Fig. 23 View Figure 23 ). Southern part of Western Australia in an area bordered by Varley and Ravenshoe to the west, Kalgoorlie in the north and almost to Balladonia in the east, South Australia in the vicinity of the upper Spencer Gulf, and northwestern Victoria. Most records are from Western Australia especially around the Norseman and Salmon Gums areas. There are only three known localities from South Australia, 55 km ESE of Kimba, Quorn, and near Peterborough. The only Victorian record is from 21 km S of Bambill.
Habitat. Open eucalypt woodland where adults inhabit the taller trees.
Male (Pl. 4). Head narrower than lateral angles of pronotal collar; dominantly black with muddy yellow spot at posterior midline. Postclypeus jet black with pale yellow or pale reddish brown markings; sometimes a muddy yellow or pale reddish brown marking on either side of midline near the dorsal proximal area; a muddy yellow or pale reddish brown mark on midline around most anterior portion; lateral margins muddy yellow or pale reddish brown; transverse ridges and central groove distinct. Anteclypeus jet black. Rostrum black, occasionally tending brown proximally, reaching to or just beyond apices of mid coxae. Antennae black. Supra-antennal plates black, sometimes edged reddish brown along anterior margin.
Thorax. Pronotum black, usually with reddish brown and pale yellow markings; center of pronotum with reddish brown patches; fascia along midline pale yellow, usually extending from near head towards or almost to pronotal collar; sometimes a transverse muddy yellow marking dorsally abutting and/or on anterior margin of pronotal collar; pronotal collar between lateral angles black with posterior margin edged muddy yellow or reddish brown; lateral margin of pronotal collar not, or barely, ampliate. Mesonotum primarily black with reddish brown markings; usually a reddish brown marking on either side from, or near, anterior arms or the cruciform elevation to, or almost to, pronotum between lateral and submedian sigilla, this marking projecting inwards to varying degrees around its mid length and sometimes meeting and sometimes thereafter extending anteriorly along midline; sometimes a reddish brown blotch between anterior arms of cruciform elevation; lower lateral area usually with a reddish brown streak; scutal depressions occasionally visible as black dots surrounded by reddish brown; cruciform elevation black and reddish brown, sometimes partly muddy yellow, anterior arms usually reddish brown with distal ends black, posterior arms usually black, often a black fascia down midline. Metanotum black at hind wing base, remainder reddish brown, sometimes black near dorsal midline.
Legs. Fore legs mostly black but with a reddish brown fascia to varying degrees along anterior length of femora, sometimes a brownish fascia along lateral exterior of femora; femora with spines always black; pretarsal claws black with pale yellow apices. Mid and hind legs mostly black or brown tending dark brown; coxae with proximal margin edged pale reddish brown; reddish brown along anterior length of femora; tibiae and tarsi brown tending dark brown. Meracanthus black with outer lateral margin and apex pale yellow.
Wings. Hyaline. Fore wing with fused stem of veins M and CuA not complete, the veins abutted rather than fused as one; venation brown; costa curving inward near arculus; infuscation distally on clavus; basal membrane grey to black. Hind wing with 6 apical cells; venation brown except for pale yellowish brown 2A and 3A; plaga muddy white to grey to pale brown; black infuscation on wing margin at distal end of vein 2A.
Opercula. For the most part not reaching distal margin of tympanal cavity; widely separated; flat other than a low rounded swelling of epimeron 3; black, sometimes yellowish brown on distal half.
Timbals with four long ribs spanning the width of timbal membrane and one much shorter anterior rib terminating before the upper end of adjacent intercalary rib.
Abdomen. Tending triangular in cross section with epipleurites reflexed inwards from junction with tergites. Tergites black with reddish brown to yellow markings. Tergite 1 black; tergite 2 black with posterior margin narrowly edged reddish brown to muddy yellow, sometimes with a reddish brown to muddy yellow spot adjacent to posterior margin on dorsal midline; tergites 3–7 black with posterior margin narrowly edged reddish brown to yellow of varying degrees; tergite 8 black with yellow posterior margin, widest around midline. Sternite I black; sternites II–VII black with posterior margin yellow to varying degrees; sternite VIII black tending yellowish brown distally.
Genitalia ( Fig. 23 View Figure 23 ). Pygofer upper lobe wide and long, in lateral view gradually tapering to a broad rounded apex. Basal pygofer lobe well developed, distally rounded in ventral view, tending flat. Secondary basal lobe small, in lateral view barely discernible. Median lobe of uncus wider than long with a rounded apex. Claspers claw-like, medium width in dorsal view, concave below, apices tending truncate in dorsal view. Aedeagus with pseudoparameres much longer than a shortened endotheca, slender, flattened in cross section, lying immediately above endotheca in lateral view, in dorsal view parallel to each other but distally curved outwards, their apices turned slightly backwards. Endotheca nearly straight, short, parallel sided, circular in cross-section, apex sloping backwards ventrally, without ornamentation.
Measurements. Range and mean (in mm) for 9♂♂; includes smallest and largest of available specimens. Length of body: 15.0–18.3 (16.8). Length of fore wing: 20.0–23.4 (21.9). Width of fore wing: 6.6–8.6 (7.6). Ratio length/width of fore wing: 2.7–3.0 (2.9). Width of head (including eyes): 5.1–6.1 (5.7). Width of pronotum (across lateral angles): 5.3–6.6 (6.0).
Distinguished from most small black cicadas by having the stems of fore wing veins M and CuA closely abutted on reaching the basal cell rather than fused as one (view under low magnification). Pauropsalta infuscata differs from those species with abutted fore wing veins M and CuA ( Pau. contigua , Pau. confinis , Pau. extensa , and some individuals of Pau. accola ), in having six apical cells in the hind wings (in both hind wings) instead of five.
The male genitalia are unique in having the following combination of characters: a large and broad upper pygofer lobe that gradually tapers to a blunt point, an endotheca lacking a ventral support and a pair of pseudoparameres that lie immediately above the endotheca in lateral view with their distal ends extending far beyond the apex of the endotheca and considerably diverging.
Song ( Fig. 23 View Figure 23 ). The song consists of a series of phrases each containing a series of clicks followed by an echeme. The number of clicks ranges from 8–18. Echemes are generally less than <1 s in length. Phrases occur at a rate of c. 0.6 per second. Dominant song frequency occurs between 4 kHz and 12 kHz.
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