Pauropsalta juncta, Owen & Moulds, 2016
Owen, Christopher L. & Moulds, Max S., 2016, Systematics and Phylogeny of the Australian Cicada Genus Pauropsalta Goding and Froggatt, 1904 and Allied Genera (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettini), Records of the Australian Museum 68 (4), pp. 117-200: 156-157
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Pauropsalta juncta n.sp.
Fig. 24 View Figure 24 , Pl. 2
Pauropsalta juncta Owen et al., 2015: 261 , nomen nudum.
Types. Holotype male (molecular voucher 03.AU.WAU.SAR.01), 50 km SW Arthur River , Western Australia, 250 m, 33°40'S 116°41'E, 5.i.2003, Moulds, Hill, Marshall & Vanderpool ( WAM) GoogleMaps . Paratypes — WESTERN AUSTRALIA: 1♂, 50 km SW Arthur River , 250 m, 33°40'S 116°41'E, 5.i.2003, Moulds, Hill, Marshall & Vanderpool ( AE) GoogleMaps . 1♂, 50 km SW Arthur River , 250 m, 33°40'S 116°41'E, 5.i.2003, Moulds, Hill, Marshall & Vanderpool ( AM) GoogleMaps . 1♂, 50 km SW Arthur River , 250 m, 33°40'S 116°41'E, 5.i.2003, Moulds, Hill, Marshall & Vanderpool ( LP) GoogleMaps . 1♂ (genitalia prep. PAU227, molecular voucher 03.AU.WAU.WOO.01), Sterling Rgs, Kalgan R. Rd , 175 m, 34°32'S 117°52'E, 8.i.2003, Moulds, Hill, Marshall & Vanderpool GoogleMaps ; 5♂♂ (molecular voucher 03.AU.WAU.SAR.02; GenBank accessions: KM377106,KM377269,KM377417,KM668332)(one genitalia prep. PAU 370), 50 km SW Arthur River, 250 m, 33°40'S 116°41'E, 5.i.2003, Moulds, Hill, Marshall & Vanderpool ( MSM) GoogleMaps . 3♂♂, 50 km SW Arthur River , 250 m, 33°40'S 116°41'E, 5.i.2003, Moulds, Hill, Marshall & Vanderpool ( WAM) GoogleMaps .
Distribution ( Fig. 24 View Figure 24 ). Southwestern Western Australia where it is known from only two localities, 50 km SW of Arthur River and the Stirling Ranges. All known specimens have been taken in January.
Habitat. Eucalypt forest where adults are usually high up in trees.
Male (Pl. 2). Head narrower than lateral angles of pronotal collar; dominantly black with muddy yellow spot at posterior midline. Postclypeus jet black with pale yellow or pale reddish brown markings; sometimes a muddy yellow marking on the dorsal proximal area; a muddy yellow or pale reddish brown mark on midline around most anterior portion; lateral margins reddish brown; transverse ridges and central groove distinct. Anteclypeus jet black. Rostrum black, occasionally tending brown proximally, reaching to about bases of hind coxae. Antennae black, sometimes white distally. Supra-antennal plates black, sometimes edged reddish brown along anterior margin.
Thorax. Pronotum black, usually with reddish brown and pale yellow markings; center of pronotum with reddish brown patches; anterior margin edged pale yellow or reddish brown; fascia along midline pale yellow, usually extending from near head towards but clearly not reaching pronotal collar; pronotal collar between lateral angles black with posterior margin edged reddish brown; lateral margin of pronotal collar not, or barely, ampliate. Mesonotum primarily black with reddish brown markings; usually a reddish brown marking on either side from, or near, anterior arms or the cruciform elevation to, or almost to, pronotum between lateral and submedian sigilla, this marking projecting inwards to varying degrees around its mid length and often meeting and sometimes thereafter extending anteriorly along midline; sometimes a reddish brown blotch between anterior arms of cruciform elevation; lower lateral area usually with a reddish brown streak; cruciform elevation black and reddish brown or black and muddy yellow, anterior arms reddish brown or muddy yellow with distal ends black, posterior arms reddish brown or dull yellow sometimes also with black and sometimes a black fascia down midline. Metanotum black at hind wing base, remainder reddish brown or dull yellow, sometimes black near dorsal midline.
Legs. Fore legs mostly black but with two reddish brown fascia to varying degrees along anterior length of femora, sometimes a brownish fascia along lateral exterior of femora; femora with spines always black; pretarsal claws muddy yellow with black apices. Mid and hind legs mostly black or brown tending dark brown; coxae with proximal margin edged pale reddish brown; reddish brown fascia along anterior and interior length of femora; tibiae and tarsi dark brown tending black, sometimes a brown to reddish brown patch proximally on tibiae. Meracanthus black with outer lateral margin and apex pale yellow.
Wings. Hyaline. Fore wing with fused stem of veins M and CuA complete, the veins fused as one; venation brown to black; costa tending to curve inwards near arculus; minimal infuscation distally on clavus; basal membrane grey to black. Hind wing with 5 apical cells; venation brown to black; plaga muddy white to grey to pale brown; black infuscation on wing margin at distal end of vein 2A.
Opercula. For the most part just reaching distal margin of tympanal cavity; widely separated; flat other than a low rounded swelling of epimeron 3; black, sometimes yellowish brown on distal half.
Timbals with four long ribs spanning the width of timbal membrane and one much shorter anterior rib terminating level with lower end of adjacent intercalary rib.
Abdomen. Tending triangular in cross section with epipleurites reflexed inwards from junction with tergites. Tergites black with reddish brown to yellow markings. Tergite 1 black; tergite 2 black, sometimes with a reddish brown spot adjacent to posterior margin on dorsal midline; tergites 3–7 black with posterior margin narrowly edged reddish brown to yellow to varying degrees; tergite 8 black, sometimes with a red spot on midline near posterior margin. Sternite I black; sternites II–VII black with posterior margin yellow and sometimes reddish brown to varying degrees; sternite VIII black tending yellowish brown distally.
Genitalia ( Fig. 24 View Figure 24 ). Pygofer upper lobe short, wider than long, in lateral view broadly rounded apically. Basal lobe rounded, flap-like lobe, slightly turned inward. Secondary basal pygofer lobe small, in lateral view about as wide as long, apex rounded, in ventral view turned interiorly. Median lobe of uncus very small, short, wider than long, tapering to small rounded apex. Claspers claw-like, medium width in dorsal view, not excavated below, apices pointed and slightly turned outwards. Aedeagus with pseudoparameres much longer than a very small endotheca, slender, round in cross section but tending flat ventrally on proximal half or more, in lateral view lying immediately above endotheca with apices curving backwards, in dorsal view parallel to each other but distally curved outwards. Endotheca nearly straight, slightly down-curved, short, parallel sided, circular in cross-section, apex slightly curved backwards in an arc ventrally, without ornamentation.
Measurements. Range and mean (in mm) for 10♂♂; includes smallest and largest of available specimens. Length of body: 15.8–18.0 (16.8). Length of fore wing: 17.9–19.9 (19.0). Width of fore wing: 6.3–7.3 (7.0). Ratio length/width of fore wing: 2.6–2.9 (2.7). Width of head (including eyes): 5.0–5.7 (5.3). Width of pronotum (across lateral angles): 5.2–5.9 (5.7).
Males can be distinguished by the following combination of characters: fore wing veins M and CuA meet the basal cell completely fused as one (view under magnification), and the upper pygofer lobe (visible without dissection) is short, broad, about as wide as long, with a broadly rounded apex (rather than long and thin or long and blinker-shaped). Females are unknown but are probably not distinguishable from Pau. conflua and those individuals of Pau. accola with the stems of veins M and CuA completely fused as one.
The male genitalia are unique amongst Pauropsalta and allied genera (i.e. those species with an infuscation on the hind wing margin at the distal end of vein 2A) in having pseudoparameres that are exceptionally long, far longer than the endotheca.
Etymology. From the Latin junctus, meaning to unite or join, referring to the complete fusion of the stems of fore wing veins M and CuA.
Song ( Fig. 24 View Figure 24 ). The song is composed of a series of phrases each with a series of clicks and an echeme. Each phrase usually begins with 7 clicks and is followed by an echeme that is less than 1 s long. The echeme is unique in that the last third of the echeme increases in frequency. Each phrase is slightly longer than 1 s. Phrases occur at a rate of c. 0.7 phrases per second. The dominant frequency starts between 5 kHz and 12 kHz followed by a modulation with the dominant frequency between 8 kHz and 15 kHz.
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