Atrapsalta vinea, Owen & Moulds, 2016
Owen, Christopher L. & Moulds, Max S., 2016, Systematics and Phylogeny of the Australian Cicada Genus Pauropsalta Goding and Froggatt, 1904 and Allied Genera (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettini), Records of the Australian Museum 68 (4), pp. 117-200: 175-177
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Atrapsalta vinea n.sp.
Fig. 34 View Figure 34
Atrapsalta vinea Owen et al., 2015: 264 , nomen nudum.
Types. Holotype male (molecular voucher 07.AU.SA.CLA.01; GenBank accessions: KM377113, KM377293,KM377469, KM377587,KM668265), S end of Clare , Main North Rd , South Australia, 33°51.565'S 138°37.158'E, 419 m, 26.i.2007, K. Hill and D. Marshall ( SAM) GoogleMaps . Paratypes —SOUTH AUSTRALIA: 2♂♂, 1♀, Penworthham , 10 km S of Clare, 10.xii.1978, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ( AE) . 4♂♂ (one genitalia prep. PAU 234, molecular voucher 07.AU.SA.CLA.02), S end of Clare , Main North Rd, 33°51.565'S 138°37.158'E, 419 m, 26.i.2007, K. Hill and D. Marshall GoogleMaps ; 2♂♂ (molecular vouchers 11.AU.SA.AGS.01 and 02), Alligator Gorge , Mt Remarkable N.P. S of Wilmington, 678 m, 32°43.938'S 138°04.791E, 7.i.2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall GoogleMaps ; 2♂♂ (molecular vouchers 11.AU.SA.AGF.01 and 02), Alligator Gorge , Mt Remarkable N.P. S of Wilmington, 647 m, 32°43.429'S 138°05.373E, 7.i.2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall GoogleMaps ; 1♂ (molecular voucher 11.AU.SA.WCP.01), Wilmington , 340 m, 32°39.703'S 138°06.591'E, 7.i.2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall ( AM) GoogleMaps . 2♂♂, Penworthham , 10 km S of Clare, 10.xii.1978, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ( DE) . 1♂, Penworthham , 10 km S of Clare, 10.xii.1978, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ( NHM) . 1♂, Penworthham , 10 km S of Clare, 10.xii.1978, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ( JO) . 2♂♂, Penworthham , 10 km S of Clare, 10.xii.1978, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ( LP) . 1♀, Clare , 27.i.1973, P. McQuillan ; 3♂♂ (one genitalia prep. PAU 361), Wilpena Pound , Flinders Ranges, 19.i.1976 ; 4♂♂, 55 km ESE of Kimba, on Kimba / Iron Knob road, 12.xii.1995, M.S. & B.J. Moulds & K.A. Kopestonsky ; 32♂♂ (genitalia prep.PAU 275 and 359), 3♀♀, Penworthham , 10 km S of Clare, 10.xii.1978, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ; 1♂ s, 4 km N of Melrose , 10.xii.1978, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ( MSM) . 1♂, Penworthham , 10 km S of Clare, 10.xii.1978, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ( PH) . 3♂♂, S end of Clare , Main North Rd, 33°51.565'S 138°37.158'E, 419 m, 26.i.2007, K. Hill and D. Marshall ( SAM) GoogleMaps .
Distribution ( Fig. 34 View Figure 34 ). South Australia where it is found south from Wilpena Pound in the Flinders Ranges to the Clare district north of Adelaide, and west to a little beyond Iron Knob. Adults have been taken during December and January but most likely occur at other times. The species appears to be common around Clare (type locality).
Habitat. Mallee and other eucalypts where adults often perch on the trunks and larger limbs.
Male. Head slightly wider than pronotal lateral margins of pronotal collar; dominantly black. Vertex with muddy yellow spot at posterior midline. Postclypeus black with pale yellow or brown markings; usually a pale yellow or brown spot on midline around most anterior portion; lateral margins and sometimes posterior margin pale yellow or brown; transverse ridges and central groove distinct. Anteclypeus jet black. Rostrum black, usually brown proximally, reaching to or almost to apices of mid coxae. Antennae black, sometimes tending dark brown distally. Supra-antennal plates black, sometimes with a brown spot on the anterior.
Thorax. Pronotum black, with pale yellow and reddish brown markings; usually anterior margin near eyes edged pale yellow or reddish brown; fascia along midline pale yellow or reddish brown, usually not extending to anterior margin and rarely reaching distal margin; pronotal collar black, often with posterior margin reddish brown; lateral margin not ampliate. Mesonotum primarily black usually with reddish brown markings; lateral margin edged reddish brown; usually a muddy yellow or reddish brown marking following parapsidal suture, sometimes extending beyond to anterior arms of the cruciform elevation, this marking sometimes faintly projecting inwards to varying degrees around mid length; cruciform elevation black with pale yellow to reddish brown markings, with a black fascia along midline, anterior and posterior arms partly black distally. Metanotum black at hind wing base, edged pale yellow, usually black near dorsal midline.
Legs. Fore legs black to dark brown; femora black with a pale yellow to reddish brown fascia along anterior and exterior length; femora with spines black, sometimes brown distally; tibiae and tarsi black to dark brown; pretarsal claws black or brown, often tending yellowish brown distally. Mid and hind legs mostly black and pale yellow with reddish brown markings; coxae with proximal margin edged reddish brown; femora black, usually with a pale yellow exterior fascia; mid leg tibiae black; hind leg tibiae black or brown tending pale yellow proximally and distally; hind leg tarsi black tending pale yellow proximally, usually with pale yellow band around mid length. Meracanthus mostly black, with distal end and lateral exterior pale yellow.
Wings. Hyaline. Fore wing with fused stem of veins M and CuA complete, the veins fused as one; venation brown; basal membrane pale grey to blackish. Hind wing with 6 apical cells; venation brown; plaga muddy white to pale brown; black infuscation at bases of CuP, 1a, 2A, and 3A and on wing margin at distal end of vein 2A, sometimes extending and across posterior margin of anal lobe.
Opercula. For the most part not reaching distal margin of tympanal cavity; widely separated; flat other than a low rounded swelling of epimeron 3; often mostly black with distal margin pale yellow or muddy yellow, sometimes mostly yellow.
Timbals with four long ribs spanning the width of timbal membrane and one much shorter anterior rib terminating level with lower end of adjacent intercalary rib.
Abdomen. Tending triangular in cross section with epipleurites reflexed inwards from junction with tergites. Tergites dominantly black with posterior margins brown or yellow to varying degrees; tergite 1 black; tergites 2–8 black, edged brown to pale yellow to varying degrees. Sternite I black to brownish black; sternites II–VII black to brownish black, usually with lateral sides and posterior margin pale yellow to varying degrees; sternite VIII muddy yellow to brown, sometimes tending black basally.
Genitalia ( Fig. 34 View Figure 34 ). Pygofer upper lobe wide and long, blinker-shaped with distal portion broadened, ventral apex bluntly hook-shaped, dorsal apex broadly rounded; basal lobe an inner spike-like projection; secondary basal lobe well-developed, in ventral view apex rounded, turned inwards slightly, ridged along much of length on outer face. Median lobe of uncus short, wider than long with a broad rounded apex. Claspers claw-like, very short, apically turned outwards, thin in ventral view, slightly concave below. Aedeagus with pseudoparameres a little longer than endotheca, slender, distally flattened in cross section, lying above endotheca in lateral view, in dorsal view parallel to each other, fused on basal fifth or so. Endotheca slightly curved, parallel sided, circular in cross-section, sclerotized but with fleshy outer covering, apex circular and finely serrated laterally and ventrally.
Female. Similar to male. Abdominal segment 9 black to dark brown with posterior lateral margins pale yellow. Ovipositor sheath extending some 0.5–1.0 mm beyond apex of abdomen; dark brown to black.
Measurements. Range and mean (in mm) for 10♂♂ and 5♀♀; includes smallest and largest of available specimens. Length of body: male 17.4–19.7 (18.4); female 18.3–19.2 (18.8). Length of fore wing: male 19.0–23.5 (20.6); female 20.3–21.6 (21.0). Width of fore wing: male 6.4–7.7 (7.3); female 7.5–8.3 (7.8). Ratio length/width of fore wing: male 3.0 (3.0); female 2.6–2.7 (2.7). Width of head (including eyes): male 5.0–5.9 (5.6); female 5.4–5.8 (5.7). Width of pronotum (across lateral angles): male 5.4–6.3 (5.9); female 5.6–6.2 (6.1).
Similar to Haemopsalta georgina and most species of Atrapsalta , but differs from all except H. georgina in having 6 cells in the hind wing (in both hind wings). Very similar to H. georgina although the distributions and habitats of the two species are very different. Differs from H. georgina in the reddish orange membranes at the wing bases and leg joints; those of H. georgina are muddy pale yellow or grey.
Unique amongst encaustica and its allies in having the pseudoparameres completely fused together on their basal fifth or so and do not curve inward towards each other throughout their length; in Atrapsalta encaustica and its allies the pseudoparameres are separated for their entire length.
Etymology. From the Latin vinum, meaning wine, and referring to the large number of vineyards in the region of South Australia where this species is found.
Song ( Fig. 34 View Figure 34 ). The introduction begins with an echeme lasting for an undetermined length. This is followed by the body of the song, which includes phrases composed of a series of pulses followed by an echeme. The number of pulses is usually near 10 and the echeme is less than 0.5 s long. Phrases typically occur at a rate of 2 per second. The frequency of the song ranges from 4–24 kHz.
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