Uradolichos rotunda, Owen & Moulds, 2016
Owen, Christopher L. & Moulds, Max S., 2016, Systematics and Phylogeny of the Australian Cicada Genus Pauropsalta Goding and Froggatt, 1904 and Allied Genera (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettini), Records of the Australian Museum 68 (4), pp. 117-200: 190-192
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Uradolichos rotunda n.sp.
Fig. 40 View Figure 40 , Pl. 5
Uradolichos rotunda Owen et al., 2015: 263 , nomen nudum.
Types. Holotype male (one molecular voucher 06.AU.WA.OPS.02) 19 km NW of Newman , 23°15.204'S 119°36.350'E, 629 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( WAM) GoogleMaps . Paratypes —WESTERN AUSTRALIA: 1♂, 1♀, 19 km NW of Newman , 23°15.204'S 119°36.350'E, 629 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( AE) GoogleMaps . 1♂, 1♀, 19 km NW of Newman , 23°15.204'S 119°36.350'E, 629 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( AJE) GoogleMaps . 1♂, 1♀, 19 km NW of Newman , 23°15.204'S 119°36.350'E, 629 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( AM) GoogleMaps . 1♂, 1♀, 19 km NW of Newman , 23°15.204'S 119°36.350'E, 629 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( ANIC) GoogleMaps . 1♂, 1♀, 19 km NW of Newman , 23°15.204'S 119°36.350'E, 629 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( DE) GoogleMaps ; 1♂, 1♀, 19 km NW of Newman , 23°15.204'S 119°36.350'E, 629 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( JO) GoogleMaps . 1♂, 1♀, 19 km NW of Newman , 23°15.204'S 119°36.350'E, 629 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( LP) GoogleMaps . 15♂♂, 16♀♀, 19 km NW of Newman , 23°15.204'S 119°36.350'E, 629 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 4♂♂, 1♀ (one molecular voucher 06.AU.WA.OPS.03; GenBank accessions: KM377137,KM377285, KM377514, KM377579,KM668330), 67 km NW of Newman, 23 °08.264'S 119°11.021'E, 702 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 13♂♂ (one genitalia prep. PAU317), 10♀♀, 13 km SE of Newman , 23°31.091'S 119°46.216'E, 568 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 4♂♂ (genitalia prep. PAU 307), Yannarie River xing, c. 72 km SW of Nanutarra Roadhouse, 22°51.92'S 114°57.09'E, 13.ii.2009, K. Hill & D. Marshall GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Tom Price , 22°41.891'S 117°47.098'E, 724 m, 14.ii.2009, K. Hill & D. Marshall GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Nanutarra / Wittenoon rd, c. 47 km NE of Tom Price, 22°21.17'S 117°54.791'E, 15.ii.2009, K. Hill & D. Marshall GoogleMaps ; 1♂, 1♀, 58 km E of Paraburdoo , 7.iii.2004, P. Hutchinson ; 3♂♂, 3♀♀, 27.8 km N of Meekatharra , 3.iii.2004, P. Hutchinson ; 1♂, 2♀♀, 45 km E of Yalgoo , 4.iii.2008, P. Hutchinson ; 3♂♂, 1♀, Charles Canyon , Cape Range, 9.iii.2008, P. Hutchinson ( MSM) . 1♂, 1♀, 19 km NW of Newman , 23°15.204'S 119°36.350'E, 629 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( NHM) GoogleMaps . 1♂, 1♀, 19 km NW of Newman , 23°15.204'S 119°36.350'E, 629 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( PH) GoogleMaps . 1♂, 1♀, 19 km NW of Newman , 23°15.204'S 119°36.350'E, 629 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( QM) GoogleMaps . 20♂♂, 20♀♀, 19 km NW of Newman , 23°15.204'S 119°36.350'E, 629 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 13♂♂, 10♀♀, 13 km SE of Newman , 23°31.091'S 119°46.216'E, 568 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds; ( WAM) GoogleMaps .
Distribution ( Fig. 40 View Figure 40 ). Western Australia from Cape Range east to the Hamersley Range and south to Yalgoo (some 200 km inland from Carnarvon). Most records are from the Hamersley Range area.Adults have been taken between mid February and mid March but their appearance is probably tied to good rainfall during warmer months. Under favourable conditions adults are sometimes found in large numbers.
Habitat. Up among the branches of eucalypt trees in open forests near the vicinity of watercourses.
Male (Pl. 5). Head small, as wide as, or narrower, than lateral margins of pronotum; dominantly black, sometimes with muddy yellow spot at posterior midline. Postclypeus jet black with pale yellow markings; usually a yellow mark on midline around mos t anterior portion; lateral margins often with yellow or orange, posterior margin sometimes similarly coloured; transverse ridges and central groove distinct. Anteclypeus jet black. Rostrum black, occasionally tending brown proximally, reaching to or just beyond apices of mid coxae. Antennae black. Supra-antennal plates black, sometimes edged yellow along anterior margin.
Thorax. Pronotum black with orange markings; usually a fascia along midline orange, usually extending from near head towards or almost to pronotal collar; sometimes a transverse orange marking dorsally abutting anterior margin of pronotal collar, usually broken at midline; pronotal collar black, sometimes with lateral angles and posterior margin orange; lateral margin of pronotal collar not ampliate. Mesonotum black with orange markings; often an orange marking on either side from, or near, anterior arms or the cruciform elevation to, or almost to, pronotum between lateral and submedian sigilla, this marking projecting inwards to varying degrees around its mid length but rarely meeting; often lower lateral margins edged orange; cruciform elevation orange to muddy orange, much of anterior arms usually black, posterior arms usually orange to muddy orange, sometimes a black fascia down midline. Metanotum black at hind wing base, remainder muddy orange, sometimes black near dorsal midline.
Legs. Fore legs mostly black but with a yellowish brown fascia to varying degrees along anterior length of femora; femora with spines always black; pretarsal claws black. Mid and hind legs mostly black or yellowish brown; coxae with proximal margin edged orange; femora black; tibiae and tarsi mostly yellowish brown. Meracanthus black with margin and apex pale yellow to varying degrees.
Wings. Hyaline. Fore wing with fused stem of veins M and CuA not complete, the veins separated or abutted rather than fused as one; venation yellow tending brown distally; apical cell 1 very narrow; hint of infuscation distally on clavus and distally on pterostigma and apical cell 1; basal membrane orange. Hind wing with 5 apical cells; venation yellowish brown tending brown distally; apical cell 1 reduced; plaga muddy white to grey to pale brown; black infuscation on wing margin at distal end of vein 2A.
Opercula. More or less following distal margin of tympanal cavity; widely separated; flat other than a low rounded swelling of epimeron 3; black, sometimes muddy yellow on distal half.
Timbals with four long ribs spanning the width of timbal membrane and one much shorter anterior rib terminating before lower end of adjacent intercalary rib.
Abdomen. Tending triangular but broadly rounded dorsally in cross section with epipleurites reflexed inwards from junction with tergites, in dorsal view tending parallel-sided. Tergites black with orange markings; tergite 1 black; tergite 2–8 black with posterior margin edged orange. Sternite I black; sternites II–VII black with posterior margin orange to varying degrees; sternite VIII black tending orange distally.
Genitalia ( Fig. 40 View Figure 40 ). Pygofer very broad in ventral view, rounded; black tending orange around upper pygofer lobes. Pygofer upper lobe short, in lateral view tending triangular with apex broadly rounded. Basal pygofer lobe small, in lateral view linear and narrow with rounded apex. Secondary basal lobe similar in shape to basal lobe but a little larger. Median lobe of uncus wider than long with a rounded apex. Claspers claw-like, apical half or so curved outwards, not concave below. Dorsal beak absent. Aedeagus with pseudoparameres longer than endotheca, flattened in cross section, lying immediately above endotheca in lateral view, in dorsal view mostly parallel to each other with distal portion turned outwards, gradually expanding in width distally until steeply tapering to soft spine-like apical terminations. Endotheca gently curved downwards, parallel sided, circular in cross-section, apex sloping backwards ventrally, without ornamentation.
Female (Pl. 5). Similar to male. Abdominal segment 9 black with lateral margins edged orange. Ovipositor sheath extending some 0.75–1.0 mm beyond apex of abdomen; dark brown to black.
Measurements. Range and mean (in mm) for 10♂♂ and 10♀♀; includes smallest and largest of available specimens. Length of body: male 13.1–17.6 (15.5); female 13.6–17.9 (15.8). Length of fore wing: male 15.1–18.4 (17.0); female 16.1–20.0 (18.3). Width of fore wing: male 5.1–6.7 (6.0); female 6.0–7.2 (6.6). Ratio length/width of fore wing: male 2.7–3.0 (2.8); female 2.7–3.0 (2.8). Width of head (including eyes): male 3.3–4.1 (3.8); female 3.6–4.3 (4.0). Width of pronotum (across lateral angles): male 4.0–5.1 (4.7); female 4.3–5.4 (4.9).
Differs from U. longipennis in having veins M and CuA meeting the cell independently and having dominantly black legs instead of light brown or yellowish legs. The male genitalia differ from those of U. longipennis in the very rounded pygofer when viewed ventrally, the claspers that strongly diverge distally and the pseudoparameres that are robust and diverge far less than those of U. longipennis .
Etymology. From the Latin rotundus meaning round, referring to the bulbous abdomen of this species.
Song ( Fig. 40 View Figure 40 ). The song is composed of a series of phrases each with a click and an echeme, while sometimes two clicks are present. Occasionally, a click immediately precedes the echeme, while the majority of the phrases only have a click after the echeme. Each echeme is usually less than 1 s in length. The frequency of the song ranges between 3 kHz and 18 kHz.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We are most grateful to Prof. Chris Simon who suggested this collaboration and provided tremendous guidance throughout the study and without her, none of this would have been possible. For many helpful comments on the manuscript we are especially grateful to Drs Tony Ewart and Lindsay Popple; their comprehensive reviews helped improve the paper considerably. We also thank them for testing the key to genera and species which helped eliminate errors and inconsistencies.
This study would not have been possible without an extensive reference collection; for helping make such a collection possible we are indebted to Barbara and Timothy Moulds who accompanied MSM on numerous field trips over many years. A special thanks also to Kathy Hill and Dave Marshall who accompanied us on many other field trips across Australia. We thank Sally Cowan for many hours of curatorial work on the collection, an important and seemingly endless task often not appreciated. To others who have provided specimens we also extend our sincere gratitude, in particular to John Cooley, Sally Cowan, Greg Daniels, George Davis, David Emery, Angus Emmott, Tony Ewart, Jack and Sue Hasenpusch, Brian Haywood, Paul Hutchinson, Rob Lachlan, David Lane, John Moss, John Olive, Lindsay Popple, Michael Powell, Susan Robertson, Stephen Smith, Alan Sundholm, Matt Williams and Terry Woodger; together they have collected numerous important Pauropsalta specimens over many years.
We would like to thank Dave Marshall and Kathy Hill for the use of song recordings. In addition, we thank them both for many productive discussions about Pauropsalta taxonomy and molecular systematics. We would also like to thank Ivan Nozaic for preparing the line drawings in this study.
We thank the curators of the following collections for access to types and other material in their care: AM (Dave Britton); ANIC (Mary Carver and Tom Weir); HOPE (Zoë Simmons); MM (Margaret Humphrey); MV (Catriona McPhee and Ken Walker); NHM (Margerison-Knight and Mick Webb); QM (Geoff Monteith and Christine Lambkin); SAM (Jan Forrest and Peter Hudson) and WAM (Terry Houston and Brian Hanich).
This project was funded in part by National Science Foundation grants to Prof. Chris Simon: NSF DEB 09-55849, NSF DEB 07-20664, and NSF DEB 05-29679. Additional funding for this project to CLO was provided by NSF DEB 10-11585, Lawrence R. Penner Endowment Fund from the Connecticut State Museum, Society of Systematic Biologists Graduate Student Research Award, and The Linnean Society of London/The Systematics Association of London Systematics Research Fund. Funding for illustrations was generously provided by the Linnean Society of New South Wales by a Joyce Vickery Research Award to MSM. The University of Connecticut Bioinformatics Facility provided computing resources for the maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses performed in this study.
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