Epicratinus Jocqué & Baert, 2005, Jocque & Baert, 2005

Gonçalves, Ricardo Antonio & Brescovit, Antonio Domingos, 2020, Taxonomic review and cladistic analysis of Neotropical spider genus Epicratinus Jocqué & Baert, 2005 (Araneae: Zodariidae) with description of eleven new species, Zootaxa 4886 (1), pp. 1-77: 11-18

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4886.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E8FBC153-BDE4-4404-9167-20B2DB1DCB14

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4333228

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/039D87F5-7E3C-FFE6-FF03-FA5ABE9D0642

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Epicratinus Jocqué & Baert, 2005
status

 

Epicratinus Jocqué & Baert, 2005   .

Tenedos: Brescovit et al. 2002: 319   , Figs 113–115 (misidentification)

Type species: Epicratinus amazonicus Jocqué & Baert, 2002: 120   .

Diagnosis. Representatives of the genus are easily recognized by the PER strongly procurve ( Figs 4 View FIGURE 4 C–D); the lateral and posterior spinnerets fused in the females and the complete absence of these spinnerets in the males ( Figs 6 View FIGURE 6 C–D), color pattern only with spots on the abdomen and patella III & IV of the with 3 spines (reverted only on male of E. vader   sp. nov., which have 4 spines) ( Figs 45B, C, E View FIGURE 45 ).

Description. See Jocqué & Baert (2005). Supplementary information and changes: medium sized spiders (3.5– 8.8).

Color: prosoma, including legs, chelicerae and sternum ranging from yellow to dark brown, dorsal abdomen usually brown with pale spots (gray, white or yellow) between pale spots; usually pale ventral abdomen, sometimes with brown bands.

High clypeus with erect bristles. Chelicerae with two small teeth in the promargin. Sternum shield-shaped with sinuous margins; both long as wide; anterior margin straight or procurve ( Fig 43F View FIGURE 43 ).

Legs: Formula 4123 or 4132. Spinulation: poor in legs I and II; greater number of spines in III and IV. I: Fe v0, d1-1-0, p0-0-1, r0; Pa v0, d0, p0, r0; Ti v1-1-0, d0, p0, r0; Me v0-0-2, d0, p0, r0. II: Fe v0, d1-1-0, p0, r0; Pa v0, d0, p0, r0; Ti v1-1-0, d0, p0, r0; Me v2-0-3, d0, p0-0-1, r0. III: Fe v0, d1-1-1, p0, r0; Pa v0, d0-0-1, p0-1-0, r0-1-0; Ti v1-1-2, d1-1-0, p1-0-1, r1-0-1; Me v2-0-2, d0-1-0, p0-1-2, r1-1-2. IV: Fe v0, d1-2-1, p0, r1-0-1; Pa v0, d0-0-1, p0-1-0, r0-1-0; Ti v1-1-2, d1-1-0, p1-0-1, r1-0-1; Me v1-1-2, d0-1-0, p1-1-2, r1-1-1. Three tarsal claws; between 7 and 22 teeth in upper ones ( Figs 5E, F View FIGURE 5 ). Trichobothria with a well-defined distal margin of the hood and the latter with transverse ridges hanging over the distal plate and the opening of the alveolus (this with a smooth distal margin) ( Fig. 5D View FIGURE 5 ): in 2 rows on Ti, in 1 line in Mt and Ta. Articulated bristles present. Encapsulated tarsal organ with rounded aperture ( Fig. 5C View FIGURE 5 ). Ventral scopula in Mt II-IV, poorly developed ( Fig. 5A View FIGURE 5 ), with typical feather-shaped bristles ( Fig. 5B View FIGURE 5 ). Elongated abdomen, oval; 6 spinnerets in females ( Fig. 6D View FIGURE 6 ), with the lateral and posterior medium spinnerets fused, having aciniform and aggregate spigots ( Fig. 6F View FIGURE 6 ), only 2 spinnerets in males ( AS) ( Fig. 6C View FIGURE 6 ). Small flat colulus with a group of setae.

Genitalia

In some studies, terms used in genitalia (especially in male) may vary significantly, and some confusion may occur on the part of the reader. Here, we unify the nomenclature in order to avoid differences in the interpretation of the palps and epigynum ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 , 2 View FIGURE 2 ).

Male palp

( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 A–C)

Femur (Fe): Without apophysis and presenting mild prolateral curvature in the median third and basic spinulation d0-1-l, p0, r0, v0.

Patella (Pa): Patellar apophysis (PA): retrolateral and distal present in Epicratinus pegasus   sp. nov. ( Fig. 19A View FIGURE 19 ): PA retrolateral with constricted base on E. stitch   sp. nov. ( Fig. 46C View FIGURE 46 ), PA distal with constricted base in E. ehonda   sp. nov. ( Fig. 25A View FIGURE 25 ) and PA distal in E. anakin   sp. nov. ( Fig. 27A View FIGURE 27 ).

Tibia (Ti): With ventral apophysis, one of the faces may be membranous, may have bristles and two dorsolateral apophyses: a short prolateral and a greater, retrolateral; with prolateral basal projection (except in the E. pegasus   sp. nov. and E. stitch   sp. nov.). Usually one-third the length of the cymbium but may be very short (half of normal) in Epicratinus pegasus   sp. nov. ( Fig. 19A View FIGURE 19 ).

—Retrolateral tibial apophysis (RTA): present, usually simple, accentuated in Epicratinus amazonicus   , E. perfidus   comb. nov., E. petropolitanus   ( Fig. 11A View FIGURE 11 ), E. pugionifer   , E. takutu   , E. zangief   sp. nov. and E. dookan   sp. nov. or reduced in E. pegasus   sp. nov., E. pikachu   sp. nov., E. stitch   sp. nov., E. ehonda   sp. nov., E. anakin   sp. nov., E. vader   sp. nov., E. omegarugal   sp. nov., E. zelda   sp. nov. and E. mauru   sp. nov. ( Fig. 46D View FIGURE 46 ) and bifid in E. perfidus   comb. nov., E. pikachu   sp. nov., E. ehonda   sp. nov., E. vader   sp. nov., E. omegarugal   sp. nov. and E. zelda   sp. nov. ( Fig. 46H View FIGURE 46 ). In addition, other apophyses may appear on the face basal retrolateral in Epicratinus perfidus   comb. nov., E. pikachu   sp. nov. and E. omegarugal   sp. nov. ( Fig. 46F View FIGURE 46 ).

—Dorsal tibial apophysis (DTA): present only in Epicratinus dookan   sp. nov. and E. mauru   sp. nov. ( Fig. 46D View FIGURE 46 ).

—Prolateral tibial apophysis (PTA): used in Jocqué & Baert (2002) to name an apophysis on the prolateral side and is present in all species of Epicratinus   ( Fig. 46G View FIGURE 46 ).

Cymbium (Cy): With thin distal portion in all species of the genus ( Fig. 46F View FIGURE 46 ).

—Basal projection of the cymbium: Jocqué & Baert (2002) and Ramírez (2014) refers to the basal projection of the cymbium as a ‘’cymbial flange’’ and according to Candiani et al. (2008) are synonyms. Here we follow Brescovit (1997), and this projection is present in all species of the genus ( Fig. 46F View FIGURE 46 ), except in Epicratinus pegasus   sp. nov. ( Fig. 19A View FIGURE 19 ) and E. stitch   sp. nov..

—Retrolateral dorsal concavity: designated as a concavity by Jocqué (2005) to accommodate RTA, is present in Epicratinus amazonicus   , E. perfidus   comb. nov., E. petropolitanus   , E. pugionifer   ( Fig. 13A View FIGURE 13 ), E. takutu   , E. zangief   sp. nov. and E. dookan   sp. nov..

Basal bulb division:

I. Petiole: sclerotinized and in all species, it has subretangular shape, as in Epicratinus perfidus   comb. nov. ( Fig. 1B View FIGURE 1 ).

II. Basal haematodocha (BH): developed in all species, hyaline and little sclerotinized ( Fig. 1B and D View FIGURE 1 ).

Median bulb division:

I. Subtegulum (St): generally, caliciform ( Fig. 1A View FIGURE 1 ). in the palp at rest, the subtegulum stands out prolaterally in Tenedos procreator   ( Fig. 47A View FIGURE 47 ), retrolaterally in Epicratinus amazonicus   ( Fig. 47B View FIGURE 47 ), E. pugionifer   and E. mauru   sp. nov., on the tegulum base in E. perfidus   comb. nov. ( Fig. 1B View FIGURE 1 ), E. zangief   sp. nov., E. pegasus   sp. nov., E. pikachu   sp. nov., E. stitch   sp. nov., E. ehonda   sp. nov., E. anakin   sp. nov., E. vader   sp. nov., E. omegarugal   sp. nov., E. zelda   sp. nov. and E. dookan   sp. nov..

II. Median haematodocha (MH): connects the subtegulum to the tegulum, flexible, short and non-expandable, occurring in all species of Colima   ( Fig. 1G View FIGURE 1 ), Epicratinus   , Ishania   and Tenedos   .

III. Tegulum (T): sclerotinized, usually oval with a large part of the spermatic duct visible and in various shapes ( Figs 1B, D, E, G View FIGURE 1 ): “U” shaped in Epicratinus perfidus   comb. nov. and Colima colima   for example ( Figs 1B, E View FIGURE 1 ); “S” inverted shape in E. amazonicus   ( Fig. 7B View FIGURE 7 ); in “S” in Tenedos procreator   .

IV. Median apophysis (MA): Jocqué & Baert (2005) used as median apophysis which is the conductor in Epicratinus   . Absent in Epicratinus   and Colima   , which is considered synapomorphy for those genera. Retrolaterally present in the tegulum of genera Tenedos   and Ishania   , has a flexible membranous base ( Fig. 1C View FIGURE 1 ).

V. Conductor (C): with concavity, often membranous. Grismado and Platnick (2008) called it “tegular extension” for species of the genus Platnickia   . Candiani et al. (2008) refers to the conductor as a “distal tegular process” for some species of the genus Tenedos   . Supports the embolus, this may be from its origin to its end, as in Tenedos procreator   ( Fig. 1C View FIGURE 1 ), supporting most of the embolus as Epicratinus petropolitanus   and E. zangief   sp. nov. ( Fig. 47E View FIGURE 47 ) or only its distal portion, as in E. perfidus   comb. nov. ( Fig. 1A View FIGURE 1 ).

VI. Tegulum special modifications:

—Ventral tegular apophysis (VTA): Baehr and Jocqué (1996) and Brescovit (1997) called it “ventral tegular projection” in Asteron   and Anyphaeninae   respectively, while Grismado and Izquierdo (2016) refer to it as “tegular membranous appendix” in Epicratinus perfidus   comb. nov., we define here as Ventral Tegular Apophysis. It occurs on the palp of the genera Colima   and Epicratinus   , except for E. pugionifer   and E. pikachu   sp. nov.. It is a distal extension of the tegulum that presents hyaline, narrow and long in E. amazonicus   , E. perfidus   comb. nov. ( Fig. 1A View FIGURE 1 ), E. petropolitanus   , E. takutu   , E. zangief   sp. nov. and E. dookan   sp. nov.; hyaline, spoon-shaped in E. stitch   sp. nov. ( Fig. 47F View FIGURE 47 ), E. ehonda   sp. nov. and E. anakin   sp. nov.; linguiform in E. omegarugal   sp. nov. and E. mauru   sp. nov. ( Figs 31C View FIGURE 31 , 37C View FIGURE 37 ); and E. pegasus   sp. nov. ( Fig. 19B View FIGURE 19 ), E. vader   sp. nov. and E. zelda   sp. nov. is hyaline, short and thin; in the genus Colima   is sclerotinized and long ( Fig. 1E and G View FIGURE 1 ).

—Tegular apophysis of the embolus base (TAEB): Jocqué & Baert (2002) refer to it as “needle-like apophysis”, Grismado and Izquierdo (2016) called it like “Tegulum thin projection”. Prolateral, present between the VTA and the embolus base, has various shapes. In Epicratinus pegasus   sp. nov. appears laminar, membranous and with subretangular apex ( Fig. 19C View FIGURE 19 ); in E. pikachu   sp. nov. is sclerotinized and hook-shaped ( Fig. 21C View FIGURE 21 ); in E. anakin   sp. nov. and E. omegarugal   sp. nov. is sclerotinized, thin and short ( Fig. 31C View FIGURE 31 ); in E. stitch   sp. nov. is sclerotinized, thin and long; in E. zangief   sp. nov. ( Fig. 47E View FIGURE 47 ) and E. dookan   sp. nov. is sclerotinized, with a membranous and subtriangular portion; in E. vader   sp. nov. is sclerotinized, long and subretangular ( Fig. 29C View FIGURE 29 ); absent in E. amazonicus   , E. pugionifer   , E. takutu   , E. zelda   sp. nov. and E. mauru   sp. nov..

—Distal tegular apophysis (DTeA): Baehr and Jocqué (1996) and Jocqué & Baert (2002) cite that this apophysis is developed in the opposite direction of the embolus ( Figs 1A, C View FIGURE 1 ), often acting as a conductor of part of the embolus, as in Epicratinus perfidus   comb. nov. ( Fig. 1A View FIGURE 1 ) or almost all its totality, as a functional conductor in Ishania aztek   ( Fig. 47C View FIGURE 47 ) and I. tentativa   .

Apical bulb division:

Embolus (E): conspicuous, sclerotinized and originating in the distal portion of the tegulum or prolaterally, base directed forward ( Fig. 1A View FIGURE 1 ) in Epicratinus perfidus   comb. nov., E. petropolitanus   , E. zangief   sp. nov., E. pegasus   sp. nov., E. pikachu   sp. nov., E. stitch   sp. nov., E. anakin   sp. nov., E. vader   sp. nov., E. omegarugal   sp. nov., E. zelda   sp. nov., E. dookan   sp. nov. and E. mauru   sp. nov.. Embolus originates in the proximal portion of the tegulum, prolaterally directed ( Fig. 47B View FIGURE 47 ) in E. amazonicus   , E. pugionifer   , E. takutu   and E. ehonda   sp. nov.. It is shown thin ( Fig. 47E View FIGURE 47 ) or laminar ( Fig. 47F View FIGURE 47 ). Short ( Fig. 21C View FIGURE 21 ) or long ( Fig. 47E View FIGURE 47 ).

Epigynum

( Figs 2 View FIGURE 2 A–F, 48E–M, 49A–I)

External structures: formed by lateral border (LB), anterior border (AB) and atrium (A).

I. lateral border (LB, Fig. 2C View FIGURE 2 ) and anterior border (AB, Fig. 2C View FIGURE 2 ): Brescovit (1997) Oliveira and Brescovit (2015) on the work with Anyphaeninae   and Xiruana   respectively, show that these borders may be present, but separate as in Xiruana gracilipes   , contrary to what occurs in Ishania aztek   , I. tentativa   , Epicratinus amazonicus   , E. petropolitanus   , E. pugionifer   , E. takutu   , E. zangief   sp. nov., E. omegarugal   sp. nov. and E. dookan   sp. nov., in which both borders are presents, sclerotinized, united in a ‘’handle’’ shape ( Fig. 2C View FIGURE 2 ), in the other Epicratinus   , Tenedos garoa   , T. hoeferi   , T. procreator   and in the genus Colima   , both borders are absent.

II. Atrium (A, Figs 2A, C, E View FIGURE 2 ): Grismado and Platnick (2008), Ramírez (2014) refer to it as “median field”. Brescovit (1997) calls atrium this area on epigynum, and it is this nomenclature that we follow here. In some atrium, a small central plate near the posterior margin may be found, generally horseshoe shaped, as in Tenedos hoeferi   , Colima manzanillo   , Epicratinus amazonicus   , E. perfidus   comb. nov., E. petropolitanus   , E. takutu   , E. pegasus   sp. nov. ( Figs 19D, E, F View FIGURE 19 ), E. pikachu   sp. nov., E. ehonda   sp. nov., E. anakin   sp. nov., E. vader   sp. nov., E. omegarugal   sp. nov., E. zelda   sp. nov., E. dookan   sp. nov. and E. mauru   sp. nov.. Some species have a central furrow in the atrium ( Ishania aztek   , E. petropolitanus   ( Fig. 48F View FIGURE 48 ) and E. zangief   sp. nov.). The copulatory opening (CO), often inconspicuous, are usually placed near the posterior border between the spermathecae ( Fig. 2B View FIGURE 2 ).

Internal structures:

I. Spermathecae (Sp): number of two, globular or oval in Colima colima   ( Fig. 48K View FIGURE 48 ), Epicratinus pikachu   sp. nov. and E. anakin   sp. nov.; in spiral in Tenedos garoa   , T. procreator   ( Fig. 48L View FIGURE 48 ); winged in Epicratinus pegasus   sp. nov.; are reniform in Tenedos hoeferi   , Ishania aztek   , I. tentativa   , E. amazonicus   , E. petropolitanus   , E. zelda   sp. nov., E. zangief   sp. nov. ( Fig. 48M View FIGURE 48 ) and in most species of the genus. They can be close or even united, as in E. amazonicus   and E. stitch   sp. nov. ( Fig. 49F View FIGURE 49 ) or very distant from each other, as in E. anakin   sp. nov. ( Fig. 49G View FIGURE 49 ).

II. Copulatory duct (CD): short and straight or slightly curved in Procydrela procursor   ( Fig. 49A View FIGURE 49 ); long and sinuous, with sharp curves in E. perfidus   comb. nov. ( Fig. 2F View FIGURE 2 ); with adjacent parallel longitudinal stretches in Ishania aztek   and I. tentativa   ( Fig. 49C View FIGURE 49 ); in encapsulated (coiled) inside of the spermathecae as in E. amazonicus   , E. petropolitanus   and E. perfidus   comb. nov. ( Fig. 2F View FIGURE 2 ).

III. Fertilization ducts (FD): at the base of the spermathecae ( Fig. 2D and F View FIGURE 2 ), generally smaller than the length of these, curved or straight, narrow.

Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil and Guyana.

Key to males of the genus Epicratinus  

1. Patella III and IV with 3 spines …........................................................................ 2

Patella III and IV with 4 spines ….......................................................... E. vader   sp. nov. 2. Palpal tibia without retrolateral concavity …............................................................... 3

Palpal tibia with retrolateral concavity …..................................................... E. stitch   sp. nov. 3. Palpal tibia with retrolateral basal projection …............................................................. 4 Palpal tibia without retrolateral basal projection …........................................................... 6

4. Cymbium without sharp retrolateral basal projection …....................................................... 5 Cymbium with sharp retrolateral basal projection …....................................... E. omegarugal   sp. nov.

5. Cymbium with hyaline semicircular retrolateral basal projection ….............................. E. pikachu   sp. nov. Cymbium without hyaline semicircular retrolateral basal projection …......................... E. perfidus   comb. nov.

6. Palpal tibia without retrolateral basal apophysis with constricted base …......................................... 7 With retrolateral basal apophysis with constricted base....................................... … E. mauru   sp. nov.

7. RTA in a retrolateral direction …......................................................................... 8 RTA towards the back of the cymbium …................................................................. 10

8. Palpal patella with simple distal apophysis …............................................................... 9 Palpal patella with distal apophysis with constricted base …..................................... E. ehonda   sp. nov.

9. TAEB sharp …......................................................................... E. anakin   sp. nov. TAEB flap form..................................................................... … E. pegasus   sp. nov.

10. VTA present …...................................................................................... 11 VTA absent …............................................................................. E. pugionifer  

11. RTA simple …...................................................................................... 12 RTA bifid …............................................................................ E. zelda   sp. nov.

12. RTA short (less than or equal to the length of the palpal tibia)…............................................... 13 RTA long (greater than the length of the palpal tibia)…...................................................... 14

13. VTA short, RTA sharp tip …................................................................. E. amazonicus VTA   long, RTA blunt tip …....................................................................... E. takutu  

14. RTA with sharp distal apex ….......................................................................... 15 RTA in the shape of an inverted boot or scythe …............................................. E. zangief   sp. nov.

15. RTA without dorsal apophysis at base...................................................... … E. petropolitanus RTA   with dorsal apophysis at base.......................................................… E. dookan   sp. nov.

Key to females of the genus Epicratinus  

1. Epigynal plate without anterior border ….................................................................. 2

Epigynal plate with anterior border …................................................................... 10

2. Globular, reniform or spiral spermathecae …............................................................... 3

Wing-shaped spermathecae…............................................................ E. pegasus   sp. nov.

3. Atrium in another format…............................................................................. 4

Atrium in triangular shape with opening at the top …............................................ E. vader   sp. nov.

4. Globular spermathecae ….............................................................................. 9

Reniform spermathecae …............................................................................. 5

5. Vulva without central groove to accommodate embolus ….................................................... 6

Vulva with central groove to accommodate the embolus ….................................. E. perfidus   comb. nov.

6. Separate spermathecae …............................................................................... 7

Spermathecae attached by outer plate …...................................................... E. stitch   sp. nov.

7. Parallel spermathecae...............................................................................… 8

Diagonal spermathecae................................................................… E. ehonda   sp. nov.

8. Spermathecae in ventral view, without transverse ‘’V’’ cut ….................................... E. mauru   sp. nov.

Spermathecae in ventral view, with transverse ‘’V’’ cut........................................ … E. zelda   sp. nov.

9. Epigynum without central plate …......................................................... E. pikachu   sp. nov.

Epigynum with central plaque in ‘’frog’s eye” shape …......................................... E. anakin   sp. nov.

10. Spermathecae with a single compartment...............................................................… 11

Spermathecae with a spiral (coiled CD) compartment …..................................................... 12

11. Circular anterior border without plate in center …............................................. E. dookan   sp. nov.

Circular anterior border with center plate in cup shape ........................................ .. E. omegarugal   sp. nov.

12. Anterior border of another shape …...................................................................... 13

Anterior border large, oval, with part of the lateral border inconspicuous near the spermathecae …........... E. pugionifer  

13. Anterior border elongate, almost touching the anterior margin ….............................................. 14

Anterior border short …............................................................................... 15

14. Anterior border in bat shape …............................................................ E. zangief   sp. nov.

Anterior border in bulb shape …............................................................ E. petropolitanus  

15. Anterior border transverse oval …............................................................. E. amazonicus  

Anterior border longitudinal oval …................................................................ E. takutu  

Clade A

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Zodariidae

Loc

Epicratinus Jocqué & Baert, 2005

Gonçalves, Ricardo Antonio & Brescovit, Antonio Domingos 2020
2020
Loc

Tenedos:

Brescovit 2002: 319
2002