Hasemania kalunga, Bertaco & Carvalho, 2010

Bertaco, Vinicius A. & Carvalho, Fernando R., 2010, New species of Hasemania (Characiformes: Characidae) from Central Brazil, with comments on the endemism of upper rio Tocantins basin, Goiás State, Neotropical Ichthyology 8 (1), pp. 27-32: 28-30

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1590/S1679-62252010000200004

persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name

Hasemania kalunga

new species

Hasemania kalunga   , new species

Figs. 1-2

Holotype. MCP 44289 View Materials , female, 53.3 mm SL, Brazil, Goiás State, Cavalcante , córrego in the road GO 241 between Cavalcante and Minaçu, tributary of rio das Almas, rio Paranã drainage, upper rio Tocantins basin, 1163 m a.s.l., 13º36’56.7”S 47º31’06.6”W, 7 Sep 2009, V. A. Bertaco, F. R. Carvalho & G. Frainer. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes. DZSJRP 12339, 12, 19.8-38.6 mm SL; MCP 44290 View Materials , 12 View Materials , 19.9-43.3 mm SL   ; MZUSP 104303 View Materials , 12 View Materials , 20.8-43.4 mm SL   ; UFRGS 11288 View Materials , 37 View Materials (ethyl alcohol anhydrous) 15.5-24.0 mm SL   ; UFRGS 11289 View Materials , 82 View Materials , 5 View Materials c&s, 15.5-53.3 mm SL, collected with the holotype   .

Diagnosis. Hasemania kalunga   is distinguished from its congeners by the number of perforated lateral line scales (11- 21 vs. 5-9, except from H. crenuchoides   and H. piatan   ), by the presence of a black vertically-elongate humeral spot (vs. absent, except from H. crenuchoides   , H. nambiquara   , and H. piatan   ), and by absence of scale sheath along anal-fin base (vs. presence, except from H. maxillaris   and H. piatan   ). Furthermore, H. kalunga   differs from H. crenuchoides   by interorbital width (27.6-31.3 vs. 34.0-35.6% of HL), and by caudal peduncle length (13.9-17.4 vs. 17.9-21.8% of SL); from H. hanseni   , H. maxillaris   , and H. nambiquara   by the number of branched anal-fin rays (12-15 vs. 16-19); from H. hanseni   , H. melanura   and H. nana   by the presence of 1-2 maxillary teeth (vs. teeth absent); and from H. piatan   by the number of principal caudal-fin rays (19 vs. 18), number of longitudinal scale serie (33-36 vs. 27-32), and by presence of caudal spot (vs. absence in H. piatan   ). Hasemania kalunga   also differs from H. nambiquara   by the absence of a broad horizontal black band in the midlateral body.

Description. Morphometric data summarized in Table 1. Body compressed and moderately deep; greatest body depth located between tip of supraoccipital spine and dorsal-fin origin. Dorsal profile of head between vertical through posterior nostril and tip of supraoccipital spine straight or slightly convex. Body profile convex from tip of supraoccipital spine to base of last dorsal-fin ray, and straight from that point to dorsal caudal peduncle margin. Ventral profile of body convex from margin of lower lip to anal-fin origin. Profile of body along anal-fin base posterodorsally slanted. Caudal peduncle deep, profile nearly straight to slightly concave along dorsal and ventral margins. Infraorbital series with five bones. Rhinosphenoid present.

Snout rounded from margin of upper lip to vertical through anterior nostrils. Mouth terminal. Maxilla extending posteriorly to vertical through middle of orbit, slightly curved, and oriented at angle of approximately 45 degrees relative to longitudinal body axis.

Two tooth rows in premaxilla: outer row with 3-4 (4*) trito pentacuspid teeth, central cusp longer; inner row with 5 teeth, gradually decreasing in length from the first to fourth, last distinctly smaller, with 5-7 cusps; central cusp longer and broader than lateral cusps. Maxilla with 1 to 3 (2*) teeth, each with 3 to 5 cusps with central cusp largest. Four anteriormost dentary teeth largest, with 5-7 cusps, and followed first by somewhat smaller tooth with 3-5 cusps, and then 5-6 distinctly smaller teeth with 1-3 cusps; central cusp in all teeth two or three times longer and broader than remaining cusps. Cusp tips slightly curved posteriorly and lingually ( Fig. 2).

Scales cycloid, with circuli on exposed area of scales and about 10-15 radii. Lateral line incomplete, pored scales 11-17 (11*, one specimen with 21, mean = 13.3, n = 28). Longitudinal scale series including lateral-line with 33-36 (33*, mean = 35.2, n = 28) scales. Scale rows between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line 5-6 (6*, mean = 5.9, n = 28); scale rows between lateral line and pelvic-fin insertion 4-5 (4*, mean = 4.9, n = 28). Predorsal scales 11-13, and arranged in regular series (11*, mean = 12, n = 27). Scales rows around caudal peduncle 14 (n = 28).Axillary scale on pelvic-fin origin and scale sheath along anal-fin base absent. Caudal-fin scales present only on it base.

Dorsal-fin rays ii,8 (ii,8*, one with ii,7, n = 28); first unbranched ray approximately one-half length of second unbranched ray. Dorsal-fin origin posterior to middle of SL and slightly posterior to vertical through pelvic-fin insertion. Adipose fin absent in all examined specimens. Anal-fin rays ii-iv,13-14 (iii,14*, rarely with 12 or 15, mean = 13.6, n = 28). First unbranched ray only apparent in the cleared and stained specimens. Longest branched anal-fin ray reaching or surpassing origin of last anal-fin ray when fin depressed. Anal-fin origin situated posterior to vertical through base of last dorsal-fin ray. Anal-fin rays of males bearing one pair of small bony hooks along posterolateral border of each segment of lepidotrichia, usually along last unbranched ray to eighth anterior branched rays. Hooks more numerous along second through fifth branched rays, and usually located along posteriormost branch and distal 1 /


to 2 /


of each ray.

Pectoral-fin rays i,10-13 (11*, mean = 11.2, n = 28). Tip of pectoral fin not reaching pelvic-fin insertion in males and females. Pelvic-fin rays i,6 (n = 28). Tip of pelvic fin reaching anal-fin origin in males, falling short of that point in females. Pelvic-fin insertion located slightly anterior to vertical through dorsal-fin origin. Pelvic fin of males usually bearing one small bony hook per lepidotrichia segment along ventromedial border of first to fifth branched rays.

Caudal-fin forked and naked, lobes approximately similar in size, slightly pointed, with 19 principal rays (n = 28). Dorsal procurrent caudal-fin rays 10-12, and ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays 9-10 (n = 5).

Precaudal vertebrae 17; caudal vertebrae 17-19; total vertebrae 34-36. Supraneurals 5-6 (n = 5). Gill-rakers on upper limb of outer gill arch 6-7, and on lower limb 10-11 (n = 5).

Color in alcohol. General body color yellowish to yellowishbrown. Dorsal and dorsolateral portions of head and body pigmented dark brown. Dorsolateral portion of body with scales bordered by dark pigment and forming reticulate pattern. One black humeral spot vertically elongate, wide in dorsal portion and narrowing ventrally; wide dorsal portion of humeral spot located over two or three scales of two to three scale series just above lateral line; narrow portion crossing lateral line at third and fourth scales and extending one or two scale series just below lateral line. Body with black pigmented midlateral stripe extending from humeral region to base of middle caudal-fin; dark pigmentation present of middle caudal-fin rays. Midlateral body stripe expanded dorsally and ventrally proximate to caudal-fin base and forming small caudal spot. Fins with scattered dark chromatophores.

Color just after fixation. Color pattern similar to described for alcohol preserved specimens. Specimens examined soon after fixation in formalin with all fins orange to yellowish pigmented.

Sexual dimorphism. Males of Hasemania kalunga   are easily differentiated by the presence of small bony hooks on the anal-, and pelvic-fin rays (see Description). Also, males and females differ in pectoral and pelvic-fin lengths, body depth ( Table 1), and anal-fin shape, which is nearly straight in males and concave in females. Females also attain larger body sizes than males. From 119 specimens fixed in formalin 10% only eight are males (31.0-39.0 mm SL), 26 are females (34.1-53.3 mm SL), and remaining are unsexed specimens (15.5-34.0 mm SL). Gill glands (Burns & Weitzman, 1996) were not found on first gill arch in males and females.

Ecological notes. All specimens of Hasemania kalunga   were collected along the margins of semilentic stretches of a shallow, clear water river, greatest depth of 1.20 m, width of 1.5 to 10 m, with sand and leaves on the bottom, with moderate submerged vegetation (mainly Poaceae   and Cyperaceae   ) and a little riparian vegetation (shrubs). Stomach contents of five specimens showed a large volume of Formicidae   , followed by Diptera, Clorophyta, unidentified vegetal organic matter, and insects fragments in lesser amount. No other fish species was collected with H. kalunga   in the type locality ( Fig. 3). The type locality is situated about 8 km upstream from Kalunga community where are located some waterfalls, e. g. Cachoeira da Santa Bárbara and Cachoeira da Capivara.

Distribution. Hasemania kalunga   is known from its type locality in the upper rio Tocantins basin, tributary of rio das Almas, Cavalcante, Goiás State, Brazil ( Fig. 4).

Etymology. The species name, kalunga   , is in reference to Comunidade Quilombo Kalunga, descendents of African slaves that lives in the region of the upper rio Tocantins basin ( Cavalcante, Teresina   de Goiás, and Monte Alegre de Goiás municipalities), in the Chapada dos Veadeiros, near the type locality. Kalunga, in Bantu language, mean protected sacred place. A noun in apposition.


Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul


Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile