Neobuthus ferrugineus ( Kraepelin, 1898 ) Kovařík & Lowe, 2012

Kovařík, František & Lowe, Graeme, 2012, Review of the genus Neobuthus Hirst, 1911 with description of a new species from Ethiopia (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Euscorpius 138, pp. 1-25 : 3-7

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Neobuthus ferrugineus ( Kraepelin, 1898 )

comb. n.

Neobuthus ferrugineus ( Kraepelin, 1898) , comb. n.

( Figs. 3–4, 28–33, 41–43, 49–66, 72)

Butheolus ferrugineus Kraepelin, 1898: 43 ; Simon, 1910: 77; Vachon, 1949: 391, figs. 461, 465; Vachon, 1952: 319, figs. 461, 465; Bücherl, 1971: 326; Kovařík, 1998: 105; Fet & Lowe, 2000: 88; Lourenço, 2001: 177; Kovařík, 2003: 137 (in part); Kovařík, 2004: 4 View Cited Treatment (in part); Lourenço, 2005: 27; Lourenço & Qi, 2006: 92–93.

Nanobuthus ferrugineus Kraepelin, 1903: 564 ; Vachon, 1980: 255.

TYPE LOCALITY AND TYPE DEPOSITORY. Djibouti, Gulf of Aden , Tadjura Bay, ZMUH .

TYPE MATERIAL EXAMINED. DJibouti, Gulf of Aden , Tadjura Bay, 1♂ (holotype), ZMUH .

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL EXAMINED. Ethiopia, Dekhata valley, near Babile , Harar, 09°12'17.9"N 42°21'53.3"E, 975 m, 17.VII.2011, 1♂, leg. F. Kovařík. Somaliland GoogleMaps , 15 km near Sheikh, Goolis Mountains , 09°58.9'N 45°10.3'E, 1247 m a.s.l. ( Figs. 63–64), 10.VII.2011, 1♂ ( Figs. 4, 32, 42, 50–51, 62), leg. F. Kovařík, FKCP GoogleMaps ; near Sheikh , 09°46.1'N 45°17.5'E, 1329 m a.s.l. ( Fig. 66), 10.-11.VII.2011, 1♀ ( Figs. 3, 29, 41, 52–53, 65), leg. F. Kovařík, FKCP GoogleMaps ; near Berbera , 10°15'30.5"N 45°06' 04.2"E, 376 m a.s.l. ( Fig. 59), 12.VII.2011, 1♂ 1♀ 1juv. ( Figs. 28, 30–31, 33, 43, 49, 54–58), leg. F. Kovařík, FKCP GoogleMaps . Somalia, Chisimaio , VI. 1980, 1♀, leg. Dorsak, FKCP .

DIAGNOSIS. Total length 20–21 mm (males) and 27–30 mm (females); carapace densely granulated with only anterior median carinae developed, area between these carinae yellow to orange; anterior margin of carapace straight or slightly convex; pectine teeth 15–16 in females, 17–21 in males; sternites without carinae; pedipalps including trochanter, metasoma and telson with sparse dark, long setae in females and short spiniform setae in males; metasomal segment V with ca. 35–40 long setae in females or short spiniform setae in males; legs I–III with bristle combs composed of long thin setae (females) or long spiniform setae (males); movable finger of pedipalp with 5–6 rows of denticles, with external and internal accessory denticles, and three distal denticles; pedipalp femur length to width ratio 2. 0–2.1 in females and 2.3 in males.

REDESCRIPTION. Adult males 20–21 mm long and adult females 27–30 mm long. For position and distribution of trichobothria of pedipalps see Fig. 47, they are identical with N. awashensis sp. n. Sexual dimorphism is noticeable. Males are substantially smaller with bristle combs composed of long spiniform setae, whereas females have bristle combs composed of long setae. All segments of metasoma and pedipalps are sparsely hirsute, with dark long setae in females ( Fig. 41) and short spiniform setae in males ( Fig. 43). Males also have longer pectines than females and are more granulated, with e.g. the chela of pedipalp granulate with carinae in males and smooth without granules in females. Other differences such as e.g. the carinae on metasoma are described below.

COLORATION. The mesosoma and carapace are dark (brown to black) with orange to yellow spots, but proportions of the colors are quite variable so that some specimens may be described as orange to yellow with brown to black spots. However, the space between the anterior median carinae on the carapace always bears an orange to yellow spot. The mesosoma bears a median black stripe and two orange stripes or only a stripe with orange spots surrounded by black. The base color of the metasoma, pedipalps and legs is yellow or orange with dark spots or reticulations. Carinae on the metasoma and rarely on the pedipalps are dark. Metasomal segment V is darker than others, with the contrast more profound in males. The chelicerae are yellow with reticulation only in anterior part, and with reddish denticles ( Fig. 28).

CARAPACE ( Figs. 28 and 31). The surface is densely granulated. Carinae are absent or inconspicuous, only anterior median carinae are well developed. The anterior margin of the carapace is straight, but in males may be slightly convex; it bears seven to eight macrosetae, which are long thin setae in females and short spiniform setae in males.

MESOSOMA. The mesosoma bears three carinae, of which the lateral pair are incomplete; in males even the median carina may be less conspicuous. The pectinal tooth count is 15–16 in females and 17–21 in males. The marginal tips of the pectines extend to the proximal half of sternite IV in females, and to the proximal half of sternite V in males. The pectines have three marginal lamellae and seven or eight middle lamellae. The lamellae bear numerous dark setae, three to six on each fulcrum; the setae are shorter in males. All sternites lack carinae; sternites may be weakly granulated, mainly in males. Sternite VII is more strongly granulated, with granulation apparent even in females.

METASOMA AND TELSON. Metasomal segments I–III bear ten or eight carinae; segment IV bears eight carinae that are complete in males, but in females only the ventrolateral carinae may be complete. Other carinae in females may be indicated only by several granules. Metasomal segment V of both sexes has only ventrolateral carinae, which in posterior halves bear several lobate granules usually more conspicuous in females. Granules on the ventral surface of segment V may form an irregular median carina in both sexes. Metasomal segments I–III are densely granulated, with granules of approximately equal size. Granules on segments IV–V are of unequal sizes and unevenly distributed, especially in females. The anal arch consists of two lobes in females, and three or four lobes in males. All segments are sparsely setose in females or spinose in males; on the fifth metasomal segment there are ca. 35–40 long setae in females or short spiniform setae in males. The telson is rather bulbous in females and rather elongate in males. The aculeus is slightly shorter than the vesicle in both sexes. The surface of the telson is bumpy, sparsely hirsute, without a subaculear tubercle, although the angular shape of the vesicle may appear like a protuberance ( Fig. 3).

LEGS. The tarsomeres bear two rows of macrosetae on the ventral surface and numerous macrosetae on the other surfaces, which on legs I–III form bristle combs. The macrosetae are thin setae in the females and spiniform setae in the males. The femur and patella may bear four to six carinae, which however may be obsolete. The femur bears only solitary macrosetae.

PEDIPALPS. The femur is granulated and bears three to five carinae; the ventroexternal carina is incomplete or absent, the other carinae are granular. The patella is granular, with seven coarsely granular carinae in males and smooth, without carinae or obsolete carinae in females. The chela is granulate with five carinae, which may be weak and incomplete in males and smooth, without granules and carinae in females. All pedipalps segments including the trochanter are sparsely hirsute, with dark long setae in females ( Fig. 41) and short spiniform setae in males ( Fig. 43). The fixed and movable fingers bear five to six rows of denticles, with external and internal accessory denticles and three distal denticles ( Fig. 49).

MEASUREMENTS IN MM. Male from Somaliland (15 km near Sheikh, Goolis Mountains, 09°58.9'N 45°10.3'E). Total length 20.2; carapace length 2.36, width 2.56; metasoma and telson length 12; first metasomal segment length 1.44, width 1.55; second metasomal segment length 1.65, width 1.45; third metasomal segment length 1.82, width 1.42; fourth metasomal segment length 2.15, width 1.40; fifth metasomal segment length 2.65, width 1.40; telson length 2.40; telson width 0.82; pedipalp femur length 1.45, width 0.62; pedipalp patella length 2.12, width 0.92; chela length 2.52; manus width 0.60; movable finger length 1.62.

Female from Somaliland (near Sheikh, 09°46.1'N 45°17.5'E). Total length 27; carapace length 3.32, width 3.80; metasoma and telson length 16.3; first metasomal segment length 1.95, width 2.20; second metasomal segment length 2.24, width 2.02; third metasomal segment length 2.36, width 2.00; fourth metasomal segment length 2.92, width 1.95; fifth metasomal segment length 3.62, width 1.87; telson length 3.32; telson width 1.37; pedipalp femur length 1.90, width 0.90; pedipalp patella length 2.60, width 1.28; chela length 3.50; manus width 0.88; movable finger length 2.35.

COMMENTS. N. ferrugineus comb. n. forms a color transition between two other species of the region, being relatively darker than N. berberensis and relatively lighter than N. awashensis sp. n. However, it must be kept in mind that the variation in color may be significant.


Zoological Museum, University of Hanoi














Neobuthus ferrugineus ( Kraepelin, 1898 )

Kovařík, František & Lowe, Graeme 2012

Nanobuthus ferrugineus

VACHON 1980: 255

Butheolus ferrugineus

LOURENCO 2005: 27
KOVARIK 2004: 4
KOVARIK 2003: 137
LOURENCO 2001: 177
VACHON 1952: 319
VACHON 1949: 391
SIMON 1910: 77
KRAEPELIN 1898: 43