Ariadna maxima ( Nicolet, 1849 )

Giroti, André Marsola & Brescovit, Antonio Domingos, 2018, The taxonomy of the American Ariadna Audouin (Araneae: Synspermiata: Segestriidae), Zootaxa 4400 (1), pp. 1-114: 20-24

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.4400.1.1

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DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5987859

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/039B87D1-FFF7-B10D-169B-FF54C79AFF71

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scientific name

Ariadna maxima ( Nicolet, 1849 )
status

 

Ariadna maxima ( Nicolet, 1849)  

Figures 9 View FIGURE 9 , 11 View FIGURE 11 , 14‒15 View FIGURE14 View FIGURE 15 , 70 View FIGURE 70

Dysdera maxima Nicolet, 1849: 341   , pl. 2, figs 6A‒D (♀ holotype from Santiago [33°26'16"S; 70°39'01"W], Chile, 1845, C. Gay leg., deposited in MNHNP-AR 9068 (4210), examined).— Keyserling (1877: 230).

Dysdera virens Nicolet, 1849: 342   (5♀ syntypes from Santiago, Chile [33°26'16"S; 70°39'01"W], 1845, C. Gay leg., deposited in MNHNP-AR 9071 (4143), examined).— Keyserling (1877: 230).— Simon (1896: 64, Syn.).— Petrunkevitch (1911: 131).

Dysdera incerta Nicolet, 1849: 342   (2♀ syntypes from Santiago, Chile [33°26'16"S; 70°39'01"W], 1845, C. Gay leg., deposited in MNHNP-AR 9072 (4132), examined).— Keyserling (1877: 230).— Simon (1896: 64, Syn.).— Petrunkevitch (1911: 131).

Dysdera coarctata Nicolet, 1849: 344   , pl. 2, figs 7A‒C (4 immature syntypes from Santiago, Chile [33°26'16"S; 70°39'01"W], 1845, C. Gay leg., deposited in MNHNP-AR 9070 (4145)), examined).— Simon (1864: 106).— Keyserling (1877: 230).— Petrunkevitch (1911: 131).— Bonnet (1956: 1619).— Beatty (1970: 469, Syn.).

Dysdera longipes Nicolet, 1849: 343   , pl. 2, fig. 8 (1♂ 2♀ syntypes from ValdiVia, Chile [39°49'51"S; 73°13'15"W], 1845, C. Gay leg., deposited in MNHNP-AR 9067 (4133), examined). — Simon (1896: 64, Syn.).— Petrunkevitch (1911: 131).

Segestria pusilla Nicolet, 1849: 345   , pl. 2, fig. 9 (Immature holotype from Chile, should be deposited in MNHNP, lost).— Brignoli (1976: 50).— NEW SYNONYMY.

Ariadna   pusilla— Giroti & Brescovit (2011: 63, Transf. from Segestria   , as nomem dubium).

Ariadna   maxima— Simon (1896: 64, Transf. from Dysdera   ; 1902: 11; 1905: 71).—O. P.- Cambridge (1898: 17).— Petrunkevitch (1911: 131).— Bonnet (1955: 734).— Beatty (1970: 469, figs 2, 18‒19, 21).— Grismado (2008: 349, figs 2, 5F‒H, 8H‒I, 9A‒D).— Giroti & Brescovit (2015: 3, figs 9A, 10A).— World Spider Catalog (2018).

Ariadna ashantica Strand, 1916: 54   (1♂ 2♀ syntypes from Ashanti [06°45'N; 01°30'W], Ghana, H. Simon leg, deposited in SMF 2810 View Materials , examined.). GoogleMaps   — NEW SYNONYMY.

Ariadna   levii— Grismado (2008: 345, in part, only the ♀ paratype, misidentification).

Synonymy. Giroti & Brescovit (2011) transferred Segestria pusilla   to Ariadna   as nomen dubium, since the unavailability of the holotype and the indefiniton of the type-locality. Considering characters from Nicolet's description, as the carapace reddish brown and light yellow legs, together with the distribution of Ariadna maxima   in Chile, this species is here proposed as a junior synonym of A. maxima   . Grismado (2008) described a female paratype of Ariadna levii   , depicting the female internal genitalia of a non-type specimen. After the examination of those specimens, we detected that the paratype actually is Ariadna maxima   , due to coloration, macrosetae pattern and leg size in relation with body size. The diffuse abdominal pattern presented by the paratype is usual to A. maxima   . On the other hand, the described and depicted genitalia in Grismado (2008: 344, figs 6D‒E) belongs to an A. levii   specimen.The oddest synonym proposal involves the African species Ariadna ashantica Strand, 1916   . In his work, Strand (1916) described this species based on a male and the cephalothorax and legs of a possible female from Ashanti region, in Ghana. After the examination of the type specimens, we identified them as A. maxima   , based on the morphology of the male palp and metatarsi I. The occurrence of A. maxima   in a locality so far away of the type locality is rather odd, but it could have occurred by anthropic introduction or even human-error handling and labeling the vial in the museum.

Additional material examined. CHILE: III Región de Atacama: Atacama Province : Copiapó, Barranquilla (27°18'41.4"S; 70°30'22.6"W), 2♀ 1imm., 10.XI.2013, A.D. Brescovit et al. leg. ( IBSP 166848 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Huasco Alto (28°12'34.0"S; 71°05'40.4"W), 2♀ 1imm., 9.XI.2013, same collectors ( IBSP 166847 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Caleta Chañaral de Aceituno , 18m (29°28'22.1"S; 71°17'33.7"W), 1♂ 6♀ 7imm., 11.XI.2013, same collectors ( IBSP 166850 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Carrizalillo , 124m (29°37'38.3"S; 71°14'37.5"W), 1♂ 2imm., same date and collectors ( IBSP 166849 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; III Región de Coquimbo: Elqui Province: La Higuera, Los Choros , Llano Choros [29°14'02.4"S; 71°22'02.4"W], 1♀, I.S. E. leg. ( LEULS) GoogleMaps   ; Los Choros [29°15'35.5"S; 71°01'41.4"W], 2♀, 25‒27.VIII.1965, D.N. et al. leg. ( LEULS) GoogleMaps   ; Los Choros, 15km de Punta Choros [29°14'27.5"S; 71°25'44.1"W], 1♀, 3.VI.2005, V. M.R. leg. ( LEULS) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀, 8.X.2005, D.V. leg. (LEULS); 1♀, 8.XI.2005, M.A. leg. (LEULS); Punta Choros [29°14'49''S; 71°27'42''W], 12♀, 25‒27.VIII.2005, D.V. et al. leg. ( LEULS) GoogleMaps   ; 2♀, 26.VIII.2005, J.P.A. leg. (LEULS); 1♀ 3imm., 6‒9.X.2005, D.A.Z. leg. (LEULS); 5♀, 19.XI.2005, D.A.Z. & L.S. leg. (LEULS); La Serena, Punta de Teatinos , 39m (29°29'29.1"S; 71°10'26.5"W), 1♀, 8.XI.2013, A.D. Brescovit et al. leg. ( IBSP 166846 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Punta de Teatinos [29°55'25.6"S; 71°15'27.3"W], 1♀, 7.XI.2006, L.S. E. leg. ( LEULS) GoogleMaps   ; Las Companias [29°52'37.7"S; 71°14'06.3"W], Llaves , 1♀, 23.VI.2007, L. Cortes leg. ( LEULS) GoogleMaps   ; Compania Baja [29°52'45.7"S; 71°14'55.7"W], 1♂, 26.III.2007, Y. L.P. leg. ( LEULS) GoogleMaps   ; Coquimbo Province: La Pampilla [29°57'32.36"S; 71°21'10.87"W], 1♀, VIII.1977, L. Alvarez leg. ( MHNS 645) GoogleMaps   ; Ovalle, La Alcaparra , 342m (30°17'10.6"S; 71°05'44.7"W), 3imm., 8.XI.2013, A.D. Brescovit et al. leg. ( IBSP 166845 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Ovalle , 337m (30°20'26.520"S; 71°6'32.580"W), 1♂ 9♀ 8imm., 8.XI.2013, A.D. Brescovit et al. leg. ( IBSP 166844 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Camino a Fray Jorge , 388m (30°21'27.8"S; 71°23'31.9"W), 3♀ 2imm., 12.XI.2013, A.D. GoogleMaps  

Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 166851); Combarbalá, La Ligua Baja (31°09'02.2"S; 71°17'07.8"W), 1♀, 7.XI.2013, A.D. Brescovit et al. leg. (IBSP 166843); Canela Baja, Camino a Canela Alta, 429m (31°13'34.4"S; 71°11'49.7"W), 2♀1imm., same date and collector (IBSP 166842); Canela Baja (31°14'36.8"S; 71°16'33.7"W), 15♀8imm., same date and collector (IBSP 166841); Choapa Province: Illapel, Valle de Pupio, Cuz-Cuz, 204m (31°24'0.07"S; 71°10'33.78"W), 1♂ 3♀ 2imm., 8.IV.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 166832); Salamanca, El Tambo, 403m (31°27'46.97"S; 71°02'24.39"W), 2♀ 3imm., same date and collectors (IBSP 166834); Salamanca, 489m (31°28'14.69"S; 70°35'31.24"W), 2♀ 1imm., same date and collectors (IBSP 166833); Los Vilos, near Puerto Punta Chungo, 19m (31°31'33.67"S; 71°17'41.02"W), 1♀ 1imm., same date and collectors (IBSP 166831); 10km S of Los Vilos [31°55'S; 71°31'W], 1♀ 1imm., I.1989, P. Goloboff leg. (MACN-Ar 10099); Los Vilos [31°55'S; 71°31'W], 3imm., 30.IX.1983, E. Maury leg. (MACN-Ar 10098); Ruta 5 km 212, Quebrada 16km N Pichidangui, 10m (32°01'00.5"S; 71°30'29.0"W), 2♂, 20.II.2005, M. Ramírez & F. Labarque leg. (MACN-Ar 10787; 10788); Pichidangui, Valle de Quillimari, 59m (32°03'53.35"S; 71°18'14.07"W), 1♀, 7.IV.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 166830); Pichidangui [32°08'S; 71°32'W], 1♂, 12.VIII.1966, E.I. Schlinger leg. (CAS 9046571); Pichidangui (32°08'14.28"S; 71°32'3.33"W), 1♀ 12imm., 20.II.2012, M.J. Ramírez et al. leg. (MACN-Ar 28670); III Región de Valparaíso: Petorca Province: Quebrada de Chivato, 1 km S of Los Molles [32°14'22"S; 71°30'54"W], 1♀, 30.IX.1988, P. Goloboff et al. leg. (MACN-Ar 10106); Papudo, 76m (32°18'11,08"S; 71°16'45,37"W), 5♀ 9imm., 9.IV.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 166835); Zapallar, La Laguna, 54m (32°23'22,56"S; 71°15'15,84"W), 15♀4imm. same date and collectors (IBSP 166836; 166837); Pichicuy [32°20'18"S; 71°27'36"W], 20m, 1♀, 9.II.1986, N.I. Platnick leg. (AMNH, paratype of A. levii   ); San Felipe de Aconcagua Province: San Felipe, El Guayacán, 370m (32°17'54,02''S; 70°33'30,02"W), 1♀, 6.IV.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 166827); San Felipe, 670m (32°25'24,96"S; 70°26'32,74"W), 2♀, same date and collectors (IBSP 166825); Putaendo, 947m (32°20'24"S; 70°25'33,63"W), 1♂ 3♀, same date and collectors (IBSP 166826); Quillota Province: Quillota, Cuesta El Melón, elev. 520m (32°52'S; 71°15'W), 1♀, 10.I.1985, N.I. Platnick & O.F. Francke leg. (AMNH); Ocoa, Borda do Parque Nacional La Campana, 355m (32°32'59,27"S; 71°03'15,11"W), 1♂ 1♀ 1imm., 23.III.2013, A.D. Brescovit et al. leg. (IBSP 166788); Ocoa, Borda do Parque Nacional La Campana, Palmas de Ocoa, 440m (32°33'36,1"S; 71°03'4,6"W), 2♀ 1imm., same date and collectors (IBSP 166789); Los Andes Province: Los Andes, Juncal, 1950m [33°02'25"S; 70°05'01"W], 1♀, I.1984, P. Goloboff leg. (MACN-Ar 10102); Valparaíso Province: Los Andes, Río Blanco, 1031m (32°30'47.88''S; 70°16'21.756''W), 3♀, 6.IV.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 166945); Casablanca [33°19'S; 71°25'W''], 1♀ 2imm. (MNRJ 1094); Juan Fernandez Islands [33°38'42,5"S; 78°49'23,48"W], Masafuera, 2♂ 4♀ 10imm., II.1978 (MHNS 765); 1♀1imm., R. Wachenknechr leg. (MNRJ 588); 1♀, Dr. Plate leg. (NHM 222.); 1♂ (NHM); 3♀2imm., 1905, Porter leg. (MNHNP-AR 7046); RM Región Metropolitana de Santiago: Santiago Province: Las Chilcas, Camino a Llaya Llay, Puente Pedro Bustos M., 616m (32°31'16,32"S; 70°30'31,32"W), 3♀ 1imm., 23.III.2013, A.D. Brescovit et al. leg. (IBSP 166787); Santiago, Caminho para Farillones, 1994m (33°12'41,4"S; 70°11'51,35"W), 2♂ 6♀ 1imm., 21.III.2013, A.D. Brescovit et al. leg. (IBSP 166783); Camino para Farillones, 1262m (33°12'46,43"S; 70°13'18,48"W), 3♂6♀2imm. (IBSP 166782); Valle Lo Campino, 482m (33°13'55,16"S; 70°26'4,84"W), 1♀, 24.III.2013, A.D. Brescovit et al. leg. (IBSP 166790); Cerro San Cristóbal, 650m (33°15'31,60"S; 70°22'45,48"W), 2♂ 15♀ 3imm., same date and collectors (IBSP 166792); Cuesta Lo Prado, 499m (33°16'29,67"S; 70°32'20,97"W), 1♂ 15♀ 5imm., same date and collectors (IBSP 166791); Guayacán, Río Colorado (33°59'S; 70°37'W), 1♀, I.1984, P. Goloboff leg. (MACN-Ar 10100); Cerro Santa Lucía [33°26'16"S; 70°39'01"W], 1♂, II.1961, A.F. Andres leg. (AMNH); Talagante [33°40'S; 70°52'W], 1♀, VII.1961, O. Ramírez leg. (AMNH); Cantillana [33°58'S; 70°58'W], 1♀, 10‒22.XII.1983, L. Irarrazaval leg. (AMNH); Santiago [33°26'16"S; 70°39'01"W], 11♀ 3imm., 20.X.2009, T.H. Kawamoto leg. (IBSP 161292; 166664); 1♀ 1imm., 1899, Silv leg. (MNHNP-AR); 1♂, 25.IV.1985 (MHNS 882); Lo Barnechea [33°22'15"S; 70°26'00"W], Puente El Ñilhue, Camia Tarellones, 1♀, I.1962, Mann leg. (MHNS 602); Cordillera Province: San José de Maipo, Cajon del Maipo, Camiño Central, Hidrelétrica Los Maitenes, 1001m (33°20'32,28"S; 70°12'17,28"W), 3♀ 1imm., 22.III.2013, A.D. Brescovit et al. leg. (IBSP 166784); San José de Maipo, Cajon del Maipo, El Manzano, 880m (33°20'51,72"S; 70°14'48,83"W), 3♂1♀1imm., same date and collectors (IBSP 166786); San José de Maipo, Cajon del Maipo, Pasando San José de Maipo, 1005m (33°24'16,91"S; 70°12'28,79"W), 2♀, same date and collectors, (IBSP 166785); San José de Maipo, Trilha para Refúgio Lagunillas [33°41'S; 70°20'W], 1♀, 3.III.2007, E. Álvares leg. (IBSP 73492); Maipo Province: Buin, Linderos [33°45'46"S; 70°44'07"W], 4♀ 3imm., V.1963, Fritz leg. (MACN- Ar 10119); Huélquen, 434m (33°29'16,79"S; 70°23'17,15"W), 1♂ 2♀ 1imm., 25.III.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 166793); Huélquen, 390m (33°31'29,78"S; 70°24'14,5"W), 1♀ 1imm., same date and collectors (IBSP 166794); VI Región de O'Higgins: Cachapoal Province: Machalí, Coya, 780m (34°07'04"S; 70°22'7,35"W), 4♀ 2imm., 5.IV.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 166828); Machalí, Coya, 873m (34°07'17,07"S; 70°18'20,05"W), 4♀, same date and collectors (IBSP 166823; 166824); Machalí, Los Nogales, 653m (34°08'4,95"S; 70°23'44,7"W), 25♀ 5imm., same date and collectors (IBSP 166821; 166822); Doñihue, camino para Doñihue, 449m (34°06'47,44"S; 70°30'25,09"W), 33♀ 4imm., 25.III.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 166795); Cachapoal, R. N. Rio de Los Ciprestes, sector Las Arpas, elev. 1066m (34°16'52,1"S; 70°27'04,2"W), 3♀ 3imm., 20. VII.2 0 10, A. Ojanguren et al. leg. (MACN-Ar 29460; 29461; 29463); Coltauco, Próximo ao Cemitério Municipal, 252m (34°10'7,96"S; 71°03'19,65"W), 5♀ 3imm., 25.III.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 16 6796); Coltauco, entre Coltauco e Telmo, 220m (34°13'40,36"S; 71°54'0,35"W), 2♂ 9♀ 1imm., 26.III.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 166797); Pichidegua, Pataguas Cerro, 117m (34°11'20,65"S; 71°13'47,31"W), 4♀ 4imm., same date and collectors (IBSP 166798); Pichidegua, 152m (34°12'25,92"S; 71°11'43,04"W), 3♂ 3♀ 4imm., same date and collectors (IBSP 166799); San Vicente [34°26'22"S; 71°04'34"W], 3♀, Silv leg. (MNHNP-AR); Itahue, 241m (35°04'31,79"S; 71°12'59,11"W), 9♀ 7imm., 26.III.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 166 802); Cardenal Caro Province: Litueche, 309m (34°32'56,04"S; 71°24'38,52"W), 14♀ 5imm., 4.IV.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 166820); Marchihue, 230m (34°11'54,42"S; 71°21'58,6"W), 6♀ 2imm, same date and collectors (IBSP 166819); Colchagua Province: Palmilla, Isla de Yaquil, 156m (34°20'25,94"S; 71°14'37,75"W), 3♀, 4.IV.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 166818); San Fernando, 346m (34°21'53,67"S; 71°00'19,26"W), 32♀8imm., same date and collectors (IBSP 166 816); Puquillay Alto, 338m (34°23'52,62"S; 71°56'51,35"W), 2♂ 12♀ 8imm., same date and collectors (IBSP 166817); Santa Cruz, Quinahue, Pista de Motocross, 185m (34°25'10,84"S; 70°11'49,16"W), 4♀ 2imm., 26.III.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 166800); Chépica, Rincón de los Navarros, 235m (34°29'22,63"S; 71°07'37,09"W), 1♀, same date and collectors, (IBSP 166801); VII Región de Maule: Curicó Province: Curicó [34°59'S; 71°14'W], 10km E Los Queñes, 1000m, 1♀, 23.II‒9.III.2001, J.E. Barriga leg. (CAS 904 6537); Curicó, Los Niches, Fundo Barriga, elev. 299m (35°03'47,4"S; 71°07'22,3"W), 1♀, 18.VII.2010, A. Ojanguren et al. leg. (MACN-Ar 29458); Talca   Province: Talca   , Cerro La Virgen, 150m (35°15'8,06"S; 71°24'41,61"W), 4♀ 1imm., 27.III.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 166803); Gil de Vilches [35°29'S; 70°58'W], 1♀, 7.I.1989, M. Ramírez leg. (MNHNP-AR 14919); 1♀2imm., 16‒17.I.1984, P. Goloboff leg. (MACN-Ar 10112; 10113); 1♀, 7‒8.I.1984, E. Maury leg. (MACN-Ar 10114); Maule Province: Maule, 178m (35°18'14,97"S; 71°25'18,55"W), 3♀, 27.III.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 166 804); Las Garzas, La Suiza, 653m (35°27'49,28"S; 70°35'50,1"W), 1♂ 10♀ 3imm., 2.II.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 166814); Tregualemu [35°57'19"S; 72°44'46"W], 2♀, II.1966, I. Moyano leg. (UCCC); Cauquenes Province: Chanco, Reserva Nacional Federico Albert, 45m (35°26'7,07"S; 72°19'15,96"W), 1♀, 27.III.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 166806); Cauquenes, Reserva Nacional Los Ruiles, 180m (35°30'1,54"S; 72°18'21,38"W), 1♀, same date and collectors (IBSP 166805); Cauquenes, Reserva Nacional Los Ruiles, elev. 174m (35°50'02,6"S; 72°30'35,7"W), 1♀ 1imm., 17.VII.2010, A. Ojanguren et al. leg. (MACN-Ar 29465); Linares Province: Linares, El Canelo [35°51'S; 71°36'W], 1♀ 7imm., X.1963, Fritz leg. (MACN-Ar 10110); VIII Región de Bío-Bío: Ñuble Province: San Fabián de Alico, Fundo El Sauce [36°33'S; 71°33'W], 1♂ 4♀ 7imm., 8‒24.I.1986, L.E. Peña leg. (AMNH); Chillán, Chillán Viejo, 142m (36°22'50,01"S; 72°02'44,91"W), 2♀, 1.IV.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 166811); Pinto, Las Trancas, 1150m (36°32'49,45"S; 71°18'24,8"W), 5♀ 9imm., same date and collectors (IBSP 166812); Chillán, Las Trancas [36°36'21"S; 72°06'13"W], 2♂ 1♀ 3imm., II.1980, L. Peña leg. (AMNH); Concepción Province: Talcahuano [36°43'S; 73°07'W], 2♀, 27.VII.1962, Mendéz leg. (UCCC); Hualpén [36°47'32"S; 73°05'44"W], 1♀, 1975, Tapia leg. (UCCC); Peñuelas [36°58'50''S;72°27'7''W], 1♀, 25.III.1978, D. Gasland leg. (UCCC); Concepción; Río Andalien [36°50'S; 73°03'W], 2♂ 4♀ 13imm., 11.I.1983, G. Muñoz leg. (AMNH); Concepción [36°50'S; 73°03'W], 1♀, 12.VIII.1979, Artigas leg. (UCCC); 1♂ 3♀ 1imm., 8.VIII.1955 (UCCC); 1♂, 14. III.2 0 0 7, L. Garavilla leg. (UCCC); 1♀ (MNRJ 3721); Chiguayante [36°55'S; 73°01'W], 3♀ 2imm., 17.II.2005, C. Solar leg. (UCCC); Coronel, Estación Escuadrón [36°55'59"S; 73°09'00"W], 2♂ 5♀ 3imm., 20.IX.1980, N. Cekalovic leg. (AMNH); Bío-Bío Province: Monte Aguila, 132m (37°02'0,16"S; 72°14'55,39"W), 8♀ 4imm., 29.III.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 16 6807); Tucapel, Huépil, 234m (37°06'23,86"S; 72°01'57,72"W), 4♀, same date and collectors (IBSP 166808); Tucapel, Polcura, 594m (37°11'6,39"S; 71°22'49,15"W), 3♀ 5imm., same date and collectors (IBSP 166809); IX Región de Araucanía: Cautín Province: Angol [37°48'S; 72°43'W], 1♂2♀1imm., 1950, D.S. Bullock leg. (CAS 9046503); Temuco [38°45'S; 72°40'W], 1♀, 26.VII.1989, C. Salazar leg. (UCCC); Malleco   Province: Collipulli [37°57'S; 72°25'W], 9♀ 14imm., 24.IV.1963, F. Mendéz Z. leg. (UCCC); XIV Región de Los Ríos: Valdivia Province: without specific data, 3♀2imm. (MNHNP-AR); X Región de Los Lagos: Osorno Province: Pucatrihue, 15m (40°19'43,6"S; 73°25'51,31"W), 2♀, 31.III.2013, A.D. Brescovit & I.L.F. Magalhães leg. (IBSP 16 6810); Llanquihue   Province: Puerto Montt [41°28'18"S; 72°56'13"W], 1♂, 12.X.2011, A. Taucare-Rios leg. (IBSP 166780); 1♂, 2012, same collector (IBSP 166781); Without specific locality data: Los Pizios?, 1♀ 1imm., F. Vidala leg. (MNHNP-AR); 1♂ 3♀ 11imm. (MNHNP-AR 7042); 1♂ (MNHNP-AR 7044); 1♂ 51♀ 22imm., X.1894, E. Wangles & Latreile leg. (MNHNP-AR 9073); 2♀ (MNRJ 42166); 7♀ 9imm. (MACN-Ar 10108); 5♀ 5imm. (NHM 90.7.1.483‒490); ARGENTINA: Neuquén Province: Lago Moquehue [38°54'12,5"S; 71°16'42,9"W], 1♀, 10.I.1985, E. Maury & Toth leg. (MACN-Ar 10097).

Diagnosis. Ariadna maxima   is similar to A. araucana   and A. lalen   n. sp. due to the morphology of the male metatarsi I and leg macrosetae pattern of females, but differ by the presence of a male metatarsi I sinuous in lateral view ( Fig. 14C‒D View FIGURE14 ), and palps rounded, with the midportion and embolus with similar size ( Fig. 15A‒B View FIGURE 15 ); females differ by the anterior receptaculum billobulated ( Figs 9B View FIGURE 9 , 15C‒D View FIGURE 15 ), with a large median glandular ducts plate and interpulmonary fold with a dorsal median membranous crack ( Fig. 9B View FIGURE 9 ).

Description. Male ( IBSP 166780). Carapace and chelicerae dark reddish brown ( Fig. 14A View FIGURE14 ). Endites brownish orange; labium dark brownish orange. Sternum brownish orange with darker margins, and four pair of fainted dark marginal areas ( Fig. 14B View FIGURE14 ). Palps brownish yellow ( Fig. 15A‒B View FIGURE 15 ). Legs brownish orange, with pairs I‒II darker and with dark pigment forming diffuse rings in the distal region of the metatarsi and tarsi ( Fig. 14C‒E View FIGURE14 ). Abdomen grayish, lighter ventrally, and with a diffuse dark dorsal pattern ( Fig. 14A‒B View FIGURE14 ). Total length 10.0; carapace 5.2 long, 3.6 wide. Palps: tibia incrassated, with the dorso-ventral diameter equal to the bulb; cymbium with a dorsal chemosensory patch; bulb sub-rectangular, mid-portion slightly shorter than the embolus; embolus thickened, slightly curved, and ending abruptly ( Fig. 15A‒B View FIGURE 15 ). Legs: slender and coated with setae ( Fig. 14C‒E View FIGURE14 ); tarsal brush of putative chemosensory setae present in legs in pairs I‒IV, but reduced in legs I, III‒IV; metatarsus I sinuous, ventrally bent in lateral view ( Fig. 14C‒D View FIGURE14 ). Leg formula: II-I-IV-III. Leg measurements: I femur 5.88, patella 2.0, tibia 5.12, metatarsus 5.52, tarsus 1.24, total 19.76; II 5.72, 2.12, 5.4, 5.76, 1.16, 20.16; III 4.28, 1.64, 3.32, 3.6, 0.92, 13.76; IV 4.72, 2.08, 3.96, 3.72, 0.96, 15.44. Macrosetae: I femur D0-0-0-0-0/1-0-2-0, P0-0-0-0-2-0-1-0; tibia P1-0-0-1-0-0-1-1-0, vp1-0-1-0-1/0-0-1-0, vr1/2-0-1-0-1-0-1-0, R1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-0; metatarsus vp1-1-1-1-0-0-1, vr1-0-0/1-1-0-0-1, r0-1-0-0-0-0-0-0 ( Fig. 14C‒E View FIGURE14 ); II femur D0-0-0-0-0/1-1/0-2-0, P0-0-0-0-1-0-1-0; tibia P0-1-0- 1-0-1-0-0, vp1-0-1-0-1-0-1-0, vr2-0-1-0-1-0-1-0, R1-1-1/0-1-1-1-1-1-1-0; metatarsus vp1-1-1-1-0-0-1, vr1-0-0/1- 1-0-0-1, r0-1-0-0-0-0-0-0; IV femur D2/1-1-1/2-1/2-0/1-1/0-1/2-1/2-1/2-1-0-0, R0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-1-0-0; tibia vp0-0-0-0-0-0-1, vr0-0-0-0-0-0-1; metatarsus vp0-0-0-0-0-0-2, vr metatarsal comb with 4 macrosetae, r0-0/1-0-0- 0-0-0.

Female ( IBSP 161292). Carapace and chelicerae dark reddish brown, almost black ( Fig. 14F View FIGURE14 ). Endites brownish orange; labium dark brownish orange. Sternum brownish orange with darker margins, and four pairs dark marginal areas ( Fig. 14G View FIGURE14 ). Palps brownish orange, darkening gradually in distal direction. Legs brownish orange, with pairs I‒II darker and with dark pigment forming diffuse rings in the distal region of metatarsi and tarsi ( Fig. 14H‒I View FIGURE14 ). Abdomen as in male ( Fig. 14F‒G View FIGURE14 ). Total length 14.24; carapace 5.96 long, 3.72 wide. Legs: robust and densely coated with setae; legs I‒II with ventro-prolateral and ventro-retrolateral tibial macrosetae of similar size, and metatarsal macrosetae of different size ( Fig. 14H‒I View FIGURE14 ). Leg formula: I-II-IV-III. Leg measurements: I femur 4.4, patella 1.92, tibia 3.6, metatarsus 3.32, tarsus 0.88, total 14.12; II 4.08, 2.0, 3.4, 3.16, 0.76, 13.4; III 3.24, 1.68, 2.32, 2.32, 0.76, 10.32; IV 4.12, 2.04, 3.36, 2.72, 0.8, 13.04. Macrosetae: I, femur D0-0-0-0-0-2-0, P0-0-0-0-2-1-0; tibia P0-1-0-1-0-1-0, vp1-0-1-0-1-0-1, vr1-0-1-0-1-0-1, R0-1-0-1-0-0/1-0; metatarsus vp1-1-1-1-1-0/1-1-1-1-1-1, vr1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1 ( Fig. 14H‒I View FIGURE14 ); II, femur D0-0-0-0-0-1/2-0, P0-0-0-0-1-1-0; tibia P0-1-0-1-0-1-0, vp1-0-1- 0-1-0-1, vr1-0-1-0-1-0-1, R0-1-0-1-0-1/0-0; metatarsus vp1-1-1-1-1/0-1-1-1-1-1-1, vr1-1-1-1-1/0-1-1/0-1-1-1-1; IV, metatarsus vp0-0-0-0-0-0-1, metatarsal comb with 4 macrosetae. Internal genitalia: anterior receptaculum with dorsal and ventral lobe with similar length, and glandular plate located in the median region of the receptaculum and proximal regions of the lobes ( Figs 9B View FIGURE 9 , 15C‒D View FIGURE 15 ).

Variation. Male (n=10): Total length 7.7‒11.15; carapace 3.9‒5.6 long, 2.7‒3.8 wide; femur I 3.7‒5.88. Female (n=10): Total length 10.43‒20.25; carapace 5.25‒7.75 long, 3.31‒5.0 wide; femur I 4.18‒5.56.

Distribution. Central and south of Chile, Argentina (Neuquén Province), and Ghana (Ashanti region) ( Fig. 70 View FIGURE 70 ).

IBSP

Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Segestriidae

Genus

Ariadna

Loc

Ariadna maxima ( Nicolet, 1849 )

Giroti, André Marsola & Brescovit, Antonio Domingos 2018
2018
Loc

Ariadna ashantica

Strand 1916: 54
1916
Loc

Dysdera maxima Nicolet, 1849 : 341

NiColet 1849: 341
1849
Loc

Dysdera virens Nicolet, 1849 : 342

NiColet 1849: 342
1849
Loc

Dysdera incerta Nicolet, 1849 : 342

NiColet 1849: 342
1849
Loc

Dysdera coarctata

Nicolet 1849: 344
1849
Loc

Dysdera longipes Nicolet, 1849 : 343

NiColet 1849: 343
1849
Loc

Segestria pusilla

Nicolet 1849: 345
1849
Loc

Ariadna

Audouin 1826
1826
Loc

Ariadna

Audouin 1826
1826
Loc

Ariadna

Audouin 1826
1826
Loc

Segestria

Latreille 1804
1804
Loc

Dysdera

Latreille 1804
1804