Crambomorphus kalaharicus, Mansell, 2018

Mansell, Mervyn W., 2018, Antlions of southern Africa: genus Crambomorphus McLachlan, 1867, including extra-limital species (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae: Palparinae: Palparini), Zootaxa 4382 (3), pp. 465-500 : 472-478

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Crambomorphus kalaharicus

sp. nov.

Crambomorphus kalaharicus sp. nov.

Figs 16–28 View FIGURES 16–17 View FIGURES18–23 View FIGURES 24–26 View FIGURES 27–28 , 73 View FIGURES 72–75 , 77 View FIGURES 76–79 , 81 View FIGURES 80–85 , 88 View FIGURES 86–91 , 92 View FIGURE 92

Etymology. Derived from the name of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park (Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park), the centre of distribution of the species.

Description. Based on holotype male, 17 male, 22 female paratypes.

Habitus ( Figs 16, 17 View FIGURES 16–17 ). Similar to C. sinuatus , but wings distinctly narrower with paler markings and distinctly more pronounced falcate tips. The sinuate stripe along the forewing hind border is very faint and much narrower than in C. sinuatus ; C. kalaharicus has more numerous biaereolate cells in the costal areas than C. sinuatus , and thoracic vestiture consistently less dense than in C. sinuatus .

Head: wider than prothorax, vertex raised, pale brown, densely speckled with black maculae and clothed with dense white recumbent setae; median black stripe extends from vertex broadening posteriorly over prothorax; frons yellow with recumbent white setae; black markings extend below toruli, clypeus and labrum yellow. Eyes large, greater than hemispherical. Antennae slightly longer than head width, black, densely clothed in short black setae, antennal toruli greater than scape diameter apart, scape bearing long white and black setae. Palps black, labial palps clavate with short tip, covered with black setae, palpimacula slit-like extending to, but not over apex ( Fig. 88 View FIGURES 86–91 ).

Thorax: prothorax short, much wider than long, pale yellowish-brown with central black stripe, a small spot on either side, lateral margins black, anterior margin raised, finely spotted, with dense fringe of long white anteriorlydirected setae and black setae posteriorly, hind margin raised with long white and black setae. Mesothorax covered with long white and black pubescence, a central black stripe divided posteriorly, black patches above wing bases. Metathorax mostly black with long white recumbent setae and velvet patches anteriorly.

Wings: very narrow, marked with brown, hind margins of both fore- and hind wings characteristically sinuate, with markedly acute falcate tips ( Figs 16, 17 View FIGURES 16–17 , 73 View FIGURES 72–75 ); crossveins pale yellow, R with alternating black and yellow, wing veins mainly devoid of setae, except for short dense fringe along C and in hypostigmatic area; hypostigmatic cells long; pterostigma miniscule, hardly discernible. Forewings with four light-brown markings; basal mark large, diffuse, apical mark divided, posterior margin with very narrow sinuate pale brown stripe in apical half. Costal area with biaereolate or bifurcate costal cells before Rs but highly variable (2–14), all veins beyond Rs unbranched; Rs arises beyond CuA fork, presectoral veins irregularly biaereolate; Mp2 (oblique vein) arises beyond Rs; CuP not fused with A1. Hind wings brown with three pale incomplete bands and pale areas basally and in costal area; biaereolate costal cells varying between 0–10; Rs arises at same level as Mp fork; presectoral crossveins biaereolate, CuA arches forward at junction with posterior branch of Mp fork, forming the typical palparine recurrent vein; CuP forks close to base, anterior branch arches and runs freely to hind margin, posterior branch fused with A1.

Legs: black with faint pale patches on tibiae, densely covered with short white and black spinose setae; forelegs with dense setal brush on tibiae, tibiae longer than tarsi in all legs, tibial spurs slender, black, curved, extending to Ta2; tarsi pitch black, shiny, Ta1–Ta4 short, Ta5 long, approximately equal to combined length of Ta1–Ta4; pretarsal claws longer than Ta1–Ta2, black, slightly curved.

Abdomen: shorter than hind wings, red in living specimens, clothed with short black setae, with some long white setae on T1 and anterior margin of T2. Male ( Figs 18–26 View FIGURES18–23 View FIGURES 24–26 ) with T9 divided, sternite IX ( Fig. 23 View FIGURES18–23 ) with rounded smooth apex; ectoprocts ( Figs 18–22 View FIGURES18–23 ) black, curved, cylindrical, apices incrassate, with short white setae dorsally, long black setae laterally, dense pad of stout curved black spines on inner surfaces and two stout spines basally; gonarcus and parameres ( Figs 24–26 View FIGURES 24–26 ) fused into a rigid cone-shaped structure, parameres slerotized, shiny black with medial tuft of sensory setae, gonarcal bulla strongly pronounced ( Fig. 26 View FIGURES 24–26 ), hypandrium internum lightly sclerotized, keel-shaped. Female (cf. Figs 13–15 View FIGURES 13–15 ) with rounded ectoprocts bearing stout fossorial spines; anterior gonapophyses rounded with long slender setae, lateral gonapohyses fused together forming a triangular shape with stout fossorial spines; pregenitalae triangular, sclerotized; spermatheca (cf. Fig. 52 View FIGURES 51–52 ) sclerotized proximally becoming slender, coiled, tapering distally with fine setae along distal region.

Larva ( Figs 27, 28 View FIGURES 27–28 ). Mature third instar larva length 35–37 mm, head width 5.2–5.6 mm, head length 5.8–6.2 mm, mandibles 6.8–6.9 mm. Mandibles black with three internal teeth. Head slightly longer than wide, rusty-red centrally, paler laterally, black posteriorly, sparsely covered with short sparse setae. Eyes comprising six facets on prominent tubercles. Prothorax rusty-red dorsally with central dark marking flanked by two narrower curved markings. Meso- and Metathorax largely blueish-black, with red spots over wing buds. Legs pale. Abdomen dark blueish-black with pale yellow marks as depicted in Fig. 27 View FIGURES 27–28 ; sternite 8 bearing distinct sclerotized fossoria (digging appendages).

Biology. Larvae inhabit loose dune sand near vegetation. They have been excavated by sieving, usually several centimetres below the surface. It is possible that they either actively hunt on the surface at night or are crepuscular ambush predators just below the surface, with the red dorsum of the head and prothorax blending with that of the surrounding red Kalahari sand. Their black coloration provides a stark contrast to larvae of Golafrus oneili (Péringuey) and Annulares annulatus (Stitz) , which occur in the same habitat but are predominantly white ( Mansell 1999, Figs 3 View FIGURES 2–3 , 4, 5 View FIGURES4–9 ). This leads to the conclusion that C. kalaharicus larvae are largely crepuscular and nocturnal, whereas the latter two species spend more time near the surface during daylight, with their white coloration being an adaptation to radiate heat thereby enabling them to tolerate the high surface temperatures more effectively ( Mansell 1999). The dark coloration of C. kalaharicus probably is an adaptation to heat retention by surfacehunting nocturnal predators. Adult flight period October to early January.

Distribution ( Fig. 92 View FIGURE 92 ). Crambomorphus kalaharicus is endemic to the Kalahari ecosystem of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa, Botswana and Namibia. It is centred and protected within the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park of South Africa and Botswana.

Type material examined. SOUTH AFRICA, Northern Cape Province: Holotype ♂. Nossob Camp, 25.25.15S 20.35.49E, 964m, 31.x.1991, M.W.Mansell, NEUR02371 . Paratypes: 1♂, Rooiputs, Kalahari Gemsbok Park, 26.19.25S 20.44.13E, 884m, 28.x.1989, M.W.Mansell, C.H.Scholtz, NEUR01223; 5♀, Nossob Camp , 25.25.15S 20.35.49E, 964m, 30.x.1989, M.W.Mansell, C.H.Scholtz, NEUR01224 ; 2♂ 8♀, same locality and collectors, 31.x.1991, NEUR02371 ; 1♀, same locality, 13.x.1975, M.G.L.Mills, NEUR02368 ; 2♂, Bayip , 25.18.19S 20.10.00 E, 1006m, 31.x.1989, M.W.Mansell, C.H.Scholtz, NEUR01225 ; 2♀, Twee Rivieren Camp , 26.28.21S 20.36.42E, 870m, 30.x.1990, M.W.Mansell, C.H.Scholtz, NEUR01271 ; 2♂ 2♀, same locality and collectors, 28.x.1991, NEUR02372 ; 1♂ 1♀, same locality, 16.i.1993, S.L.Chown, NEUR02373 ; 1♂, same locality, 25.x.1997, M.D.Picker, NEUR09581 ; 1♂, ( Wings folded), 50 km S Twee Rivieren Camp, 26.54.09S 20.41.15S, 880m, 10.xii.1985, R.B.Miller, NEUR02374 ; 1♂, Mata Mata Camp , 25.46.01S 20.00.01E, 951m, 15.xii.1974, M.G.L.Mills, NEUR02369 ; 1♀, same locality, 3.i.1978, M.W.Mansell, NEUR02370 ; 4♂, same locality, 1.xi.1997, Jager, NEUR03455 ; all of these localities are in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park . BOTSWANA: 1♂, Kang , 23.41S 22.50E, 1000m, 10.x.1988, A.Benn, NEUR01270 GoogleMaps ; 1♀, same locality, 5.x.2001, M.W.Mansell, C.H.Scholtz, NEUR05600 GoogleMaps ; 1♂ 1♀, 73 km N Kang , 23.13S 22.19E, 1000m, 4.x.2001, M.W.Mansell, C.H.Scholtz, NEUR05597 GoogleMaps ; 1♀, Xade , 22.07.21 S 22.25.01E, 1054m, Akiyama, NEUR12254 . NAMIBIA: 1♂, Ngoma Border Post , 17.54.55S 24.42.45E, 934m, 26.ix.2015, R.W.Mansell, NEUR12142 .

Additional material examined. SOUTH AFRICA, Northern Cape Province: 1♀, Twee Rivieren Camp , 15.i.1961, Burgher, TMSA00449 View Materials ( TMSA) ; 1♀, Vanzylsrus , 26.52.39S 22.03.08 E, 935m, 14.xii.1994, C.Brooks, WUSA00001 .

BOTSWANA: 1♀, Gemsbok Pan, 21.43.19S 21.24.32E, 1170m, 23.iv.1930, Vernay-Lang Kalahari Expedition, TMSA 00450 ( TMSA).


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