Pecten fumatus Reeve, 1852

Dijkstra, Henk H. & Beu, Alan G., 2018, Living Scallops of Australia and Adjacent Waters (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pectinoidea: Propeamussiidae, Cyclochlamydidae and Pectinidae), Records of the Australian Museum (Rec. Aust. Mus.) 70 (2), pp. 113-330 : 221-225

publication ID 10.3853/j.2201-4349.70.2018.1670

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Pecten fumatus Reeve, 1852


Pecten fumatus Reeve, 1852 View in CoL

Figs 55B,D–E,G–H, 56, 57A–B,F–G,I–J, 58A–D

Pecten medius Lamarck, 1819: 163 View in CoL ; Deshayes, 1836: 130; Hedley, 1902: 303; Pritchard & Gatliff, 1904a: 261; Suter, 1913: 874 (in part); May, 1921: 10; May, 1923: pl. 3, fig. 5; Iredale, 1924: 193; Finlay, 1926: 451; Cox, 1929: 203; Fleming, 1951b: 129, pl. 17, figs 1–4; Rombouts, 1991: 51, pl. 19, fig. 4; Dijkstra, 1994: 470, figs 1–3 (lectotype) (junior secondary homonym of Pecten medius Bosc, 1802 View in CoL ).

Pecten ziczac View in CoL var. b Lamarck, 1819: 164; Deshayes, 1836: 131.

Pecten fuscus “Klein View in CoL ” G. B. Sowerby II, 1842: 47, pl. 16, figs 118–119 (junior secondary homonym of Pecten fuscus Bosc, 1802 View in CoL ).

Pecten bifidus Menke, 1843: 35 View in CoL ; Philippi, 1845: 202, pl. 2, fig. 6; Tate, 1881: 402 (junior primary homonym of Pecten bifidus Münster View in CoL in Goldfuss, 1836).

Pecten lamarckii Chenu, 1843: 2 View in CoL , pl. 9, figs 7–7b [1844] (new name for Pecten ziczac View in CoL var. b of Lamarck; junior primary homonym of Pecten lamarckii Defrance, 1825 View in CoL ).

Pecten fumatus Reeve, 1852 View in CoL [Nov]: sp. 32, pl. 7, fig. 32; Tenison Woods, 1878a: 33, 56; Tate & May, 1901: 441; Fleming, 1951b: 132; Woodburn, 1990: 226; Rombouts, 1991: 50, pl. 18, fig. 8; Lamprell & Whitehead, 1992: [32], pl. 14, fig. 83; Dijkstra & Marshall, 1997: 91, pl. 13, figs 1–2; Beu & Darragh, 2001: 183; Raines & Poppe, 2006: 148–149, lower figs; pl. 94, figs 1–4; pl. 95, figs 1–3; Huber, 2010: 195.

Pecten modestus Reeve, 1852 View in CoL [Dec]: sp. 41, pl. 11, fig. 41 (junior secondary homonym of Pecten modestus Bosc, 1802 View in CoL ).

Vola fumata (Reeve) .–Angas, 1868: 933.

Pecten (Janira) fumatus Reeve. View in CoL – Smith, 1885: 307.

Pecten fumatus var. alba Tate, 1887b: 113 View in CoL .

Pecten meridionalis Tate, 1887b: 115 View in CoL ; Tate & May, 1901: 441; Rombouts, 1991: 52, pl. 19, fig 3 (junior primary homonym of Pecten meridionalis Eichwald, 1865 View in CoL ).

Notovola alba (Tate) .–Cotton & Godfrey, 1938: 92, fig. 78; Macpherson & Chapple, 1951: 145; Cotton, 1961: 96, fig. 81.

Notovola fumata (Reeve) .– Iredale, 1939: 365; Macpherson & Chapple, 1951: 145; Iredale & McMichael, 1962: 11.

Notovola preissiana Iredale, 1949: 19 View in CoL .

Notovola meridionalis (Tate) .–Allan, 1950: 279, pl. 39, fig. 1; Iredale & McMichael, 1962: 11.

Pecten jacobaeus byronensis Fleming, 1955: 108 View in CoL , fig. 1; Fleming, 1957: 10, 16, 19, 25, 40, pl. 7, fig. 3 (holotype).

Pecten benedictus albus Tate. View in CoL –Fleming, 1957: 9, 16, 17, 19, 22, 33, pl. 2, fig. 1; Ludbrook, 1978: 47; Ludbrook, 1984: 162, 279, fig. 40a.

Pecten benedictus fumatus Reeve. View in CoL –Fleming, 1957: 9, 13, 16, 17, 19, 22, 28, 32, 33, 34, pl. 1, fig. 5 (lectotype).

Pecten jacobaeus meridionalis Tate. –Fleming, 1957: 10, 12, 15, 16, 20, 22, 25, 32, 39, 40, pl. 7, fig. 4.

Pecten modestus modestus Reeve. –Fleming, 1951a: 279 (lectotype designation); Fleming, 1957: 10, 16, 19, 36, 37, 38, pl. 7, figs 5 (lectotype), 6 (paralectotype).

Notovola byronensis (Fleming) .–Iredale & McMichael, 1962: 11; Garrard, 1969: 5.

Pecten alba View in CoL [sic] Tate.–Macpherson & Gabriel, 1962: 300, fig. 341; Macpherson, 1966: 231.

Pecten fumata [sic] Reeve.–Richmond, [1990]: 46, fig. 124.

Pecten fumatus View in CoL meridionalis ” Tate.– Waller, 1991: 37, pl. 8, figs 13–14.

Comments on synonymy. For annotations, nomenclatural status and taxonomic position of Pecten medius Lamarck ,

Figure 56. Distribution of Pecten fumatus Reeve (circles) and P. dijkstrai Duncan & Wilson (stars).

1819 and Pecten ziczac var. [b] Lamarck, 1819 see Dijkstra (1994: 471).

G. B. Sowerby II (1842) described a new species, Pecten fuscus , based on Klein’s pre-Linnean name, from an unknown locality. This subsequently was redescribed by Reeve (1852) from material from Moreton Bay (southern Queensland). This species is clearly identical to P. fumatus .

Menke (1843) described the new species Pecten bifidus , from “litore occidentali Novae Hollandiae” [littoral, western Australia] collected by Dr Preiss (1838–1842). This species subsequently was figured by Philippi (1845: pl. 2 fig. 6). However, the figured specimen does not have a groove in the centre of each plica of the right valve as described by Menke. Philippi noted that it is only a variant. This species is identical to the Western Australian morph of P. fumatus .

Reeve (1852) also described the new species Pecten modestus from Australia, with bifurcated plicae on the right valve, which is similar to Menke’s description. The published type locality “Moreton Bay” is incorrect (see also Fleming, 1951a: 279), and probably should be “Swan River” (Western Australia) according to Cuming’s material in NHMUK. Observed material from Moreton Bay (S Queensland) has no bifurcated plicae. This form is identical to the Western Australian morph of P. fumatus .

Tate (1887b) introduced a new variation of the present species, Pecten fumatus var. alba , from Port Lincoln (South Australia), a geographical variant that is morphologically very close to the present species. However, intermediate variations are observed between typical eastern Australian specimens from southern Queensland and New South Wales and this variant from South Australia.

Tate (1887b) also described a new scallop from Tasmania, Pecten meridionalis , which is supposedly larger in size (up to c. 150 mm high, P. fumatus generally smaller, up to c. 100 mm high) than P. fumatus and less inflated. However, intermediates are also observed and the Tasmanian form is in our opinion a local morph of P. fumatus .

Iredale (1949) noted that Menke’s species, Pecten bifidus , was “ sunk in the synonymy of the unidentifiable medius of Lamarck” and introduced a new species name, Notovola preissiana , for the Western Australian scallop. Syntypes

Figure 57. A, B, F, G, I, J, Pecten fumatus Reeve , specimen in Fig. 55D, E; rv hinge (A), lv hinge (B), lv exterior (F), rv exterior (G), rv interior (I), lv interior (J). C–E, H, Pecten dijkstrai Duncan & Wilson, HM , 7–8 km N of tip of North West Cape, Exmouth, WA, 32–35 m; rv hinge (C), lv hinge (D), lv interior (E), rv interior (H). Scale bars represent 10 mm (A–D), 20 mm (E, H), 30 mm (F, G, I, J).

of this species are morphologically identical to Menke’s species, both with bifid plicae on the right valve, and this is also a morph of P. fumatus .

Another bifid-ribbed scallop is Pecten jacobaeus byronensis Fleming, 1955 , recorded from Byron Bay, New South Wales. The type specimen has two grooves on each rib. In our opinion this is a rare sculptural variant of P. fumatus . C. A. Fleming stated to AGB several years ago that he had been misinformed about this form; C. Hedley had sorted specimens in AM in a single collection from Byron Bay into more weakly and more strongly sculptured specimens, the latter being the type material of P. jacobaeus byronensis . Fleming agreed that it is a sculptural variant of P. fumatus .

Type data. Pecten medius Lamarck : lectotype (pr) MNHN Moll 21199, designated by Dijkstra (1994: 471), 3 paralectotypes (pr) MNHN Moll 21200. Type locality: Unknown .

Pecten fuscus G. B. Sowerby II : three syntypes (pr) NHMUK1994164 . Type locality: Moreton Bay, Queensland (listed by Reeve, 1852).

Pecten bifidus Menke : type material probably lost, not in the Seckenberg Museum (R. Janssen, pers. comm.). Type locality: “litore occidentali Novae Hollandiae ” [littoral zone of western Australia].

Pecten fumatus Reeve : three syntypes (pr) NHMUK 1950.11.14.32–34. Type locality: Sydney , New South Wales.

Pecten modestus Reeve : holotype (pr) UMZC.1382. Type locality: Moreton Bay, Australia [sic] (= Swan River , Western Australia).

Pecten fumatus var. alba Tate : holotype (pr) SAM D8920 View Materials . Type locality: Port Lincoln , South Australia.

Pecten meridionalis Tate : type material not traced. Type locality: “living on the shores of Tasmania ”.

Notovola preissiana Iredale : five syntypes (pr) AM C.090371. Type locality: Shark Bay , Western Australia.

Pecten jacobaeus byronensis Fleming : holotype (pr) AM C.005243, 2 paratypes (pr) AM C.170831. Type locality: Byron Bay, southern New South Wales.

Comments on type data. For notes on Pecten medius Lamarck, 1819 see Dijkstra (1994: 470).

Additional material examined. — AUSTRALIA: QUEENSLAND: Keppel Bay, Yeppoon, 23°08'S 150°45'E, dead (1 pr, C.119839); Capricorn Channel, 16.8 ml NE of North Reef, 23°08.4'S 152°12.3' E,dead, 115 m (1 v,C.375199); Burnett Heads, 24°46'S 152°24'E, dead (2 pr, C.097597); Bargara, 24°49'S 152°28'E, dead (5 v, C.375211); Hervey Bay, Fraser Island near Bowaraddy Creek, 25°08'S 153°07'E, dead (3 v,C.375212);Hervey Bay,Point Vernon, 25°15'S 152°49' E,dead (1 v,C.119840); Hervey Bay, Pialba, 25°17'S 152°50'E,dead (2 v,C.375216); Hervey Bay, Dundowran Beach, 25°18'S 152°46'E, alive (2 pr, C.064363; 7 pr, C.097592; 18 v, C.375200; 3 v, C.375215); Hervey Bay, S of Woody Island, 25°18.5'S 152°56'E, alive, 9 m (2 pr, C.097593); Fraser Island, Eurong, 25°31'S 153°07'E, dead (3 v, C.375208); off Wide Bay, 25°50' S 153°27.4' E, alive, 55–64 m (1 pr, C.097594; 1 pr, C.097598); Tin Can Bay, NE of Gympie, 25°55'S 153°01' E, dead (1 v, C.375213); off Double Island Point, 25°56'S 153°11'E, alive, 46–55 m (2 pr, C.375385); off Tin Can Bay, 26°09.5'S 153°18.5'E, dead, 56 m (1 v, C.375197);ESE of Noosa Heads, 26°34'S 153°40'E, dead, 128 m (4 v,C.096217);Mooloolaba,S side of Point Cartwright, 26°41'S 153°08'E,dead (1 v, C.375217); off Caloundra, 26°47'S 153°35'E, dead, 128 m (1 v, C.375198); Caloundra, 26°49'S 153°10'E, dead (2 v, C.012825; 3 v, C.054686);E of Moreton Bay, 26°55'S 153°33'E,dead, 115–176 m (1 v,C.375214);off Moreton Bay, 27°10'S 153°25'E, dead (2 pr, C.303798); Moreton Bay, 27°15'S 153°15'E, dead (2 pr, C.012169; 1 pr, C.047373);Stradbroke Island,Point Lookout, 27°26' S 153°32'E,dead (6 v,C.375207); Moreton Bay, off Dunwich, Stradbroke Island, 27°30'S 153°24' E, dead, 5–7 m (1 v, C.119842);Stradbroke Island, 27°35'S 153°28'E,dead (3 v,C.013044);South Stradbroke Island, 27°51'S 153°25' E, dead (1 v, C.375218); off Southport, 27°58'S 153°25'E, dead (1 v, C.108347; 1 v, C.120103); Surfers Paradise, 28°0'S 153°26'E, dead (many v, C.119838);Coolangatta,Point Danger, N side, 28°10'S 153°32'E,dead (8 v,C.111562). NEW SOUTH WALES: off Tweed Heads, 28°14' – 28°19'S 153°50'E, dead, 128–137 m (2 v, C.324359); Cudgen headland,Kingscliff, 28°15.47'S 153°35.03'E, dead (many v,C.091035);Hastings Point Beach, E of Murwillumbah, 28°21.82' S 153°34.73'E,dead (6 v, C.091037; many v, C.091039;3 v,C.324484);Cape Byron, 28°37.97'S 153°38.23'E, dead,(holotype (v) P.byronensis , C.005243;(paratypes (2 v) P.byronensis ,C.170831); off Byron Bay, 28°39'S 153°38'E,dead (8 v, C.092126;4 pr,C.097596);off Cape Byron, 28°43'– 28°39'S 153°51' – 153°50'E, dead, 128–139 m (1 v, C.116412); Flat Rock, N of Richmond River entrance, 28°52.2' S 153°34.6'E, dead (6 v, C.050857); off Ballina, 28°52.5'S 153°37.5'E, dead (4 v, C.070652); off Ballina, 29°02'– 28°59'S 153°48'– 153°49'E, dead, 137 m (1 v, C.116104); E of Yamba, 29°30'S 153°26.3'E, dead, 53 m (2 v,C.324360); 12 km E of Cakora Point, S of Yamba, 29°39.8'S 153°26.4'E, dead, 55 m (1 v,C.123871;2 v,C.324358);NE of Woolgoolga,29°44'– 29°50'S 153°41'– 153°39' E, dead, 165 m (1 v, C.116364); N of North Solitary Island, 29°52'– 29°48' S 153°25'– 153°26'E, dead, 64 m (1 v, C.324356; 2 v, C.324485); N of Coffs Harbour, 30°0'S 153°23'E, dead, 61 m (1 v, C.324488); E of Cape Hawke, 32°13'S 152°35'E, alive, 85 m (1 pr, C.119823); c. 3 ml off Broughton Island, off Port Stephens, 32°37'S 152°19'E, dead, 82 m (2 v, C.324489); SE of Forster, c. 15 ml offshore, 32°20' S 152°45'E, dead, 100 m (1 v,C.084226);off Port Stephens,32°40' – 32°45'S 152°15' E,dead(2 v,C.077198); Port Stephens, Hawks Nest, 32°41'S 152°10' E, dead (4 v, C.097553); Port Stephens, North Head Beach, 32°41'S 152°12'E, dead (many v, C.119832); off Port Stephens, 32°42'S 152°05'E, alive, 73 m (1 pr, C.012168; many, C.324543); off Port Stephens, 32°42.5'S 152°15'E, dead, 45.5–73 m (1 v, C.324361); Port Stephens, off Nelson Bay, 32°43'S 152°15'E, dead, 46–73 m (1 v, C.324357); off Broken Bay, 32°52' S 152°32'E, dead, 145 m (3 v, C.139736; 1 v, C.139985); off Port Stephens, 32°52'– 32°51'S 152°34' – 152°35'E, dead, 150 m (1 v, C.117926); Lake Macquarie, 33°04'S 151°36'E, alive (pr [figd spm, Reeve 1852], C.135228); Swansea, Blacksmiths Beach, 33°05'S 151°39.4'E, ocean dead, beach (many v, C.324486); Swansea Breakwater, Lake Macquarie, 33°05.2'S 151°39' E, alive (1 pr, C.324534); off Lake Macquarie, 33°05'S 151°45'E, dead, 138–146 m (1 v, C.070612); 8.8 km E of The Entrance, 33°20.4'S 151°35.5' E, dead, 40–49 m (1 v, C.324487); off Tuggerah Lake, 33°20'S 151°39.4' E, dead, 60 m (1 v, C.130936); off Norah Head, 33°20' S 151°56'E, dead, 73 m (2 pr, C.130116); E of Tuggerah, 33°20'S 152°04'E, dead, 165–183 m (4 v, C.091038); off The Entrance, 33°21.7'S 151°31'E,alive (1 pr,C.375202);Broken Bay,Patonga, 33°33'S 151°16'E,dead (4 v,C.324351);Jerusalem Bay, Cowan Creek,Hawkesbury River, outer to middle reaches, 33°35.7'S 151°12'E, dead, 12 m (1 v, C.100387); off Broken Bay, 33°43'– 33°41'S 151°46' – 151°43'E, dead, 170 m (2 v, C.115238); Sydney, S end of Collaroy Beach, 33°44'S 151°18'E, dead(1 v,C.107866);off Sydney, 33°46'S 151°43'E, dead, 176 m (1 v,C.125564);Sydney, Port Jackson,Middle Harbour,The Split, 33°48.5'S 151°14.7'E, dead (2 v, C.324474); Sydney, Middle Harbour, Clontarf, 33°48.5'S 151°15.1' E,edge of sand banks,alive (1 pr,C.119826);Sydney,Middle Harbour,Clontarf Beach, 33°48.5'S 151°15.1'E, alive (1 pr, C.324475; 1 pr, C.324544); Sydney, Middle Harbour, Chinamans Beach, 33°48.97'S 151°14.87' E, alive, 1–15 m (7 v, C.062257; 1 v, C.119829; 1 v, C.324364; 2 pr, C.324365; 8 v, C.324464; 1 v, C.324465); Sydney Harbour,Quarantaine Bay,North Head, 33°49' S 151°17'E,dead (1 v,C.324469);Sydney, Middle Harbour,Balmoral, N end of Edwards Beach, 33°49.27' S 151°15.10'E, dead (2 v, C.324470); Sydney, 6 km E of North Head, 33°49.50'S 151°21.8'E, dead, 66 m (2 v, C.324363);off Sydney, 33°50'S 151°19'E, dead (8 v,C.088887); Sydney, Port Jackson, Sow &Pigs Reef, 33°50.3' S 151°16.1'E,dead, 11–16 m (1 v, C.114544;1 pr,C.324467); Sydney, Port Jackson, near Watsons Bay, 33°50.7'S 151°16.7' E, dead (2 v, C.324471); Sydney Harbour, Nielson Park, Bottle & Glass Rocks, 33°50.94'S 151°16.13'E, dead, 7 m (1 pr, C.054578); Sydney Harbour, 33°51'S 151°14'E, dead (3 v, C.012170; many v, C.064556; 6 v, C.119836; 2 v, C.130115; 9 v, C.324479); Port Jackson, off Morts Dock, Balmain, 33°51.4' S 151°11'E, dead, 7 m (12 v, C.324449; 4 v, C.324450; 5 v, C.324451); Sydney Harbour, off Shark Bay [= Shark Island?], 33°51.6'S 151°15.4'E, dead, 15 m (1 v, C.324468); Sydney, Port Jackson, Rushcutters Bay, 33°52.5'S 151°13.9'E, dead (1 pr,C.119825); Sydney, off Coogee, 33°56'S 151°25'E, dead, 86 m (3 v, C.124257); Sydney, 5.7 km E of Minstral Point, 33°56.47' S 151°19.63' E, alive, 71–77 m (1 pr, C.324510); Botany Bay, Kyeemagh to Bay St, Brighton, 33°57.30' – 33°57.74'S 151°09.75'– 151°09.28'E, LT, dead (1 v, C.324432); Botany Bay, Bay St, Brighton to Barton St, Monterey, 33°57.74' – 33°58.53'S 151°09.28' – 151°08.95'E, LT, dead (5 v, C.324434); Sydney, 3 km E of Long Bay, 33°58.2'S 151°16.78'E, dead, 47 m (3 v,C.324455); Sydney, 1.6 km E of Malabar outlet, 33°58.25'S 151°17'E, alive, 66 m (1 pr, C.102067; 1 v, C.102068; many, C.324490; 3 pr, C.324492); Sydney, 2 km E of Long Bay, 33°58.5' S 151°17'E, alive, 66 m (2 pr, C.324452); Sydney, Little Bay, 33°58.9'S 151°15'E, alive (1 pr, C.070595); Sydney, 1.74 km E of Malabar Head, 33°58.17'S 151°17.17'E, alive, 67–73 m (many, C.324494; many, C.324495); Sydney, 1.6 km E of Malabar outlet, 33°58.25'S 151°17'E, alive, 66 m (1 pr + 5 v, C.105565; 1 pr, C.105579; 7 pr, C.324496; 1 pr, C.324498; 2 pr, C.324499; 2 pr, C.324500; 5 pr, C.324501); Sydney, 2 km SE of Long Bay, 33°58.43'S 151°16.32'E, alive, 40 m (3 pr, C.103636); Botany Bay, Yarra Bay, 33°58.76'S 151°13.69' E, dead (3 v, C.122376); E of Sydney, 33°58.77' S 151°17.05'E, alive, 66 m (3 pr, C.324505); Sydney, 2 km E of Long Bay, 33°58.83' S 151°17'E, alive, 66 m (1 pr, C.103642; 1 pr, C.302835; 2 v, C.324454; 2 pr, C.324511; 2 pr, C.324512; 1 pr, C.324514); Botany Bay, 33°59'S 151°12'E, dead (11 v, C.324481); Botany Bay, Yarra Bay, 33°59'S 151°13.3'E, dead, beach (1 v, C.324431); off Sydney, 33°59' S 151°17'– 151°20' E, alive, 42–97 m (1 pr, C.324519); Sydney, E of Little Bay, 33°59.1'S 151°16.65'E, alive, 55 m (many, C.324491); Sydney, 3.5 km E of Little Bay, 33°59.05'S 151°16.78' E, alive, 59 m (1 pr + 4 v, C.324457); Sydney, 2 km SE of Little Bay, 33°59.15'S 151°16.17'E, dead, 46 m (1 v, C.324456); Sydney, 2.63 km E of Cape Banks, 33°59.38'S 151°16.77'E, alive, 66 m (2 v, C.324352; many, C.324542); Sydney, 2.6 km ENE of Cape Banks, 33°59.43'S 151°16.77' E, alive, 66 m (1 pr, C.105566); Sydney, 2.3 km E of Malabar, 33°59.45'S 151°16.8'E, alive, 66–73 m (many, C.103639; many, C.103640; 9 pr, C.103641; 1pr + 6 v, C.105567; 1 pr, C.105568; 1 pr, C.105569; 1 pr, C.105570; 1 pr, C.105571; 1 pr + 2 v, C.324362; 1 pr, C.324459;5 v, C.324460;1 pr, C.324493;2 pr,C.324502);Sydney, 4.7 km E of Long Bay, 33°59.45'S 151°18.68' E,dead, 73 m (1 v,C.324453); off Botany Bay, 34°0'S 151°17.5'E, dead, 82 m (4 v, C.063422);Sydney, 2.2 km E of Cape Banks, 34°00.42' S 151°15.92'E, dead, 49 m (1 v, C.324458); Botany Bay, Kurnell, 34°00.58'S 151°12.38'E, alive (2 pr, C.119831; 1 pr, C.324447;1 pr,C.324448); Sydney, 4.5 km E of Malabar, 34°01.96'S 151°16.45'E,alive, 70 m (many,C.324497); Sydney, 7 km E of Malabar, 34°02.2'S 151°18.93'E,alive, 70–130 m (2 pr,C.324509);Sydney,off Cronulla, 34°03'S 151°12.5'E,dead, 70–80 m (many v,C.324430);Sydney S, Cronulla, 34°03.5'S 151°09.2'E,alive(2 pr,C.062543);Port Hacking,Gunnamatta Bay, 34°03.7'S 151°08.9' E, intertidal, dead (1 v, C.360914); Sydney, Port Hacking, Gunnamatta Bay, 34°03.95'S 151°08.55'E,alive (4 pr, C.051218; many v, C.094905; many,C.097601;2 pr,C.102331; 2 pr, C.111392; 1 v, C.324350; 3 v, C.324410; 1 pr, C.324411; 2 pr, C.324412; many, C.324413; 2 pr, C.324414; many v, C.324415; 1 pr, C.324416; 1 pr, C.324417; many, C.324418); Port Hacking, 34°04'S 151°06'E, dead (4 v, C.006494);Port Hacking, Ship Rock, 34°04.42'S 151°07.6'E, alive, 6–12 m, (1 pr, C.324435; 2 pr, C.324535; 1 pr, C.324537);Sydney,off Cronulla, 34°04'S 151°13'E,dead, 64 m (1 v,C.324440);Sydney, off Cronulla, 34°04' S 151°14'E, alive, 40–100 m (1 pr + 4 v, C.079048;11 v, C.324349; 1 v, C.324441); Port Hacking,Bundeena,Simpsons Beach, 34°05'S 151°08'E, alive (3 pr, C.324433); off Cronulla, 34°05'S 151°12'E, alive, 24 m (1 pr, C.324533); Port Hacking, off Jibbon, 34°05'S 151°13'E, alive, 85 m (many, C.119827; 10 v, C.119828; (6 v, C.324477); Port Hacking, off Jibbon, 34°05'S 151°13.5'E, dead, 80 m (6 v, C.100692); off Port Hacking, 34°05'S 151°14'E, dead, 36–64 m (1 pr, C.324443); off Wattamolla, 34°05'S 151°14.5'E,dead, 82 m (1 pr,C.086739);off Botany to Wattamolla, 34°05' S 151°14.5'E, dead, 64 m (2 pr,C.324482); off Port Hacking, 34°05' S 151°15'E, dead, 64 m (5 v, C.124254); Port Hacking, off Jibbon, 34°05'S 151°15'E, alive, 73–91 m (5 v,C.324446);E of Botany Bay, 34°06'S 151°28'E,dead, 135–165 m (2 v,C.124172; 5 v,C.124182); off Wattamolla, 34°08'S 151°15'E, dead, 73–110 m (1 v,C.324472); off Botany Bay, 34°19'– 34°20'S 151°19'– 151°18'E,dead, 161 m (4 v, C.123370);10.75 ml SE of Bulli Point, 34°20'S 150°55.8'E, dead, 128 m (8 v, C.070594); off Port Kembla, 34°20'S 151°18'E,dead, 161 m (1 v,C.155833);Bass Point,SE of Shellharbour, 34°36'S 150°55'E,alive, 37 m (5 pr,C.324539);off Shoalhaven Bight,34°46'– 34°56'S 150°50'– 150°55' E, alive, 46–55 m (1 pr, C.076113); off Shoalhaven, 34°54' – 35°0'S 150°48'E, alive (1 pr, C.324428);off Crookhaven, 34°55'S 150°54'E, dead, 64 m (3 v,C.089265); Shoalhaven Bight, 34°57'S 150°48' E, alive, 27–82 m (1 pr, C.324427); Crookhaven Bight, Whale Point, 35°00.3'S 150°49.75' E, alive, 15 m (2 pr, C.324424); Jervis Bay, Callala Point, 35°00.5'S 150°43.35' E, LT, dead (1 v, C.129704); Jervis Bay, Callala Beach, 35°01.5'S 150°41'E, dead (1 v, C.123093); Jervis Bay, 35°03'S 150°45'E, dead, 27.5 m (1 v, C.324353); Jervis Bay, Honeymoon Bay, 35°03.04'S 150°45.19'E, alive, 20 m (1 pr, C.324546); off Jervis Bay, 35°05'S 151°02'– 151°10' E, dead, 400–1000 m (many v,C.324426);off Jervis Bay, 35°05' S 150°45' E,alive, 37–124 m (1 pr,C.111360); Jervis Bay, 35°07.1'– 35°0'S 150°42.7' – 150°44.1'E, alive, 18–20 m (11 v, C.119837); Jervis Bay, Captains Beach, 35°07.96'S 150°42.75'E, dead, beach (1 v, C.324425); Bendalong, N of Lake Conjola, 35°15'S 150°32'E, ocean beach, dead (1 v, C.324429); Narooma, off Montague Island, 36°15'S 150°13'E, alive, 13–18 m (13 v, C.040697); Twofold Bay,Eden, 37°04'S 149°54.2'E,dead (1 v,C.324348);off Eden, 37°04'S 150°0'E, dead, 54–82 m (many v, C.324422;1 pr,C.324423);off Twofold Bay, 37°04'S 150°05'E, dead, 82–91 m (4 v, C.324421); SE of Eden, 37°04'S 150°21'E, dead, 269–282 m (1 v, C.324419); Twofold Bay, 37°05'S 149°54'E, alive, 18–37 m (3 pr, C.049891; 2 pr, C.119830; 2 v, C.324420); Twofold Bay, 37°05.13'S 149°55.35'E, dead, beach (2 v, C.007669); off Twofold Bay, 37°05'S 149°56'E, dead, 55 m (4 v, C.064400); Twofold Bay, 37°05'S 149°57'E, 37 m, 6 v, dead (C.088873); off Twofold Bay, 37°05'S 150°0'E, alive, 73–82 m (1 v, C.082467; 1 pr, C.102580); off Twofold Bay, 37°05'S 150°10'E, dead, 73 m (many v, C.064357; 4 v, C.068564); off Eden, 37°05'S 150°10'E,dead, 101 m (3 v, C.108313); Twofold Bay, East Boyd, 37°06.6'S 149°55'E, LWS, alive (1 pr, C.324532); 12–22 ml NNE of Green Cape, off Merimbula to Eden, 37°08'S 150°10'E, dead, 71–84 m (1 pr,C.050208); SE of Eden, 37°15'– 37°13'S 150°21'E,dead, 329–333 m (1 v, C.117012); Disaster Bay, Wonboyn Beach, 37°16'S 149°57'E, alive (1 pr, C.097686); off Green Cape area, 37°16'S 150°13'E, alive, 73 m (1 pr,C.051861); 8 ml S of Green Cape, 37°20'S 150°0'E, alive, 54 m (1 pr, C.051458). VICTORIA: Mallacoota, 37°34'S 149°56'E,dead (4 v,C.050295);SE of Gabo Island,37°43' – 37°46'S 150°08'– 150°10'E,dead, 220 m (1 v,C.375204);off Lakes Entrance, 37°53'S 147°59'E, alive (1 v, C.050307; 1 pr, C.080121; 4 pr, C.097600); Kalimna, near Lakes Entrance, 37°53' S 147°58'E (1 v [fossil], C.375161); Port Phillip Bay, Brighton Pier, 37°55'S 145°0'E, alive (6 pr, C.082535); off Lakes Entrance, 38°03'S 148°03.5'E, alive (4 pr, C.375201; 2 pr, C.375203; 1 pr, C.375205); Bass Strait, off Western Port, 38°34'S 145°10'E,alive (2 pr,C.097595). TASMANIA: Bass Strait,Flinders Island,North East River estuary, 39°44.5'S 147°58'E, dead, beach (1 v, C.375194); Circular Head, near Stanley, 40°45'S 146°18'E, alive (2 pr, C.091036); off Cape Naturaliste, 40°49.5' S 148°32.1'E, dead, 62 m (1 v, C.124187; 1 v, C.124192); Bass Strait, off Devonport & Launceston, 41°0'S 146°35'E, alive (1 pr, C.119822); Devonport, 41°10'S 146°21'E, alive (1 pr, C.375274);Henty, 42°00.5' S 145°12'E, dead (2 v,C.078073); Great Oyster Bay, 42°14.8'S 148°02.8' E, dead, 18 m (1 v, C.095206); Maria Island, 2.5 ml NE of Beaching Bay, 42°35.6'S 148°11.33'E, dead, 82.5–91.5 m (16 v, C.080194); Hobart, 42°53'S 147°19'E,dead(4 pr, C.002415;1 pr,C.117705);Hobart, Derwent River, 42°53'S 147°19'E,alive (1 pr, C.375275;5 pr,C.375277);Hobart,Sandy Bay, 42°54'S 147°20'E, dead (2 v, C.375279); Derwent Estuary, 42°55'S 147°23.5'E, alive (3 pr, C.063644); D’Entrecasteaux Channel, Kingston, Browns River, 42°58.7'S 147°19.4'E, dead (13 v, C.117674; 4 v, C.375276); D’Entrecasteaux Channel, Pierson’s, Point to SE, 43°02.7'S 147°20.83'E, dead, 14.5–16.5 m (5 v,C.375193); Tinderbox Bay, S of Hobart, 43°03'S 147°20'E,dead, 15 m (5 v,C.375280);D’Entrecasteaux Channel, 43°03.5'S 147°20.5'E, alive, 9–27 m (6 pr, C.058570; 7 pr, C.064356; 4 pr, C.097552; 5 pr, C.097554; 1 v, C.375160); D’Entrecasteaux Channel, Killora Bay, 43°05.6'S 147°19.2'E, alive, 7.5 m (3 v, C.080638;3 v,C.375195); D’Entrecasteaux Channel,0.25 ml W of Roberts Point, 43°08.6'S 147°15.33'E,dead, 18–25.5 m (many v,C.096111);D’Entrecasteaux Channel, 1 ml W of Simpsons Point, 43°14.6'S 147°15'E, dead, 9–13 m (1 v, C.375159); D’Entrecasteaux Channel, Sheepwash Bay, W side of Bruny Island, 43°15' S 147°15'E, alive, 10–12 m (3 pr,C.147519);Simpsons Bay, D’Entrecasteaux Channel,South Bruny Island, 43°17'S 147°18'E, alive (1 pr,C.054111);Mills Reef, off W coast Bruny Island, 43°19.5'S 147°14.5'E, dead (1 v, C.375278). SOUTH AUSTRALIA: Adelaide, Outer Harbour, 34°49'S 138°29'E,alive (2 pr,C.073491);Port Noarlunga,Onkaparinga Point, 35°10'S 138°27.5'E, alive, 14 m (1 pr, C.375157); St Vincents Gulf, 35°0'S 138°0'E, dead (2 pr,C.001315);Kangaroo Island,Eastern Cove,Rocky Point, 35°48'S 137°50.2'E, dead (2 v,C.375156);Tickera Bay, near Kadina, 33°46'S 137°43'E,dead (1 pr,C.094768); Upper Spencer Gulf,False Bay, 33°01'S 137°40'E,alive (1 pr, SAM D19008);Kangaroo Island, Kingscote, 35°39'S 137°38'E, dead (1 pr, C.049181); Upper Spencer Gulf, Whyalla-South, 33°05'S 137°37'38"E, alive, 12 m (1 pr, SAM D19007); Wallaroo, 33°55'S 137°36'E, LWM, alive (1 pr,C.130114);Spencer Gulf,Hardwicke Bay, 34°45'S 137°18'E,dead (2 pr,C.097599);W side of Thevenard, near Ceduna, 32°09'S 133°39'E, dead (1 v, C.375151); Nuyts Archipelago, N of St Francis Island, 32°29' S 133°18'E, dead, 20–30 m (many v,C.129155);Petrel Bay, N of St Francis Island, 32°29' S 133°18'E, dead, 20–30 m (6 v, C.375158); W of Eyre Peninsula, Streaky Bay Jetty, alive, 3–5 m (1 pr, SAM D19009); Sir Joseph Banks Group, N of rocks between Lusby and Partney Islands ,alive, 8 m (1 pr, SAM D19010);Gulf of St Vincent,PortAdelaide,Outer Harbour, alive, 2–6 m (3 pr, SAM D19011); Great Australian Bight, 50 ml SW of Cape Adieu, 32°42'S 131°27'E, dead, 79 m (8 v, C.091040). WESTERN AUSTRALIA: Great Australian Bight, 33°05'– 33°20'S 128°40'– 128°45'E, dead, 75–147 m (2 v, C.375149); GreatAustralian Bight, 33°05'S 128°40'E, dead, 75 m (3 v,C.375152);GreatAustralian Bight, 75 ml E of Rocky Point, 33°43' S 125°04'E, dead, 77–80 m (4 v, C.375154); RechercheArchipelago,off Remark Island, 34°04'S 122°0'E,dead, 37 m (1 v,C.119818); Esperance, at pier opposite Oceanarium, 33°51.7'S 121°53.6'E, dead (1 v, C.147407); GreatAustralian Bight, E of Hood Point, 34°32'S 121°31'E,dead, 158 m (1 v,C.160994); GreatAustralian Bight, E of Hood Point, 34°21'S 121°16'E,dead, 82 m (20 v,C.375148); E of Cheyne Bay, 34°55'S 119°0'E, dead, 71–76 m (19 v, C.117451);Albany, 35°03'S 117°58'E,dead (1 pr,C.010537);Albany,King George Sound,Middleton Beach, 35°01'S 117°56'E, dead (1 v, C.119817; 1 pr, C.375144); off Dunsborough, 33°36'S 115°06' E, dead, 0–3.6 m (1 v, C.086845; 1 v, C.375150);W of Bunbury, 33°03'S 114°44'E, dead, 156 m (1 v, C.074089); Fremantle, Garden Island, 32°12'S 115°40'E, dead (1 pr, C.107375);Cockburn Sound, 32°11'S 115°43'E,alive (1 pr,C.119819);Direction Bank, off Rottnest Island, 31°40.6' S 115°09.6'E,dead, 100 m (1 v,C.375153);Perth,Cottesloe Beach & nearby beaches, 31°59'S 115°45'E, dead (many v, C.119820); Shark Bay, 26°07' S 113°25'E, alive (1 pr + 4 v, C.090371; 1 pr, C.102334); Shark Bay, Peron Peninsula,Herald Bight, 25°37'S 113°33' E, flats with seaweed, dead (1 pr, C.087625); c. 48 km S of Carnarvon, 25°10'S 114°39'E, alive, 15–18 m (1 v, C.095866; 1 pr, C.375386);Carnarvon, 24°53'S 113°40'E,dead (2 v,C.069270);off Carnarvon, 24°52'S 113°36' E,dead (1 v,C.130113);Onslow area, 21°38'S 115°07'E,dead (1 pr,C.375143); near Onslow, W of Flat Island, 21°36'S 114°37'E, alive, 11–18 m (1 pr, WAM 401.73). TASMAN SEA: Lord Howe Rise, 31°34.9'S 159°00.3'E, dead, 73 m (3 v, C.375196).

Description. Shell (sub)circular, solid, up to c. 150 mm high and c. 170 mm in length, most specimens smaller; inequivalve, equilateral, left valve flat or slightly concave, right valve weakly inflated to strongly convex; auricles almost completely symmetrical; colour highly variable, right valve of most specimens paler than left. Pre-radial umbonal area of left valve smooth, c. 5 mm high.

Both valves sculptured with 15–18 simple radial plicae, with narrow plicae and broad interspaces on left valve, wide plicae and narrow interspaces on right valve. Plicae of right valve subdivided by a median groove in adult growth stage of many specimens, with flatter crests than on left valve. Commarginal microsculpture of closely spaced lamellae throughout, prominent on left valve, very weak or lacking on right valve except in radial interspaces. Internal rib carinae prominent. Dorsal margin straight. Byssal notch shallow, functional ctenolium lacking. Hinge teeth numerous, with prominent dorsal, resilial and intermediate teeth.

Dimensions. Illustrated specimens: (A) “ fumatus form”: QLD, off Wide Bay, 55 m ( AM C.097594): rv: H 69.6, L 81.8 mm; lv: H 64.9, L 80.0 mm; D 23.5 mm; NSW, Sydney , Port Hacking , Gunnamatta Bay, ELWS ( AM C.324414): rv: H 81.9, L 90.7 mm; lv: H 72.5, L 88.8 mm; D 33.4 mm; (B) “ preissiana form”: WA, Shark Bay, prawn trawl ( AM C.102334): rv: H 67.5, L 75.8 mm; lv: H 61.6, L 73.9 mm; D 25.8 mm; (C) “ meridionalis form”: TAS, Maria Island , 2.5 miles N of Beaching Bay, 82.5–91.5 m ( AM C.080194): rv: H 97.3, L 107.4 mm; lv: H 91.7, L 103.0 mm; D 27.7 mm .

Habitat. Living free (not byssally attached to substrates) in colonies on clean white sand (Western Australia) or on muddy sand with rubble (Tasmania), partially buried with the flat (left) valve at the sediment-water interface, in shallow waters to sublittoral depths. As this is an important commercial species, many studies have been carried out on its distribution and abundance, particularly in Tasmania (e.g., Fairbridge, 1953; Olsen, 1955; Hortle & Cropp, 1987; Perrin & Croombe, 1988; Mendo et al., 2014).

Distribution. Southern Queensland, New South Wales, Lord Howe Island, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and Western Australia as far north as Onslow area. No records are known from the tropical region (northwestern, northern and northeastern) of Australia. Present specimens living in the intertidal zone to 130 m. Pecten fumatus is dredged commercially to a great extent in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania (Dredge et al., 2016, and references therein).

Remarks. For more than a century the taxonomic and nomenclatural position of Australian forms of Pecten sensu stricto was rather confusing. Recent genetic investigation by Woodburn (1990) and comparative taxonomic research and field observations imply that only one species inhabits the southeastern, southern and southwestern areas of Australia (see also Beu & Darragh, 2001: 184). These regions could be divided into several geographical morphs or population clusters, i.e.:

(a) Southeastern to southern Australia: typical (with generally simple, solid radial plicae on right valve; strongly inflated in southern Queensland and New South Wales, inflation decreasing fairly regularly southwards) .

(b) Southwestern and Western Australia: WA morph (generally bifid radial plicae on right valve).

(c) Tasmanian morph (large form with narrow radial plicae and weakly inflated right valve).

Pecten raoulensis Powell, 1958 (Dijkstra & Marshall, 2008: 46, figs 37E–F, 38), from the Kermadec Islands , is closely similar to the present species, especially to the Queensland form (see Dijkstra & Marshall, 1997: 95; 2008, p. 46), but at present is accepted as a separate species. Specimens from depths greater than 50 m have sculpture that falls within the limits of variation of both P. novaezelandiae Reeve, 1853 and P. fumatus , whereas specimens from shallower depths more closely resemble P. fumatus , especially specimens from Queensland (Dijkstra & Marshall, 2008: 46). Woodburn (1990) indicated that P. fumatus and P. novaezelandiae are genetically distinct species. Pecten novaezelandiae was not differentiated from P. fumatus on the basis of the 16S ribosomal RNA mitochondrial gene by Saavedra & Peña (2004), but C. Saavedra (Instituto de Acuicultura de Torre la Sal, Castellón, Spain, pers. comm. to AGB, Dec. 2004) stated that his unpublished studies using the COI gene demonstrate that P. novaezelandiae and P. fumatus are distinct species; the difference is due to the slow evolutionary rate of the 16S gene. In other phylogenetic analyses, Pecten novaezelandiae and P. fumatus consistently have been found to be distinct species (e.g., Alejandrino et al., 2011: fig. 1; Mynhardt et al., 2014: fig. 3; Sherratt et al., 2016: fig. 2; Serb et al., 2017: fig. 2). Some consistent morphological differences are also observed. The lateral margins of the auricles of P. fumatus tend to slope outwards dorsally, whereas they are more nearly vertical in P. novaezelandiae . A significant proportion of specimens of P. novaezelandiae has weak to quite prominent, narrow radial grooves on plical crests, whereas almost all specimens of P. fumatus have smooth plical crests, apart from the consistent shallowly furrowed plicae of Western Australian specimens. Hinge teeth also tend to be more complex in P. fumatus , with better-developed intermediate teeth than in P. novaezelandiae . The colour of south-eastern Australian specimens of P. fumatus (the meridionalis form) also tends to be the opposite of P. novaezelandiae , in that the exterior tends to be very pale and the interior dark purplish or brownish in P. fumatus , whereas the exterior is often darkly coloured and the interior pale (usually whitish) in P. novaezelandiae . Dijkstra & Marshall (2008: 46) also pointed out that the margin of the left valve extends more strongly beyond the right valve and overhangs it further in P. fumatus than in P. novaezelandiae . The genetic relationships clearly need to be investigated more fully between P. fumatus , P. novaezelandiae and P. raoulensis . It is still possible that one species occupies the entire southern Australia – New Zealand –Kermadec Islands region.


Natural History Museum, London


South African Museum


Australian Museum














Pecten fumatus Reeve, 1852

Dijkstra, Henk H. & Beu, Alan G. 2018

Pecten fumatus

Waller, T 1991: 37

Pecten benedictus albus

Ludbrook, N 1984: 162
Ludbrook, N 1978: 47

Pecten alba

Macpherson, J 1966: 231

Notovola preissiana

Iredale, T 1949: 19

Notovola fumata (Reeve)

Iredale, T 1939: 365

Pecten fumatus var. alba

Tate, R 1887: 113

Pecten meridionalis

Rombouts, A 1991: 52
Tate, R 1887: 115

Pecten (Janira) fumatus

Smith, E 1885: 307

Pecten bifidus

Tate, R 1881: 402
Philippi, R 1845: 202
Menke, C 1843: 35

Pecten fuscus “

Sowerby II, G 1842: 47

Pecten medius

Rombouts, A 1991: 51
Iredale, T 1924: 193
May, W 1921: 10
Suter, H 1913: 874
Lamarck, J 1819: 163

Pecten ziczac

Lamarck, J 1819: 164
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