Titanogryllus salgado Jaiswara, Souza-Dias, Desutter-Grandcolas & de Mello, 2018

Jaiswara, Ranjana, Souza-Dias, Pedro G. B., Campos, Lucas Denadai De, Redü, Darlan R., De Mello, Francisco De A. G. & Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure, 2018, Titanogryllus n. gen., the largest Gryllinae cricket from the Neotropical Region with three new species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Gryllidae), Zootaxa 4402 (3), pp. 487-507 : 491-496

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4402.3.4

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AFBEB273-0057-4F25-B702-CA2CB4568361

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5987497

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/039987AF-803F-FFD7-FF4B-6DE2FBC73295

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Titanogryllus salgado Jaiswara, Souza-Dias, Desutter-Grandcolas & de Mello
status

n. sp.

Titanogryllus salgado Jaiswara, Souza-Dias, Desutter-Grandcolas & de Mello n. sp.

Figures 1A View FIGURE 1 – 6 View FIGURE 6

http://lsid.speciesfile.org/urn:lsid: Orthoptera .speciesfile.org:TaxonName:501927

Type locality. Brazil, Espírito Santo State, municipality of Linhares , Reserva Natural Vale.

Etymology. Species name is a noun in apposition after the Brazilian humanist photographer Sebastião Ribeiro Salgado Júnior (born 1944).

Distribution. Atlantic Forest, in Espirito Santo State, municipality of Linhares, Reserva Natural Vale (Vale Natural Reserve).

Type material. Holotype, allotype, 2 male paratypes, 6 female paratypes. Holotype: male, with genitalia removed and kept with the specimen, labeled “ Brasil — ES [Espírito Santo] — Linhares. 23-25.vii/2012 — Reserva Vale. Projeto SISBIOTA 563360/2010-0 Conjunto 23 Armadilha C ” ( MZSP) . Allotype: female, labeled “ Brasil — ES — Linhares. 23-25/vii/12 — Reserva Vale. Projeto SISBIOTA 5 63360/2010-0. Conjunto 16. Armadilha E ” ( MZSP) . Paratypes: 2 males, 6 females. 1 male, labeled “Linhares, Réserve forestière, Compagnie Vale do Rio Doce , Etat de Espirito Santo, Brésil, 14.xi.1992, Nuit, fn LD31, terre nue avec cavités [bare ground with cavities], L. Desutter-Grandcolas (MNHN-EO-ENSIF7004)” ( MNHN) ; 1 male labeled “ Fragment ‘MEME’ S 19°08’15,8 ’ W 40°05’04,4”, 12.xi.2000, 40km NNE Linhares, Espirito Santo, Brésil, forêt semi-décidue (extraction sélective), P. Grandcolas & R. Pellens (MNHN-EO-ENSIF7005)” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps ; 1 female labeled “ Reserva Natural Vale, Linhares ES [Espírito Santo]. Trilha da Gávea / Farinha Seca. 14.i.2012. J.P.P. Pena-Barbosa et al.” ( MZSP) ; 1 female labeled “ Brasil — ES — Linhares. 23-25/vii/12 — Reserva Vale. Projeto SISBIOTA 563360/2010-0. Conjunto 30. Armadilha E ” ( MZSP) ; 1 female labeled “ Brasil — ES — Linhares. 23-25/vii/12 — Reserva Vale. Projeto SISBIOTA 5 63360/2010-0. Conjunto 1. Armadilha B ” ( MZSP) ; 1 female labeled “ Brasil — ES — Linhares. 23-25/ vii/12 — Reserva Vale. Projeto SISBIOTA 563360/2010-0. Conjunto 24. Armadilha C ” ( MZSP) ; 1 female labeled “BR, ES, Linhares, Reserva Vale do Rio Doce. Mata. i-96. 19o09’10”S / 40o03’93” W. F.A.G. Mello, S.S. Nihei, leg.” ( BOTU) ; 1 female labeled “ Linhares — ES [Espírito Santo], viii/2003 ” ( BOTU) .

Diagnosis. Species large (3–4cm body length), general coloration medium to yellowish brown. TIII inner apical spurs: dorsal longest, median slightly shorter, ventral smaller (iad>iam>iav); TIII outer apical spurs: median longest, dorsal slightly shorter, ventral smaller (oam>oad>oav). Male genitalia: anterior margin of pseudepiphallic sclerite with medial furrow; lateral lophi wide, posterior margin dorsally concave, bifurcated, rounded laterally; medial lophi short, straight, with shallow depression; apex of rami almost connected; pseudepiphallic parameres elongated, apex rounded, ventrally surpassing apex of lateral lophi; ectophallic apodemes elongated, longer than in T. oxossi n. sp. and T. oxente n. sp. Female. Body medium to yellowish brown; copulatory papilla small, rounded; basis convex dorsally, medially extended ventrally; apex membranous, rounded.

Description. In addition to the characters of the genus:

Species large (~ 3cm body length), general coloration medium to yellowish brown ( Figs. 1A View FIGURE 1 , 2A View FIGURE 2 , 3A View FIGURE 3 , 4A, B View FIGURE 4 ). Head. Head large, wider than long, medium brown ( Figs. 1A View FIGURE 1 , 2A, D View FIGURE 2 , 3A View FIGURE 3 , 4A View FIGURE 4 ). Posterior margin of occiput medium brown, with 2 lines going from occiput to vertex and 2 lines going from occiput to dorsal margin of eyes ( Figs. 1A View FIGURE 1 , 2A, B, D View FIGURE 2 , 3A View FIGURE 3 , 4A View FIGURE 4 ). Occiput and vertex glabrous ( Figs. 2B, D, F View FIGURE 2 , 3A View FIGURE 3 , 4C View FIGURE 4 ). Eyes small, with small unpigmented area on dorsal margin ( Figs. 1A View FIGURE 1 , 2A, D View FIGURE 2 , 4A View FIGURE 4 ). Fastigium glabrous, wide as vertex, at least 2x wider than antennal scape ( Figs. 2D View FIGURE 2 , 3A View FIGURE 3 , 4A View FIGURE 4 ). Antennal scape and antennomeres medium brown. In lateral view, gena medium brown ( Fig. 2B View FIGURE 2 ). Three ocelli, almost in line; lateral ocellus larger than in T. oxossi n. sp. and T. oxente n. sp., circular; median ocellus small, flat ( Figs. 2B, D, F View FIGURE 2 , 4C View FIGURE 4 ). Maxillary palpi light brown; apex rounded, whitish ( Fig. 2B View FIGURE 2 ). Frons yellowish brown, very short, shorter than clypeus ( Figs. 2F View FIGURE 2 , 4C View FIGURE 4 ). Clypeus, labrum and mandibles yellowish brown ( Figs. 2F View FIGURE 2 , 4C View FIGURE 4 ).

Thorax. DD saddle-shaped, glabrous, wider than long, yellowish brown, with medium brown maculae; cephalic margin concave, caudal margin almost straight ( Figs. 1A View FIGURE 1 , 2A, D View FIGURE 2 , 3A View FIGURE 3 , 4A View FIGURE 4 ). LL ventro-cephalic angle rounded, ventral margin straight, ventro-caudal angle ascendant ( Figs. 2B View FIGURE 2 , 4B View FIGURE 4 ).

Legs. FI, FII light brown; TI, TII medium brown ( Figs. 1A View FIGURE 1 , 2A View FIGURE 2 , 3A View FIGURE 3 , 4A, B View FIGURE 4 ). Tympanum on both sides of TI. TI with 2 ventral spurs and 1 dorsal (inner). TII with 4 spurs. Legs III not specially elongated, longer than in T. oxossi n. sp. and T. oxente n. sp. FIII yellowish brown, covered with dark brown pubescence; FIII medium brown in the articulation with TIII ( Figs. 1A View FIGURE 1 , 2A View FIGURE 2 , 3A View FIGURE 3 , 4A, B View FIGURE 4 ). TIII and basitarsus–III yellowish brown, with medium brown maculae ( Figs. 1A View FIGURE 1 , 2A View FIGURE 2 , 3A View FIGURE 3 , 4A, B View FIGURE 4 ). TIII with spines before subapical spurs; subapical spurs 3/3 ( Fig. 2I View FIGURE 2 ). Inner apical spurs: dorsal longest, median slightly shorter, ventral smaller (iad>iam>iav) ( Fig. 2K View FIGURE 2 ); outer apical spurs: median longest, dorsal slightly shorter, ventral smaller (oam>oad>oam) ( Fig. 2J View FIGURE 2 ). Double row of 5 spines on basitarsus–III ( Fig. 2I View FIGURE 2 ).

Abdomen. Tergites pubescent, medium brown, yellowish brown medially. Cerci medium brown ( Figs. 1A View FIGURE 1 , 2A View FIGURE 2 , 3A View FIGURE 3 , 4A View FIGURE 4 ).

Male. Legs III longer than body length ( Figs. 1A View FIGURE 1 , 2A View FIGURE 2 , 4A, B View FIGURE 4 ). Male FWs medium brown, reaching half of abdomen; anal vein area bulged dorsally; harp crossed with 6, almost transverse veins; mirror undivided, distinct from apical venation; apical field very short, almost reduced; CuPb short; lateral field with 4–5 longitudinal veins ( Figs. 1A View FIGURE 1 , 2A, C, E View FIGURE 2 , 4A, B View FIGURE 4 ). Metanotum without metanotal structures. Male supra anal plate pubescent, light brown with medium brown maculae, medially constricted; proximal margin almost straight, distal margin rounded ( Fig. View FIGURE 2

2G). Subgenital plate pubescent, medium brown, triangular, proximal margin concave, distal margin rounded ( Fig. 2H View FIGURE 2 ).

Male genitalia. Pseudepiphallus: anterior margin with medial furrow ( Figs. 5A View FIGURE 5 , 6A View FIGURE 6 ); lateral lophi wide, posterior margin dorsally concave, bifurcated, rounded laterally ( Figs. 5A, C View FIGURE 5 6A, C View FIGURE 6 ); medial lophi short, straight, with shallow depression ( Figs. 5A View FIGURE 5 , 6A View FIGURE 6 ). Rami elongated, apically bent towards ventral side; apex of each ramus almost connected ( Figs. 5A–C View FIGURE 5 , 6A–C View FIGURE 6 ). Pseudepiphallic parameres elongated, apex rounded, ventrally surpassing the apex of lateral lophi ( Figs. 5B View FIGURE 5 , 6B View FIGURE 6 ). Ectophallic invagination: ectophallic apodemes elongated, longer than in T. oxossi n. sp. and T. oxente n. sp., reaching two-third of rami length ( Figs. 5A, B View FIGURE 5 , 6A, B View FIGURE 6 ); ectophallic arc dorsal, thin, amost indistinguishable, below pseudepiphallic medial lophi; ectophallic fold furrowed ( Figs. 5B View FIGURE 5 , 6B View FIGURE 6 ). Endophallus: endophallic sclerite small, related to ectophallic fold ( Figs. 5B View FIGURE 5 , 6B View FIGURE 6 ); endophallic cavity reduced.

Female. Species large (body length ~ 4cm), larger than males ( Fig. 3A View FIGURE 3 ). General coloration: body medium to yellowish brown; head, pronotum and legs same colour as males ( Fig. 3A View FIGURE 3 ). FW small, very reduced ( Figs. 3A, B View FIGURE 3 ). Abdomen glabrous, medium brown ( Fig. 3A View FIGURE 3 ). Supra anal plate pubescent, medium brown with light brown maculae, medially constricted; proximal margin almost straight, distal margin rounded ( Fig. 3C View FIGURE 3 ). Subgenital plate small, proximal margin almost straight, distal margin medially convex, angles rounded ( Fig. 3D View FIGURE 3 ). Ovipositor short, shorter than FIII; apex of ovipositor modified, with conspicuous concavity; apex pointed and curved downwards in lateral view, with ventral protuberance ( Figs. 3E, F, G View FIGURE 3 ).

Female genitalia. Copulatory papilla small, rounded; basis convex dorsally, medially extended ventrally; apex membranous, rounded, as in Figs. 5 D–F View FIGURE 5 .

Measurements (mm). Males (n=3)– mean (range): BL – 33.63 (32.4–35); PL – 5.05 (4.8–5.4); PW – 7.45 (7– 7.7); FWL – 13.33 (13–13.5); FWW – 8.41 (8–8.7); LFIII – 22.83 (21–25); WFIII – 6.5 (6–7.5); LTIII – 13.46 (11.4– 17.5).

Females (n=7)– mean (range): BL – 37.45 (36–39.15); HW – 8.57 (7.95-9); IOD – 5.01 (4.65–5.4); PL – 5.2 (4.65– 5.55); AWP – 8.22 (7.65–8.7); PWP – 6.66 (6.15–7.05); PW – 8.16 (7.5–8.7); LFIII – 20.31 (19.8–21.15); WFIII – 6.21 (6–6.75); LTIII – 10.54 (10.05–11.1); LBt-III – 4.92 (4.65–5.4); OL – 9 (8.4–10.05).

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

BOTU

Universidade Estadual Paulista

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Orthoptera

Family

Gryllidae

Genus

Titanogryllus