Titanogryllus salgado Jaiswara, Souza-Dias, Desutter-Grandcolas & de Mello,

Jaiswara, Ranjana, Souza-Dias, Pedro G. B., Campos, Lucas Denadai De, Redü, Darlan R., De Mello, Francisco De A. G. & Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure, 2018, Titanogryllus n. gen., the largest Gryllinae cricket from the Neotropical Region with three new species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Gryllidae), Zootaxa 4402 (3), pp. 487-507: 491-496

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4402.3.4

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AFBEB273-0057-4F25-B702-CA2CB4568361

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/039987AF-803F-FFD7-FF4B-6DE2FBC73295

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Titanogryllus salgado Jaiswara, Souza-Dias, Desutter-Grandcolas & de Mello
status

n. sp.

Titanogryllus salgado Jaiswara, Souza-Dias, Desutter-Grandcolas & de Mello  n. sp.

Figures 1AView FIGURE 1 – 6View FIGURE 6

http://lsid.speciesfile.org/urn:lsid: Orthoptera  .speciesfile.org:TaxonName:501927

Type locality. Brazil, Espírito Santo State, municipality of Linhares , Reserva Natural Vale. 

Etymology. Species name is a noun in apposition after the Brazilian humanist photographer Sebastião Ribeiro Salgado Júnior (born 1944).

Distribution. Atlantic Forest, in Espirito Santo State, municipality of Linhares, Reserva Natural Vale (Vale Natural Reserve).

Type material. Holotype, allotype, 2 male paratypes, 6 female paratypes. Holotype: male, with genitalia removed and kept with the specimen, labeled “ Brasil — ES [Espírito Santo] — Linhares. 23-25.vii/2012 — Reserva Vale. Projeto SISBIOTA 563360/2010-0 Conjunto 23 Armadilha C ” ( MZSP)  . Allotype: female, labeled “ Brasil — ES — Linhares. 23-25/vii/12 — Reserva Vale. Projeto SISBIOTA 5 63360/2010-0. Conjunto 16. Armadilha E ” ( MZSP)  . Paratypes: 2 males, 6 females. 1 male, labeled “Linhares, Réserve forestière, Compagnie Vale do Rio Doce , Etat de Espirito Santo, Brésil, 14.xi.1992, Nuit, fn LD31, terre nue avec cavités [bare ground with cavities], L. Desutter-Grandcolas (MNHN-EO-ENSIF7004)” ( MNHN)  ; 1 male labeled “ Fragment ‘MEME’ S 19°08’15,8 ’ W 40°05’04,4”, 12.xi.2000, 40km NNE Linhares, Espirito Santo, Brésil, forêt semi-décidue (extraction sélective), P. Grandcolas & R. Pellens (MNHN-EO-ENSIF7005)” ( MNHN)GoogleMaps  ; 1 female labeled “ Reserva Natural Vale, Linhares ES [Espírito Santo]. Trilha da Gávea / Farinha Seca. 14.i.2012. J.P.P. Pena-Barbosa et al.” ( MZSP)  ; 1 female labeled “ Brasil — ES — Linhares. 23-25/vii/12 — Reserva Vale. Projeto SISBIOTA 563360/2010-0. Conjunto 30. Armadilha E ” ( MZSP)  ; 1 female labeled “ Brasil — ES — Linhares. 23-25/vii/12 — Reserva Vale. Projeto SISBIOTA 5 63360/2010-0. Conjunto 1. Armadilha B ” ( MZSP)  ; 1 female labeled “ Brasil — ES — Linhares. 23-25/ vii/12 — Reserva Vale. Projeto SISBIOTA 563360/2010-0. Conjunto 24. Armadilha C ” ( MZSP)  ; 1 female labeled “BR, ES, Linhares, Reserva Vale do Rio Doce. Mata. i-96. 19o09’10”S / 40o03’93” W. F.A.G. Mello, S.S. Nihei, leg.” ( BOTU)  ; 1 female labeled “ Linhares — ES [Espírito Santo], viii/2003 ” ( BOTU)  .

Diagnosis. Species large (3–4cm body length), general coloration medium to yellowish brown. TIII inner apical spurs: dorsal longest, median slightly shorter, ventral smaller (iad>iam>iav); TIII outer apical spurs: median longest, dorsal slightly shorter, ventral smaller (oam>oad>oav). Male genitalia: anterior margin of pseudepiphallic sclerite with medial furrow; lateral lophi wide, posterior margin dorsally concave, bifurcated, rounded laterally; medial lophi short, straight, with shallow depression; apex of rami almost connected; pseudepiphallic parameres elongated, apex rounded, ventrally surpassing apex of lateral lophi; ectophallic apodemes elongated, longer than in T. oxossi  n. sp. and T. oxente  n. sp. Female. Body medium to yellowish brown; copulatory papilla small, rounded; basis convex dorsally, medially extended ventrally; apex membranous, rounded.

Description. In addition to the characters of the genus:

Species large (~ 3cm body length), general coloration medium to yellowish brown ( Figs. 1AView FIGURE 1, 2AView FIGURE 2, 3AView FIGURE 3, 4A, BView FIGURE 4). Head. Head large, wider than long, medium brown ( Figs. 1AView FIGURE 1, 2A, DView FIGURE 2, 3AView FIGURE 3, 4AView FIGURE 4). Posterior margin of occiput medium brown, with 2 lines going from occiput to vertex and 2 lines going from occiput to dorsal margin of eyes ( Figs. 1AView FIGURE 1, 2A, B, DView FIGURE 2, 3AView FIGURE 3, 4AView FIGURE 4). Occiput and vertex glabrous ( Figs. 2B, D, FView FIGURE 2, 3AView FIGURE 3, 4CView FIGURE 4). Eyes small, with small unpigmented area on dorsal margin ( Figs. 1AView FIGURE 1, 2A, DView FIGURE 2, 4AView FIGURE 4). Fastigium glabrous, wide as vertex, at least 2x wider than antennal scape ( Figs. 2DView FIGURE 2, 3AView FIGURE 3, 4AView FIGURE 4). Antennal scape and antennomeres medium brown. In lateral view, gena medium brown ( Fig. 2BView FIGURE 2). Three ocelli, almost in line; lateral ocellus larger than in T. oxossi  n. sp. and T. oxente  n. sp., circular; median ocellus small, flat ( Figs. 2B, D, FView FIGURE 2, 4CView FIGURE 4). Maxillary palpi light brown; apex rounded, whitish ( Fig. 2BView FIGURE 2). Frons yellowish brown, very short, shorter than clypeus ( Figs. 2FView FIGURE 2, 4CView FIGURE 4). Clypeus, labrum and mandibles yellowish brown ( Figs. 2FView FIGURE 2, 4CView FIGURE 4).

Thorax. DD saddle-shaped, glabrous, wider than long, yellowish brown, with medium brown maculae; cephalic margin concave, caudal margin almost straight ( Figs. 1AView FIGURE 1, 2A, DView FIGURE 2, 3AView FIGURE 3, 4AView FIGURE 4). LL ventro-cephalic angle rounded, ventral margin straight, ventro-caudal angle ascendant ( Figs. 2BView FIGURE 2, 4BView FIGURE 4).

Legs. FI, FII light brown; TI, TII medium brown ( Figs. 1AView FIGURE 1, 2AView FIGURE 2, 3AView FIGURE 3, 4A, BView FIGURE 4). Tympanum on both sides of TI. TI with 2 ventral spurs and 1 dorsal (inner). TII with 4 spurs. Legs III not specially elongated, longer than in T. oxossi  n. sp. and T. oxente  n. sp. FIII yellowish brown, covered with dark brown pubescence; FIII medium brown in the articulation with TIII ( Figs. 1AView FIGURE 1, 2AView FIGURE 2, 3AView FIGURE 3, 4A, BView FIGURE 4). TIII and basitarsus –III yellowish brown, with medium brown maculae ( Figs. 1AView FIGURE 1, 2AView FIGURE 2, 3AView FIGURE 3, 4A, BView FIGURE 4). TIII with spines before subapical spurs; subapical spurs 3/3 ( Fig. 2IView FIGURE 2). Inner apical spurs: dorsal longest, median slightly shorter, ventral smaller (iad>iam>iav) ( Fig. 2KView FIGURE 2); outer apical spurs: median longest, dorsal slightly shorter, ventral smaller (oam>oad>oam) ( Fig. 2JView FIGURE 2). Double row of 5 spines on basitarsus –III ( Fig. 2IView FIGURE 2).

Abdomen. Tergites pubescent, medium brown, yellowish brown medially. Cerci medium brown ( Figs. 1AView FIGURE 1, 2AView FIGURE 2, 3AView FIGURE 3, 4AView FIGURE 4).

Male. Legs III longer than body length ( Figs. 1AView FIGURE 1, 2AView FIGURE 2, 4A, BView FIGURE 4). Male FWs medium brown, reaching half of abdomen; anal vein area bulged dorsally; harp crossed with 6, almost transverse veins; mirror undivided, distinct from apical venation; apical field very short, almost reduced; CuPb short; lateral field with 4–5 longitudinal veins ( Figs. 1AView FIGURE 1, 2A, C, EView FIGURE 2, 4A, BView FIGURE 4). Metanotum without metanotal structures. Male supra anal plate pubescent, light brown with medium brown maculae, medially constricted; proximal margin almost straight, distal margin rounded ( Fig.View FIGURE 2

2G). Subgenital plate pubescent, medium brown, triangular, proximal margin concave, distal margin rounded ( Fig. 2HView FIGURE 2).

Male genitalia. Pseudepiphallus: anterior margin with medial furrow ( Figs. 5AView FIGURE 5, 6AView FIGURE 6); lateral lophi wide, posterior margin dorsally concave, bifurcated, rounded laterally ( Figs. 5A, CView FIGURE 5 6A, CView FIGURE 6); medial lophi short, straight, with shallow depression ( Figs. 5AView FIGURE 5, 6AView FIGURE 6). Rami elongated, apically bent towards ventral side; apex of each ramus almost connected ( Figs. 5A –CView FIGURE 5, 6A –CView FIGURE 6). Pseudepiphallic parameres elongated, apex rounded, ventrally surpassing the apex of lateral lophi ( Figs. 5BView FIGURE 5, 6BView FIGURE 6). Ectophallic invagination: ectophallic apodemes elongated, longer than in T. oxossi  n. sp. and T. oxente  n. sp., reaching two-third of rami length ( Figs. 5A, BView FIGURE 5, 6A, BView FIGURE 6); ectophallic arc dorsal, thin, amost indistinguishable, below pseudepiphallic medial lophi; ectophallic fold furrowed ( Figs. 5BView FIGURE 5, 6BView FIGURE 6). Endophallus: endophallic sclerite small, related to ectophallic fold ( Figs. 5BView FIGURE 5, 6BView FIGURE 6); endophallic cavity reduced.

Female. Species large (body length ~ 4cm), larger than males ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3). General coloration: body medium to yellowish brown; head, pronotum and legs same colour as males ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3). FW small, very reduced ( Figs. 3A, BView FIGURE 3). Abdomen glabrous, medium brown ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3). Supra anal plate pubescent, medium brown with light brown maculae, medially constricted; proximal margin almost straight, distal margin rounded ( Fig. 3CView FIGURE 3). Subgenital plate small, proximal margin almost straight, distal margin medially convex, angles rounded ( Fig. 3DView FIGURE 3). Ovipositor short, shorter than FIII; apex of ovipositor modified, with conspicuous concavity; apex pointed and curved downwards in lateral view, with ventral protuberance ( Figs. 3E, F, GView FIGURE 3).

Female genitalia. Copulatory papilla small, rounded; basis convex dorsally, medially extended ventrally; apex membranous, rounded, as in Figs. 5 D –FView FIGURE 5.

Measurements (mm). Males (n=3)– mean (range): BL – 33.63 (32.4–35); PL – 5.05 (4.8–5.4); PW – 7.45 (7– 7.7); FWL – 13.33 (13–13.5); FWW – 8.41 (8–8.7); LFIII – 22.83 (21–25); WFIII – 6.5 (6–7.5); LTIII – 13.46 (11.4– 17.5).

Females (n=7)– mean (range): BL – 37.45 (36–39.15); HW – 8.57 (7.95-9); IOD – 5.01 (4.65–5.4); PL – 5.2 (4.65– 5.55); AWP – 8.22 (7.65–8.7); PWP – 6.66 (6.15–7.05); PW – 8.16 (7.5–8.7); LFIII – 20.31 (19.8–21.15); WFIII – 6.21 (6–6.75); LTIII – 10.54 (10.05–11.1); LBt-III – 4.92 (4.65–5.4); OL – 9 (8.4–10.05).

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

BOTU

Universidade Estadual Paulista