Stinga kendamulaza A. Warren & Austin

Warren, Andrew D. & Austin, George T., 2009, Variation of Stinga Evans, 1955, with description of a new species from Mexico (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae: Hesperiini), Zootaxa 2197, pp. 1-19 : 12-18

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.189533

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6219134

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03984510-765F-FFB2-6AAD-FF69FE75485D

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Stinga kendamulaza A. Warren & Austin
status

new species

Stinga kendamulaza A. Warren & Austin , new species

( Figs. 4 View FIGURE 4 a–l, 5 d, 6 d)

Description. Male ( Figs. 4 View FIGURE 4 e–l) - mean forewing length = 13.7 mm (13.0– 14.8 mm, n= 15, from type series); forewing apex pointed, termen slightly convex; hindwing termen convex, then slightly concave before weakly developed tornal lobe; forewing with gray stigma narrowly outlined with black in CuA 1 -CuA 2, extending from along posterior vein of discal cell proximad of origin of CuA 1, extending nearly to vein CuA 2 at about 1 / 4 distance to termen from its origin and in CuA 2 - 2 A from vein CuA 2 about 1 / 4 distance from its origin to termen extending slightly curved (excavate proximad) almost to vein 2 A just proximad of its middle; dorsum tawnyorange marked with black; forewing tawny most intense proximad of stigma extending cephalad through discal cell nearly to costa; costa thinly black, this broadening distad; apex and outer margin black to tornus; pale yellow-tawny subquadrate subapical macules in R 3 -R 4, R 4 -R 5, and R 5 -M 1, narrowly outlined with dark tawny-orange; tawny bar-like submarginal macules outlined with dark tawny-orange in M 1 -M 2 and M 2 -M 3, offset distad from subapical macules by about twice their width and by about their width from tawny-orange postmedial macules (distad of stigma), that in M 3 -CuA 1 triangular in base of cell, in CuA 1 -CuA 2 more or less trapezoidal, and in CuA 2 - 2 A subquadrate with ragged distal margin, all three with cephalic and caudal edges extending along veins into dark margin; scattered black scales within tawny on basal 1 / 8 of wing and in entire anal cell; black scaling associated with stigma variable from that restricted to along the vein of the discal cell to more extensive, especially distad; fringe gray. Hindwing tawny-orange broadly in postmedian from M 1 to 2 A, orange extending proximad along vein 2 A 1 / 2 distance to its origin, marginal area black, more or less as chevrons in each cell with orange extending from postmedian along veins distad but not reaching termen; remainder of wing heavily overscaled with black, sparsest in discal cell and in postmedian of Rs-M 1 and sometimes Sc+R 1 -Rs vaguely extending the postmedial band cephalad; distal edge of darkened basal area conspicuously squared; fringe gray except mixed pale orange and gray caudad of vein CuA 2.

Ventral forewing largely deep tawny-orange, paler ventrad of dorsal macules in M 3 -CuA 1, CuA 1 -CuA 2, and CuA 2 - 2 A; subapical and submarginal macules repeated from dorsum, ochreous; costa thinly brown expanding distad to brown subapical patch enclosing subapical and submarginal macules and continued along outer margin almost to vein CuA 1; distal portion of apical brown area overscaled with pale ochreous giving an olive aspect, densest proximad of black terminal line; base of wing largely black extending furthest distad in CuA 2 - 2 A; a few black scales ventrad of stigma. Ventral hindwing largely brown cephalad of middle of CuA 2 - 2 A, overscaled heavily with pale ochreous appearing olive or olivaceous orange, this densest in marginal area, least dense adjacent to postmedial series of shining white connected macules extending from Sc+R 1 to midcell CuA 2 - 2 A; macule in Sc+R 1 -Rs subquadrate with distal edge concave and proximal edge convex, proximal edge at about mid-cell, completely overlapping macule near base of Rs-M 1, junction extended both distad and proximad as white on vein Rs, macule somewhat comma-shaped, decreasing in width to almost a point at vein M 1, connected with proximal corner of macule in mid-cell M 1 -M 3, that macule irregularly-shaped, produced distad in its middle, connected with distal edge of macule in mid-cell M 3 -CuA 1, this aligned with macules of similar width in CuA 1 -CuA 2 and anterior portion of CuA 2 - 2 A, latter extended as thin line distad and proximad from its caudal edge; small and irregular whitish macule at base of discal cell; posterior portion of CuA 2 - 2 A and entire 2 A- 3 A and anal cell ochreous, latter overscaled heavily with black in proximal half.

Dorsal head red-brown, white dot dorsad of eye; palpi mixture of red-brown, gray, and black scales on dorsum, white with a few black scales laterad, white ventrad; antenna black on dorsum, rarely with a few white scales at base of club, sides whitish, vaguely darker at segments, venter white with vague red-brown at segments, venter of club yellow-orange, nudum pale red-brown, distal segment dark red-brown or brown, 10 (n= 9) or 11 (n= 2) segments; thorax red-brown and abdomen dark gray-brown with ochreous setiform scales cephalad on dorsum, ventral thorax whitish with red-brown tinge, pectus whitish, legs ochreous; ventral abdomen whitish mixed with pale red-brown scales.

Genitalia ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 d) - uncus thin in lateral view, narrowing to slightly hooked caudal end, broad in dorsal view, narrowing and dividing into thin parallel and closely spaced arms; gnathos broad cephalad in lateral view, narrowing caudad where slightly curved upward and approximating caudal end of uncus, about width of uncus in ventral view, divided with thin arms converging caudad; tegumen narrow in lateral view, sides parallel in dorsal view, cephalic end notched centrally and flaring to its ventral arms that twist and combine with dorsal arm of saccus, the combined structure prominently curved (lateral view) and bowing outward (in cephalic view); anterior arm of saccus short, slightly curved upward (lateral view), moderately broad in ventral view and narrowing to blunt cephalic end; valva moderately broad, broadest cephalad, harpe blunt with rounded dorsal lobe, costa-ampulla variably undulate on dorsal edge, ampulla lobed caudad slightly overlapping outer edge of dorsal lobe of harpe, these lobes of about same height, sacculus broad; aedeagus stout, slightly (1.2–1.3 times) longer than valva, ventral edge of caudal end exceeding dorsal edge, tapering to point, right side with lobate titillator extending laterad and caudad, titillator on left side bar-like, expanding slightly and toothed caudad, bent cephalad into aedeagus when not extruded, extending caudad when extruded; vesica with two thorn-like cornuti and elongate densely spinate scouring pad-like cornutus ; juxta more or less triangular in caudal view.

Female ( Figs. 4 View FIGURE 4 a–d) - mean forewing length = 14.0 mm (13.4–15.1, n= 6, from type series); forewing apex pointed, termen convex; hindwing termen convex, then slightly concave before weakly developed tornal lobe; dorsum tawny-orange marked with black; forewing tawny most intense proximad of mid-wing extending cephalad through discal cell nearly to costa; costa thinly black, this broadening distad; apex and outer margin black to tornus; pale yellow-tawny subquadrate subapical macules in R 3 -R 4, R 4 -R 5, and R 5 -M 1, narrowly outlined with dark tawny-orange; tawny bar-like submarginal macules outlined with dark tawny-orange in M 1 -M 2 and M 2 -M 3, offset distad from subapical macules by about twice their width and by about their width from tawny-orange postmedial macules, that in M 3 -CuA 1 quadrate near base of cell, in CuA 1 -CuA 2 with distal edge concave and proximal edge convex, and in CuA 2 - 2 A subquadrate, all three with cephalic and caudal edges extending along veins into dark margin; scattered black scales within tawny on basal 1 / 8 to 1 / 4 of wing and in entire anal cell; black macules dividing base of wing from postmedial macules (in position of male’s stigma) variable but as broad as or broader than postmedial macules; fringe entirely gray except caudad of CuA 2 where pale gray distad. Hindwing tawny-orange broadly in postmedian from Rs to 2 A, orange extending proximad along vein 2 A 1 / 3 to 1 / 2 distance to its origin, marginal area black, more or less as chevrons in each cell with orange extending from postmedian along veins distad but not reaching termen; remainder of wing heavily overscaled with black, sparsest in discal cell and in postmedian of Rs-M 1 and sometimes Sc+R 1 -Rs vaguely extending the postmedial band cephalad; distal edge of darkened basal area conspicuously squared; fringe gray proximad, pale gray distad except pale orange caudad of vein CuA 2.

Ventral forewing largely deep tawny-orange, paler ventrad of dorsal macules in M 3 -CuA 1, CuA 1 -CuA 2, and CuA 2 - 2 A; subapical and submarginal macules repeated from dorsum, pale ochreous; costa thinly brown expanding distad to brown subapical patch enclosing subapical and submarginal macules and continued along outer margin almost to vein CuA 1; distal portion of apical brown area overscaled with pale ochreous giving an olive aspect, densest proximad of black terminal line; base of wing largely black extending furthest distad in CuA 2 - 2 A. Ventral hindwing largely brown cephalad of middle of CuA 2 - 2 A, overscaled heavily with pale ochreous appearing olive or olivaceous orange, this densest in marginal area, least dense adjacent to postmedial series of shining white connected macules extending from Sc+R 1 to mid-cell CuA 2 - 2 A; macule in Sc+R 1 -Rs subquadrate, sometimes with distal edge concave and proximal edge convex, proximal edge at about mid-cell, completely overlapping macule near base of Rs-M 1, junction extended both distad and proximad as white on vein Rs, macule narrowing caudad on occasion and somewhat comma-shaped, decreasing in width to almost a point at vein M 1, connected with proximal corner of macule in mid-cell M 1 - M 3, that macule irregularly-shaped, produced distad in its middle, connected with distal edge of macule in mid-cell M 3 -CuA 1, this aligned or forming slightly curved series with macules of similar width in CuA 1 -CuA 2 and anterior portion of CuA 2 - 2 A, latter extended as thin line distad and proximad from its caudal edge; small and irregular whitish macule at base of discal cell; posterior portion of CuA 2 - 2 A and entire 2 A- 3 A, and anal cell tawny-orange, latter often overscaled heavily with black in proximal half.

Dorsal head red-brown, white dot dorsad of eye; palpi mixture of red-brown, gray, and black scales on dorsum, white with a few black scales laterad, white ventrad; antenna black on dorsum, rarely with a few white scales at base of club, sides whitish, vaguely darker at segments, venter white with vague red-brown at segments, venter of club yellow-orange, nudum pale red-brown, distal segment dark red-brown or brown, 10 (n= 2) segments; thorax red-brown and abdomen dark gray-brown with ochreous setiform scales cephalad on dorsum, ventral thorax whitish with red-brown tinge, pectus whitish, legs ochreous; ventral abdomen whitish.

Genitalia ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 d) - lamella postvaginalis largely membranous laterad, caudal edge with broad heavily sclerotized and somewhat lunate central area (caudal margin shallowly excavate) possessing dense elongate setae, variably sclerotized and prominently arched cephalad of this towards ostium bursae; eighth tergite with sharply pointed anterior apophysis branched to prominent lobe curving ventrad on either side of caudal portion of antrum; antrum broad, membranous, weakly folded longitudinally, with variably developed ventrocephalic ‘dewlap’, remainder of ductus bursae becoming broader and curving dorsad and cephalad, moderately sclerotized with prominent longitudinal and transverse grooves; ductus bursae conjoined ventrocaudally with membranous and globular corpus bursae, about as long as wide.

Types. Holotype male - MEXICO: TLAXCALA: Mpio. Tlaxco: hilltop, ca. 2800m, WSW of Tecomalucan, W of Atotonilco, 20 -III- 2000, Andrew D. Warren, to which is attached a red, printed label - / HOLOTYPE / Stinga kendamulaza / A. Warren & Austin /. Allotype female - same locality, date, and collector as holotype. Paratypes: same locality and date as holotype, collected by Andrew D. Warren, Jose Luis Salinas-Gutierrez, Olivia Yañez Ordoñez, Marysol Trujano Ortega and Ismael Alejandro Inojosa-Díaz (46 males, 6 females); MEXICO: TLAXCALA: Mpio. Tlaxco: Hwy. 119, ca. 5 km N Tlaxco, near state line, 31 -III- 1977, R. O. & C. A. Kendall (1 male); MEXICO: TLAXCALA: Mpio. Tlaxco: 5-8 km N Tlaxco (Hwy. 119, km. 30), forest and hilltop, ca. 3100 ’, 19 -III- 2000, A. D. Warren (1 male); MEXICO: TLAXCALA: Mpio. Tlaxco: hill SE side Xalostoc, 2800m, 20 -II- 2009, Andrew D. Warren (15 males, 1 female); same locality, 1 -III- 2009, Andrew D. Warren (17 males, 3 females); MEXICO: PUEBLA: Xalapazco [Xalapaxco], 9 -III- 1977, Roberto G. de la Maza Elvira (5 males, 2 females); MEXICO: OAXACA: Sierra Madre del Sur: Rte. 175, Zapotitlán, 2800m, 26 -III- 1986, Doug Mullins (1 male). The holotype, allotype, and various paratypes are deposited in the Museo de Zoología “Alfonso L. Herrera”, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City. Additional paratypes are distributed among the MAZA, MGCL, TAMU, and other collections.

Type locality. MEXICO: TLAXCALA: Mpio. Tlaxco: hilltop, ca. 2800m, WSW of Tecomalucan, W of Atotonilco. The hill where much of the type series was collected is located just WSW of Tecomalucan and W of Atotonilco, and is surrounded by agricultural fields (mostly corn), which extended only onto the lower slopes of the hill in 2000. Native vegetation remained only on the top third of this hill in 2000, at about 2800m, including various Quercus ( Fagaceae ) and several species of grasses. By 2009, the corn fields had expanded to occupy most of the top of the hill, further reducing areas of native vegetation. While S. kendamulaza was not found at the type locality in 2009, it was found on a similar hill at the southeast side of the town of Xalostoc, just a few kilometers to the west, indicating that the species is probably widespread in the Municipality of Tlaxco.

Etymology. The name for this species is a combination of the names of Roy Kendall, Doug Mullins, and Roberto G. de la Maza Elvira, who independently discovered this species and made their specimens available for study.

Distribution and phenology. Stinga kendamulaza appears to be endemic to seasonally dry regions of southern Mexico, at least from northern Tlaxcala and western Puebla, to the south end of the Oaxaca Valley, where it meets the Sierra Madre del Sur. Much of the region between northern Tlaxcala-western Puebla, and the Valley of Oaxaca comprises the Cuicatlan-Teotihuacan Biosphere Preserve, and remains poorly surveyed for spring-flying butterflies. Thus, the actual range of S. kendamulaza in southern Mexico remains to be elucidated. As with Stinga morrisoni , S. kendamulaza appears to be univoltine in spring; the entire type series was collected between February 20 and March 31. All known localities for S. kendamulaza are situated between about 2800 and 3100m elevation, in partly forested (Quercus-Juniperus or Quercus-Pinus) habitats with numerous grassy openings.

Stinga kendamulaza and S. morrisoni occur in exact sympatry and synchrony at least in northern Tlaxcala. On 19 March 2000, the senior author found one male of S. kendamulaza flying on a hilltop at 3100m (ca. 5-8 km N Tlaxco, W of Hwy. 119, km. 30), where three males of S. morrisoni were also encountered; in flight the two species were not separable. In this region, S. morrisoni can be abundant at higher elevations (e.g., Iztaccihuatl, 3400–3900m, México State, Del. Milpa Alta, Distrito Federal), but was not found at 2800m, below the local pine forests, at the type locality of S. kendamulaza .

Behavior and ecology. Males of S. kendamulaza vigorously defend perches on hilltops, which may include tips of vegetation or bare ground (including rocks) on these hilltops, at least from 10: 30 to 15: 30 hrs. Males also guard grassy openings on hillsides and ridgelines, below hilltops. Adults of both sexes were observed to visit flowers of a pink Salvia L. ( Lamiaceae ) at the type locality in 2000, and females were encountered only at those flowers. Adults of S. kendamulaza at the type locality were flying with other hesperiines, including Paratrytone pilza Evans, 1955 , which were about twice as abundant as Stinga , and the scarcer Atalopedes campestris huron (W. H. Edwards, 1863) . One or more of the several grasses ( Poaceae ) present at sites with S. kendamulaza are the suspected larval foodplants, but no oviposition events have yet been witnessed and immature stages remain unknown.

Diagnosis. Stinga kendamulaza is immediately distinguished from S. morrisoni by its ventral hindwing where the pale markings consist of a narrow white line strongly produced distad in its middle. These markings on S. morrisoni appear as a more curvate series of offset macules. Additionally, the white in the discal cell of the ventral hindwing is represented by an indistinct whitish macule proximad in strong contrast with the broad and prominent white bar extending the full length of the discal cell on all S. morrisoni . Stinga kendamulaza also notably differs from S. morrisoni by having the distal margin of the basal black area on dorsal hindwing wedge-shaped (irregularly shaped on S. morrisoni ), having the subapical macules of the forewing broadly offset proximad from the submarginal macules (conjoined or at most narrowly separated on S. morrisoni ), and the orange of the postmedian on the hindwing blends into the marginal area (more sharply defined on S. morrisoni ).

Male genitalia of S. kendamulaza differ from those of S. morrisoni by the dorsal lobes of the ampulla and harpe extending about the same distance dorsad (lobe of harpe shorter on S. morrisoni ) and the expanding lobate form of the right titillator (scroll-like on S. morrisoni ). Female genitalia differ most prominently in the breadth of the caudal sclerotized and heavily setose portion of the lamella postvaginalis; this area is broad on S. kendamulaza (about 3 / 4 width of caudal edge on S. kendamulaza vs. 2 / 3 or less on S. morrisoni ).

It is of interest that the phenotype of S. morrisoni sympatric with S. kendamulaza is the darkest and among the smallest of the species. Stinga morrisoni from lower elevations in Mexico and those from the United States are more broadly orange and in this regard more similar to S. kendamulaza . Further, S. morrisoni from its lowest known elevational range in western Texas has little black associated with the stigma resembling this trait on S. kendamulaza .

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Hesperiidae

Genus

Stinga