Stinga morrisoni (W. H. Edwards, 1878)

Warren, Andrew D. & Austin, George T., 2009, Variation of Stinga Evans, 1955, with description of a new species from Mexico (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae: Hesperiini), Zootaxa 2197, pp. 1-19 : 2-9

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.189533

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6219132

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03984510-7655-FFA9-6AAD-FB52FACB4DA3

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Stinga morrisoni (W. H. Edwards, 1878)
status

 

Stinga morrisoni (W. H. Edwards, 1878)

Type locality: “Southern Colorado”, restricted to Hardscrabble Canyon, Custer County, Colorado, by Brown and Miller (1977); lectotype male designated and illustrated by Brown and Miller (1977; see also illustration in Holland 1931, plate 16, fig. 26) in Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. ( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 a–l, 2 a–l, 3 a–l, 5 a–c, 6 a–c)

Description. Male ( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 g–j)—mean forewing length = 13.2 mm (12.5 –14.0 mm, n= 20, from Colorado); forewing apex pointed, termen slightly convex; hindwing termen convex, then slightly concave before weakly developed tornal lobe; forewing with dark gray stigma in CuA 1 -CuA 2, extending from along posterior vein of discal cell proximad from origin of CuA 1, curving caudad to vein CuA 2 at about 1 / 8 distance to termen from its origin and in CuA 2 - 2 A from vein CuA 2 about 1 / 8 distance from its origin to termen extending nearly straight almost to vein 2 A just proximad of its middle; dorsum orange marked with black; orange on forewing most intense proximad of stigma extending cephalad through discal cell nearly to costa; costa thinly black, this broadening distad; apex and outer margin black to tornus; pale yellow-orange subquadrate subapical macules in R 3 -R 4, R 4 -R 5, and R 5 -M 1; yellow-orange quadrate submarginal macules in M 1 -M 2 and M 2 -M 3, offset distad from subapical and postmedial macules, proximal edge of macule in M 1 -M 2 more or less aligned with distal edge of macule in Rs-M 1 and M 3 -CuA 1, yellow-orange postmedial macules (distad of stigma), in M 3 -CuA 1, CuA 1 -CuA 2, and CuA 2 - 2 A, variable in shape, usually with distal edges concave, that in CuA 1 -CuA 2 usually largest, that in CuA 2 - 2 A subquadrate with ragged distal margin; scattered black scales within orange proximad (especially along the anterior vein of the discal cell, proximad of stigma in CuA 2 - 2 A, and in almost all of anal cell); black scaling on both sides of stigma and may extend into posterior portion of discal cell; fringe gray, but tipped with white near tornus. Hindwing orange broadly in postmedian from Rs to 2 A, orange extending along vein 2 A to termen and proximad to 1 / 2 distance to its origin, marginal area black; remainder of wing heavily overscaled with black, sparsest in discal cell; distal edge of darkened basal area irregular, produced furthest distad in M 1 -M 3; fringe gray, tipped with white except largely pale orange caudad of vein CuA 2.

Ventral forewing orange, yellow-orange ventrad of dorsal macules in M 3 -CuA 1, CuA 1 -CuA 2, and CuA 2 - 2 A; subapical and submarginal macules repeated from dorsum, pale ochreous to nearly white; costa thinly brown expanding distad to brown subapical patch enclosing subapical and submarginal macules and continued along outer margin to vein CuA 1; apical brown area overscaled with pale orange, this appearing olive; base of wing largely black extending furthest distad in CuA 2 - 2 A; variable black scaling ventrad of stigma. Ventral hindwing largely brown cephalad of middle of CuA 2 - 2 A, overscaled with pale orange giving an olive aspect, least dense adjacent to postmedial series of shining white connected macules extending from Sc+R 1 or Rs to mid-cell CuA 2 - 2 A; macule in Sc+R 1 -Rs subquadrate (may be reduced to small dot or absent) with distal edge concave and proximal edge convex, proximal edge at about mid-cell, partially overlapping proximal portion of quadrate macule near base of Rs-M 1, macule connected with or disjunct from proximal corner of macule in M 1 -M 3, that macule in distal 1 / 3 of cell irregularly-shaped and may be slightly produced distad in its middle, connected with distal edge of macule in mid-cell M 3 -CuA 1, this forming curved series with macules of decreasing width in CuA 1 -CuA 2 and anterior portion of CuA 2 - 2 A, latter extended as a few white scales distad from its caudal edge; anterior 1 / 2 of discal cell white nearly to base of wing, white extending caudad along vein M 1 -M 3, may be whitish smudge at distal end of discal cell caudad; posterior 1 / 2 of CuA 2 - 2 A, and entire 2 A- 3 A and anal cell orange, proximal 1 / 3 of CuA 2 - 2 A and 2 A- 3 A and entire anal cell overscaled heavily with black.

Dorsal head gray, white dot dorsad of eye; palpi mixture of gray and black scales on dorsum, white with a few black scales laterad, white on venter; antenna black on dorsum with variable white at base of club, sides white with black at segments, venter white with black at segments proximad, venter of club pale yelloworange, nudum pale red-brown, distal segment dark brown, 10 (n= 12), or 11 (n= 1) segments; thorax and abdomen gray-brown with greenish tinge on dorsum, ventral thorax gray, pectus whitish, legs gray proximad, yellow-orange distad; ventral abdomen gray, whitish at segments.

Genitalia ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 a) - uncus thin in lateral view, narrowing to slightly hooked caudal end, broad in dorsal view, narrowing and dividing caudad into thin parallel and closely spaced arms; gnathos broad cephalad in lateral view, narrowing caudad where slightly curved upward and approximating caudal end of uncus, about width of uncus in ventral view, divided with thin arms converging caudad; tegumen narrow in lateral view, sides parallel in dorsal view, cephalic end notched centrally and flaring to its ventral arms that twist and combine with dorsal arm of saccus, the combined structure curved (lateral view) and bowing outward (in cephalic view); anterior arm of saccus short, slightly curved upward (lateral view), moderately broad in ventral view and narrowing to blunt cephalic end; valva moderately broad, broadest cephalad, harpe blunt with rounded dorsal lobe, costa-ampulla variably undulate on dorsal edge, ampulla lobed caudad slightly overlapping outer edge of dorsal lobe of harpe, lobe of ampulla exceeding height of harpe, sacculus broad; aedeagus stout, slightly (1.2–1.3 times) longer than valva, ventral edge of caudal end exceeding dorsal edge, tapering to blunt point, right side with scroll-like titillator extending laterad and caudad, with sharply toothed dorsal edge caudad, titillator on left side, bar-like expanding slightly and toothed, bent cephalad into aedeagus when not extruded, extending caudad when extruded; vesica with two thorn-like cornuti and elongate densely spinate scouring pad-like cornutus ; juxta more or less triangular in caudal view.

Female ( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 a–d) - mean forewing length = 14.1 mm (12.9–15.2 mm, n= 9, from Colorado); forewing apex pointed, termen convex; hindwing termen convex, then slightly concave before weakly developed tornal lobe; dorsum orange marked with black; orange on forewing most intense proximad of mid-wing extending cephalad through discal cell nearly to costa; costa thinly black, this broadening distad; apex and outer margin black to tornus; pale yellow-orange subquadrate subapical macules in R 3 -R 4, R 4 -R 5, and R 5 -M 1; yellow-orange bar-like submarginal macules M 1 -M 2 and M 2 -M 3, offset distad with proximal edge under distal portion of or separated by less than their width from subapical macules, contiguous with or slightly overlapping yelloworange postmedial macules, that in M 3 -CuA 1 quadrate near base of cell, in CuA 1 -CuA 2 with distal edge concave and proximal edge convex, and in CuA 2 - 2 A irregular in shape, all three with cephalic and caudal edges extending slightly along veins into dark margin; scattered black scales within orange basad (especially along anterior vein of discal cell, in CuA 2 - 2 A, and in entire anal cell); black macules dividing base of wing from postmedial macules (in position of male’s stigma) variable but as broad as or broader than postmedial macules; fringe entirely gray-brown. Hindwing orange broadly in postmedian from Rs to 2 A (usually small macule also in Sc+R 1 -Rs), orange extending proximad along vein 2 A 1 / 2 to 2 / 3 distance to its origin and distad to termen, marginal area black, more or less as lunules in each cell with little or no orange extending distad from postmedian along veins; remainder of wing heavily overscaled with black, distal edge of darkened basal area irregular, extended furthest distad in M 1 -M 3; fringe gray-brown proximad, whitish distad except pale orange caudad of vein CuA 2.

Ventral forewing orange, yellow-orange ventrad of dorsal macules in M 3 -CuA 1, CuA 1 -CuA 2, and CuA 2 - 2 A; subapical and submarginal macules repeated from dorsum, pale ochreous; costa thinly brown expanding distad to brown subapical patch enclosing subapical and submarginal macules and continued along outer margin to vein CuA 1; apical brown area overscaled with pale orange, this appearing olive; base of wing largely black extending furthest distad in CuA 2 - 2 A. Ventral hindwing largely brown cephalad of middle of CuA 2 - 2 A, overscaled heavily with pale orange giving olive aspect, least dense adjacent to postmedial series of shining white connected macules extending from Sc+R 1 (or Rs) to mid-cell CuA 2 - 2 A; macule in Sc+R 1 -Rs subquadrate (may be reduced to small dot or absent), sometimes with distal edge concave and proximal edge convex, proximal edge at about mid-cell, partially overlapping macule near base of Rs-M 1, macule connected with or disjunct from proximal corner of macule in M 1 -M 3, that macule irregularly-shaped, connected with distal edge of macule in mid-cell M 3 -CuA 1, this forming curved series with macules of similar or decreasing width in CuA 1 -CuA 2 and anterior portion of CuA 2 - 2 A, latter extended distad as a few scales from its caudal edge; anterior 1 / 2 of discal cell white nearly to base of wing, white extending caudad along vein M 1 -M 3; posterior 1 / 2 of CuA 2 - 2 A, and entire 2 A- 3 A and anal cell orange, proximal 1 / 3 of CuA 2 - 2 A and 2 A- 3 A and often entire anal cell overscaled heavily with black.

Dorsal head gray, white dot dorsad of eye; palpi mixture of gray and black scales on dorsum, white ventrad and laterad; antenna black on dorsum with variable white at base of club, sides white with black at segments, venter white with black at segments proximad, venter of club whitish with variable black and/or red-brown scaling, nudum pale red-brown, distal segment dark red-brown or brown, 10 (n= 4) segments; thorax and abdomen gray-brown with greenish tinge on dorsum, ventral thorax gray, pectus whitish, legs gray proximad, yellow-orange distad; ventral abdomen gray, whitish at segments.

Genitalia ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 a) - lamella postvaginalis largely membranous laterad, caudal edge with heavily sclerotized and somewhat lunate central area (caudal margin shallowly excavate) possessing dense elongate setae, variably sclerotized and prominently arched cephalad of this towards ostium bursae; eighth tergite with sharply pointed anterior apophysis branched to prominent lobe curving ventrad on either side of caudal portion of antrum; antrum broad, membranous, weakly folded longitudinally, with variably developed ventrocephalic ‘dewlap’, remainder of ductus bursae becoming broader and curving dorsad and cephalad, moderately sclerotized with prominent longitudinal and transverse grooves; ductus bursae conjoined ventrocaudally with membranous and globular corpus bursae, about as long as wide, weakly developed longitudinal grooves.

Variation. Since its description, Pamphila morrisoni has been recognized as a distinctive species of unknown affinities among others of the tribe Hesperiini . Such uncertainty led to its placement within several genera (see synonymy in Mielke 2005). With the description of Stinga by Evans (1955), the species has experienced generic stability within that monotypic genus for over fifty years.

Although Stinga morrisoni has a broad geographical, elevational, and ecological distribution from Colorado to southern Mexico, no mention has been made of phenotypic variation in adults or lack thereof. Since none has been elaborated, evidenced by the absence of any infraspecific taxa, it has evidently been assumed that the species is invariable. Examination of series of specimens assembled from many localities, however, indicates the presence of considerable variation in superficial phenotype across the range of the species. The foregoing description, based upon material from Colorado, provides a point of reference for the following discussion of this variability.

Both sexes of S. morrisoni vary in their forewing length ( Table 1), which is apparently related to elevation. The smallest individuals occur in montane areas of the greater Rocky Mountains in Colorado, northern Arizona and northern New Mexico and at higher elevations in Mexico (e.g., states of México, Tlaxcala). Size is greatest among populations occurring at lower elevations in southern Arizona, western Texas, and in parts of central Mexico (e.g., Guanajuato). The length of the forewing of females exceeds that of males by an average of about 1mm throughout the species’ distribution ( Table 1).

Individuals from northern Arizona and New Mexico ( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 e–f, k–l) not only average the same size as those in Colorado, but are similar in color and pattern on the dorsum and venter. Material from southern Arizona and New Mexico ( Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 e–f) differs with a tendency towards less black associated with the stigma on males. On both sexes, the subapical macules on the forewing are more frequently contiguous with or slightly overlapping the submarginal macules (usually not overlapping in Colorado) and a macule in cell Sc+R 1 -Rs on the ventral hindwing is more persistent. Specimens from western Texas ( Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 a–d, g–j) have subapical macules resembling those in southern Arizona, but the dorsum is paler orange than seen in other populations of S. morrisoni , have more orange overscaling basad on the dorsal hindwing (making the postmedial orange band less distinctly defined), the dark areas on the venter have relatively prominent gray overscaling at the apex of the forewing and along the costal and outer margins of the hindwing, a white macule in Sc+R 1 -Rs is nearly invariably present, the antennae have the most extensive white at the base of the club on the dorsum of any population of the species, and males have less black (occasionally none) associated with the stigma. Individuals from Guanajuato ( Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 k–l) and Durango resemble those from Colorado, but are larger ( Table 1), have more extensive orange overscaling proximad on the dorsal hindwing, and are darker ‘olive’ at the apex of the ventral forewing and on the ventral hindwing. Finally, in the states of México, Tlaxcala, Guerrero and Oaxaca, the phenotype (as illustrated by Beutelspacher 1980) is not only small (about the same size as in Colorado), but very dark ( Figs. 3 View FIGURE 3 a–l). The orange of these is deeper in color than on specimens from other populations of the species, there is little marginal overscaling, the subapical and submarginal macules on the forewing are much smaller, the subapical macules are usually slightly offset proximad from those in the submargin, the postmedial series of macules on the dorsal hindwing is narrow and well defined, the ground color at the apex of the ventral forewing and on the hindwing is very dark (even more so than on specimens from Guanajuato), the postmedial macules are very narrow, and a white macule is usually present in Sc+R 1 -Rs, but is often minute and disjunct proximad from the macule in Rs-M 1. All populations have the prominent white streak, distinctive of S. morrisoni , in the discal cell of the ventral hindwing.

Stinga kendamulaza

MEXICO 13.7 (13.0– 14.8, n = 17) 14.0 (13.4–15.1, n = 6) Despite the considerable superficial variation seen across populations (the western Texan populations appearing considerably different from those at the higher elevations southward in Mexico), both male and female genitalia of S. morrisoni , although exhibiting some individual variation, are constant from Colorado through Mexico ( Figs. 5 View FIGURE 5 a–c, 6 a–c). In addition, throughout its known distribution, S. morrisoni is vernal (but see below).

Phenology. Stinga morrisoni flies in early spring (largely in March and April, but as early as late January and February in southern Mexico) in much of its distribution. Northern populations (Colorado, northern New Mexico and Arizona), however, occur later in spring, mostly in May and June. Scott (1986) reported the species in September in western Texas (also see Opler 1999); we have examined no specimens to corroborate this. Regardless, S. morrisoni appears to be strictly univoltine throughout essentially all of its known range, and its early-spring flight makes it one of the earliest-flying hesperiines in most of the habitats it occupies (ADW, pers. obs.). Adult flight times are frequently centered during local dry periods with long sunny days, especially in Mexico, southern Arizona and western Texas (usually March).

Behavior and ecology. Adult males of all populations studied by the authors (see below) vigorously defend perches on hilltops, as well as perches along roadsides (western Texas) and in gullies (as well as on hilltops) above 3600m on the grassy lower slopes of Volcán Iztaccíhuatl in the state of México. Populations of S. morrisoni are associated with a range of grasses ( Poaceae ) from Colorado to Oaxaca, and are documented to use seven species as larval foodplants in Colorado ( Scott 1992, 2006). Most populations of S. morrisoni occur in forested (usually Quercus and/or Pinus ) habitats with numerous sunny, grassy clearings, although an apparently very extensive population occurs above (and below, in lower density) tree-line on the grassy slopes of several of southern Mexico’s volcanic peaks, including Volcán Iztaccíhuatl, Volcán Popocatépetl, and Volcán Ajusco, to at least 3900m (but apparently absent from Volcán Toluca), making it one of the few resident butterflies of these specialized grassland habitats ( Luna-Reyes 2007; ADW, pers. obs.). Freshly eclosed males are very strongly attracted to damp ground under dry seasonal conditions (ADW, pers. obs.).

Specimens examined. MEXICO: CHIHUAHUA: 13.0 mi NE Rch. Gavilan, 10.7 mi SW Rch. Agua Salada, 30 ° 11 ’N 108 ° 24 ’W, 6400 ’, 13 -IV- 1978, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); CHIHUAHUA-SONORA: Mex. Hwy. 2 at state line, San Luis Microwave relay, 6500 ’, 2 -IV- 1985, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); DISTRITO FEDERAL: Ajusco, 6 -III- 1971, Hector González Almada (2 males: IBUNAM); Del. Magdalena Contreras: San Nicolás Totolapan, Magdalena Patlatlalco, 3000–3500m, 27-28 -II- 2009, Claudia Hernández- Mejía (8 males, 4 females: MZFC); same locality and dates, Marysol Trujano Ortega (14 males, 4 females: MZFC); San Nicolás Totolapan, Valle del Tezontle, 3500m, 1 -III- 2009, Claudia Hernández-Mejía (10 males: MZFC); same locality and dates, Marysol Trujano Ortega (22 males, 11 females: MZFC); Del. Milpa Alta: Bienes Comunales de Milpa Alta, Tzompoli, 3162–3358m, 13-15 -II- 2009, Claudia Hernández-Mejía (30 males, 5 females: MZFC); same locality and dates, Marysol Trujano Ortega (27 males, 6 females: MZFC); DURANGO: La Michilia: Piedra Herrada, 21 -III- 1984, Ma. E. Díaz Batres (1 female: MGCL); same locality and collector, 18 -IV- 1984 (1 male: MHNCM); La Michilia: Potrero, 23 -III- 1984, Ma. E. Díaz Batres (1 male: MGCL; 5 males, 1 female: MHNCM); same locality and collector, 3 -III- 1988 (1 female: MHNCM); GUANAJUATO: Mpio. Dolores Hidalgo: hilltop, ca. 5 km NE Santa Rosa on Hwy. 110, 2600m, 28 -III- 2001, Andrew D. Warren (1 male: ADW); Mpio. Dolores Hidalgo / Guanajuato: hilltop with watch tower, ca. 3 km NE Santa Rosa on N side of Hwy. 110, ca. 2700m, 28 -III- 2001, Andrew D. Warren (1 male: ADW): same locality and date, Tom W. Ortenburger (2 males: ADW); Mpio. Guanajuato: 3 hilltops, ca. 6 km SW Santa Rosa on Hwy. 110, ca. 2400m, 28 -III- 2001, Tom W. Ortenburger (1 male: ADW); Mpio. León / San Felipe: top of mesa, N side of Hwy. 87 (camino León-San Felipe), ca 8 km NE El Zauco (28 km NE León), 2600m, 29 -III- 2001, Andrew D. Warren (5 males: ADW); GUERRERO: Mpio. General Heliodoro Castillo: Cerro Teotepec, 3100m, 20 -III- 2009, Jean Cristian Blancas Hernández (1 male: MZFC); MÉXICO: Mpio. Amecameca: Popo[catépetl], 27 -I- 1952, Workman (1 male: IBUNAM); Mpio. Amecameca: S slope Iztaccíhuatl: grassy slopes above Paso de Cortés, 3400–3900m, 18 -III- 2000, Andrew D. Warren with MZFC crew (38 males, 18 females: ADW); NUEVO LEÓN: Hwy. 61, ca. 16 km SSE Jct. Hwy. 60, 2460m, 20 -III- 1977, R. O. & C. A. Kendall (3 males: TAMU); OAXACA: Mpio. Concepción Pápalo: camino a Cueva Cheve, N 17 ° 51 ’, W 68 ° 48 ’, 9000–9400 ’, 19 -III- 2006, J. Kemner (8 males, 1 female: MZFC); same locality and collector, 5 -IV- 2006 (5 males, 3 females: MZFC); same locality and collector, 19 -IV- 2006 (3 males, 1 female: MZFC); TLAXCALA: Mpio. Tlaxco: 5–8 km N Tlaxco (Hwy. 119, km. 30), forest and hilltop, ca. 2800–3100 ’, 19 -III- 2000, Andrew D. Warren (3 males: ADW); USA: ARIZONA: White Mts., 17 -VI- 1936, unkown collector (1 female: MGCL); White Mts., 9 mi S Alpine, 8100 ’, 14 -VI- 1963, W. A. Hedges (2 males: SDNHM); Apache Co.: AZ 264 at Jct. to Sawmill, 7800 ’, 11 -V- 1978, R. W. Holland (4 males: CSU); Forest Rd. 117, 3 mi S Hwy. 60, 21-V- 1988, Pat Savage (4 males, 1 female: MGCL); Forest Rd. 117, 4 mi S Hwy. 60, 21-V- 1988, Pat Savage (4 males, 2 females: MGCL); Forest Rd. 117, 4.5 mi S Hwy. 60, 18-V- 1990, Pat Savage (2 females: MGCL); Hwy. 260, 7 mi W of Eagar, 21 -V- 1988, Pat Savage (1 male: MGCL); Roof Butte, 9700 ’, Chuska Mts., 14 -VI- 1971, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Springerville, FR 117, 1-VI- 2000, Ray Thomas (1 female: MGCL); Cochise Co.: Huachuca Mts., Garden Canyon, 18 -IV- 1987, Doug Mullins (1 female: MGCL); same locality, 18 -III- 1999, Bruce A. O’Hara (2 males: MGCL); Greenlee Co.: 8 mi S Alpine, 7 -VII- 1964, W. A. Hedges (1 female, SDNHM); Santa Cruz Co.: Canelo Pass, 31 -III- 1988, Pat Savage (1 male, 1 female: MGCL); same locality and collector, 1 -IV- 1988 (3 males: MGCL); COLORADO: Custer Co.: Wet Mtn. Valley, nr. Rosita, 9000–9700 ’, 24 -VI- 1973, Ray E. Stanford (1 male: ADW); Douglas Co.: Deckers, 23 -V- 1970, Ray E. Stanford (6 males: ADW; 4 males, 2 females: MGCL); nr. Deckers, 25 -V- 1965, Bart B. Brinkman (1 male: ADW); same locality, 18 -V- 1969, Ray E. Stanford (1 female: ADW; 7 males, 2 females: CSU); same locality and collector, 22 -V- 1969 (3 females: CSU; 9 males, 1 female: MGCL); same locality and collector, 26 -V- 1975 (1 male: CSU); Hwy. 67 at Sugar Creek, 6900–7200 ’, ca. 2 air miles E South Platte River, 11 -V- 2008, Andrew D. Warren (7 males: ADW); same locality and collector, 18 -VI- 2007 (1 male: ADW); hilltop N of Hwy. 67, ca 2 rd. mi. SSW Sprucewood, 7600 ’, 18 -VI- 2007, Andrew D. Warren (2 males: ADW); El Paso Co.: Blodgett Peak Open Space, off Woodmen Rd., Colorado Springs, 7080 ’, 12 - VI- 2009, Andrew D. Warren (1 male: ADW); Cheyenne Mtn., 19 -V- 1969, Ray E. Stanford (1 male: CSU); same locality and collector, 24 -V- 1969 (1 female: MGCL); Rock Creek, 8200 ’, 12 -VI- 1932, unknown collector (1 female: MGCL); same locality, 20 -VI- 1933, unknown collector (1 female: MGCL); Rock Creek Canyon, 3 -V- 1992, Andrew D. Warren (1 male, 1 female: ADW); Telephone Line Rd., US Air Force Base, 22 -V- 1964, J. Justice (1 female: MGCL); USAFA, N tributary W Monument Lake, 7050 ’, 5 -VI- 1995, unknown collector (1 male: CSU); US Air Force Academy, Pine Dr. at International Dr., 27 -VI- 1995, S. Simonsen & P. Pineda (3 males: CSU); US Air Force Academy, S of filtration plant, 28 -VI- 1995, S. Simonsen & P. Pineda (1 male, 1 female: CSU); Fremont Co.: hilltops 1.5 mi S of mouth of Bear Cr., 15 -VI- 1969, J. Scott (1 male: MGCL); wooded hilltop, 1 mi NE Swissvale, 20 -VI- 1966, J. Scott (1 male: MGCL); 1 mi up Bear Ck., 9 -VI- 1970, J. Scott (3 males, SDNHM); same locality, 19 -VI- 1970, J. Scott (2 females: MGCL); Gilpin Co.: N Clear Ck., 7000–7500 ’, 18 -VI- 1978, Ray E. Stanford (1 female: ADW); Jefferson Co.: Golden Gate State Park, 22 -V- 1982, C. P. Slater (1 male: CSU); Mt. Lindo, ca. 1 air mi E Tinytown, 29 -V- 1989 (1 male: ADW); same locality and collector, 4 -VI- 1997 (1 male: ADW); Mt. Lindo nr. Tinytown, 5 -V- 1997, B. B. Brinkman (1 male, ADW); Pine Valley Ranch, ponderosa woodland, S facing slope, 17 -V- 1994, S. Simonsen (1 female: CSU); Ralston Creek, 8200–8400 ’, 24 -V- 1975, Ray E. Stanford (1 female: CSU); Ralston Creek, 8000 ’, 4 -VI- 1988, C. P. Slater (1 male: CSU); 0.5 mi. E of Tinytown, 27 -V- 1991, Andrew D. Warren (1 male: ADW); Larimer Co.: Buckhorn Cyn., 20 -VI- 1997, Paul A. Opler (1 female: CSU); Horsetooth Mt. Park, 14 -VI- 1988, Paul A. Opler (2 males: CSU); Moody Hill Rd., Roosevelt NF, 13 -VI- 1995, Paul A. Opler (1 male: CSU); Park Co.: Bailey, 17 -VI- 1962, Charles P. Slater (1 male: MGCL); same locality, 27 -VI- 1968, Ray E. Stanford (1 male: CSU); Teller Co.: Crystola Creek, 8000–9000 ’, 9 -VI- 1973, Ray E. Stanford (2 males: CSU); hill, 0.5 mi SW Crystola, 26 -V- 1993, Andrew D. Warren (15 males, 1 female: ADW); 1 mi NW Crystola, 8700 ’, 9 -VI- 1973, Ray E. Stanford (2 males: MGCL); NEW MEXICO: Catron Co.: cattle tank W of Coyote Peak, 7500 ’, Sec 34 T 75 R 14 W, 28 -V- 1994, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Gallo Mts., Fox Mt. Lookout, 9200 ’, 29 -V- 1994, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Gallo Mts., 1 mi SW Fox Mt. Lookout, 8500 ’, 27 -VI- 1994, R. W. Holland (1 female: CSU); Gallo/ Mangas Mts., Escondido Mt., SE slope, Cyn. de Lolo, 8500 ’, 22 -V- 1974, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Gallo/ Mangas Mts., N slope, mesa E of Cyn. de Lolo, 8500 ’, 24 -VI- 1995, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); SW end of USFS 106, N of Big Pine Cyn., 5000 ’, Sec 17, T 12 S R 21 W, 1 -IV- 1995, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Chaves Co.: Guadalupe Mts. Rim Rd., 1 mi N Otero Co. line, 7000 ’, 4 -V- 1987, R. W. Holland (2 males: CSU); Sacramento Mts., SE Slope, Mule Cyn., 2 mi S US 82, 6500 ’, Sec 30, T 16 S R 17 E, 17 -IV- 1994, R. W. Holland (3 males, 1 female: CSU); Cibola Co.: Mt. Taylor, Coalmine Cyn. CG, 7400 ’, 7 -V- 1967, R. W. Holland (1 male, 1 female: CSU); Mt. Taylor, El Dado Cyn., 8100 ’, 22 -V- 1966, R. W. Holland (1 female: CSU); Mt. Taylor, Elk Tank, 8800 ’, 7 -V- 1966, R. W. Holland (7 males: CSU); same locality and collector, 14 -V- 1966 (13 males: CSU); same locality and collector, 15 -V- 1966 (4 males: CSU); same locality and collector, 14 -VI- 1966 (1 female: CSU); Mt. Taylor, San Mateo Lake, 7300 ’, 13 -V- 1967, R. W. Holland (2 females: CSU); Mt. Taylor, Twin Spring, 9300 ’, 15 -V- 1966, R. W. Holland (2 males: CSU); same locality and collector, 14 -VI- 1966 (1 female: CSU); Zuni Mts., Mt. Sedgewick, 9200 ’, 14 -V- 1976, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); same locality and collector, 21 -V- 1976 (2 males: CSU); Zuni Mts., NE slope, Pole Cyn., 8000 ’, 14 -V- 1976, R. W. Holland (3 males: CSU); same locality and collector, 21 -V- 1994 (1 male: CSU); Zuni Mts., NE slope, Pole Cyn., quarry, 7000 ’, 14 -V- 1976, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Zuni Mts., Zuni Cyn., 2 mi inside NF, 7000 ’, 5 -V- 1977, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Zuni Mts., Zuni Cyn., Cerro Colorado, 8200 ’, 1 -V- 1976, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Zuni Mts., Zuni Cyn., logging chute at 7300 ’, 15 -V- 1977, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Eddy Co.: Pickett Hill, 6441 ’, Rd. 523, 1 mi NW Rd. 137, Lincoln NF, 24 -III- 1986, Ray E. Stanford (1 male: ADW); W slope Guadalupe Mts., Devils Den Spr., 27 -III- 1986, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Grant Co.: NM 90, 11 mi E of 61, Devil’s Backbone 6800 ’, 15 -IV- 1966, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); W slope Black Range, 9 mi up FS 152 (McKnight Rd.), 9 -IV- 1989, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Lincoln Co.: Capitan Mts., Capitan Gap, 7800 ’, 12 -IV- 1981, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Capitan Mts., Capitan Mt., Peppin Cyn., 7000 ’, 11 -IV- 1981, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); crest of Capitan Mts., W of gap, 1 mi W of Sawmill Tank, 8600 ’, 22 -VI- 1997, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Sacramento Mts., Nogal Cyn., 7500 ’, 5 -V- 1974, R. W. Holland (1 male, 1 female: CSU); Sierra Blanca, 11,000 ’, 15 -VI- 1975, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); McKinley Co.: Chuska Mts., Chuska Peak, 8700 ’, 18 -VI- 1978, R. W. Holland (2 males: CSU); Chuska Mts., Tohatchi Pk., 8300 ’, 22 - V- 1978, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); same locality and collector, 4 -VI- 1978, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Chuska Mts., 1 mi. below Tohatchi Pk., 18 -VI- 1978, R. W. Holland (1 female: CSU); Otero Co.: Glencoe, 5600 ’, 10 -V- 1974, R. W. Holland (2 females: CSU); Guadalupe Mts., Rim Rd. (FS 67), 5 mi N Panama, 6000 ’, 2 -V- 1987, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Guadalupe Mts., 6 mi WNW of Powers Tank, Wildhorse Hill 6000 ’, 24 -III- 1986, R. W. Holland (1 female: CSU); Sacramento Mts., 6800 ’, Jct. NM 130 & 24, 22-IV- 1973, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Sacramento Mts., Sacramento Cyn., 5400 ’, 22 -IV- 1973, R. W. Holland (2 males: CSU); Sacramento Mts., Sacramento Cyn., Fleming Ranch, 5200 ’, 19 -IV- 1975, R. W. Holland (2 males, 1 female: CSU); Rio Arriba Co.: NE slope Jemez Mts., Polvadera Cr., Sec 17, 8000 ’, 26 -V- 1984, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); N slope Jemez Mts., Cerro Pelon, 10,000 ’, 19 -VI- 1983, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Sandoval Co.: Jemez Mts., Jemez Spgs., 25 -VI- 1914, J. Woodgate (1 male, 1 female: MGCL); SW corner Jemez Mts., Pajarito Peak, 9000 ’, 19 -V- 1984, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); same locality and collector, 4 -VI- 1983 (2 males: CSU); same locality and collector, 26 -VI- 1983 (1 male: CSU); San Juan Co.: Chuska Mts., summit N of Washington Pass, 8200 ’, 17 -VI- 1978, R. W. Holland (6 males: CSU); San Miguel Co.: Gallinas Ck., 7000 ’, 9 -V- 1973, Ray E. Stanford (1 male: ADW); Sierra Co.: crest of Black Range, 7500 ’, 1 mi NW Monument Park Cabin, 30 -IV- 1988, R. W. Holland (1 female: CSU); NW slope Black Range, 1.5 mi W Continental Divide, FS 226, Seventyfour Draw, 12 -VI- 1988, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Socorro Co.: Magdalena Mts., 7500 ’, 6 -IV- 1969, R. W. Holland (2 males: CSU); Magdalena Mts., Cyn. W of Pound Ranch, 7000 ’, 3 -V- 1970, R. W. Holland (5 females: CSU); Magdalena Mts., Jordan Cyn., 7400 ’, 9 -V- 1970, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Magdalena Mts., North Baldy, 9600 ’, 13 -VI- 1970, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Magdalena Mts., North Cyn., 7500 ’, 2 -V- 1970, R. W. Holland (3 males, 3 females: CSU); Magdalena Mts., Ryan Mill Cyn., 6000 ’, 10 -V- 1970, R. W. Holland (5 males, 1 female: CSU); Magdalena Mts., Water Cyn. CG, 7100 ’, 9 -V- 1970, R. W. Holland (7 males, 2 females: CSU); San Mateo Mts., Beartrap CG, 8000 ’, 4 -V- 1974, R. W. Holland (2 females: CSU); San Mateo Mts., Big Pidgeon Cyn., 8000 ’, 10 -VI- 1972, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); San Mateo Mts., Monica Cyn., 6500 ’, 2 -V- 1971, R. W. Holland (1 male, 1 female: CSU); same locality and collector, 4 -V- 1974, R. W. Holland (1 male, 3 females: CSU); same locality and collector, 20 -V- 1973 (1 female: CSU); same locality and collector, 4 -VI- 1973 (1 male: CSU); San Mateo Mts., Nogal Cyn., 6000 ’, 28 -III- 1971, R. W. Holland (4 males: CSU); San Mateo Mts., Nogal Cyn., Weir Tank, 6500 ’, 5 -IV- 1971, R. W. Holland (1 female: CSU); same locality and collector, 10 -IV- 1971 (1 female: CSU); San Mateo Mts., Rock Spr. Cyn., 7000 ’, 20 -III- 1971, R. W. Holland (1 male, 1 female: CSU); same locality and collector, 28 -III- 1971 (2 males, 4 females: CSU): same locality and collector, 5 -IV- 1971 (4 males, 4 females: CSU); San Mateo Mts., 12 mi E Dusty, 7500 ’, 11 -IV- 1971, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); TEXAS: Culberson Co.: Guadalupe Mts. NP, Guadalupe Mts., Bowl, 8000 ’, 26 -III- 1986, R. W. Holland (2 males, 1 female: CSU); Guadalupe Mts. NP, Guadalupe Mts., Bush Mt., 8000 ’, 11 -IV- 1987, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); Jeff Davis Co.: Davis Mts., Hwy 166, 9.3 mi SW Hwy 118, 7-IV- 1982, unknown collector (1 male, 2 females, SDMNH); Fort Davis State Park, 3 -IV- 1988, Paul A. Opler (1 male: CSU); Hwy. 118, vic. McDonald Observatory, 31 -III- 1971, R. O. & C. A. Kendall (10 males, 26 females: TAMU; 2 females: ADW); same locality, on roadside Astragalus flowers, 24 -III- 1998, Andrew D. Warren (38 males, 45 females: ADW); L. E. Wood Picnic Area, 5800 ’, 15 -IV- 2005, June & Floyd Preston (1 female: MGCL); McDonald Observatory, 6800 ’, 15 -IV- 1994, R. W. Holland (7 males, 2 females: CSU); Mt. Locke, 26 -IV- 1981 (1 male: MGCL); 4.5 mi NW McDonald Observatory, Davis Mts., 5000 ’, 19 -III- 1995, R. W. Holland (1 male: CSU); 24.7 mi S of Kent, along TX 118, 6200 ’, 24 -IV- 2003, June and Floyd Preston (1 female: MGCL).

CSU

Colorado State University

IBUNAM

Instituto de BiIología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

MZFC

Museo de Zoologia Alfonso L. Herrera

SDNHM

San Diego Natural History Museum

NEW

University of Newcastle

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Hesperiidae

Genus

Stinga