Thraulodes alboniger, Kluge, Nikita J., 2020

Kluge, Nikita J., 2020, Systematic position of Thraulodes Ulmer 1920 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) and descriptions of new and little-known species, Zootaxa 4756 (1), pp. 1-142 : 120-127

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4756.1.1

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Thraulodes alboniger

sp. nov.

17. Thraulodes alboniger sp. n.

( Figs 543–590 View FIGURES 543–562 View FIGURES 563–568 View FIGURES 569–577 View FIGURES 578–588 View FIGURES 589–590 )

Etymology. Allusion to coloration of male imago, which is mainly white with black.

Material examined. Holotype: L-S-I ♂ {specimen [ XX](1)2013}, PERU, Region Loreto, Provincia Ucayali, Pampa Hermosa (7°12’S, 75°22’W), 18.VIII.2013, coll. N. Kluge & L. Sheyko. GoogleMaps Paratypes: the same locality and collectors, 9–21.VIII.2013: 1 L /S ♀, GoogleMaps 7 larvae; river Ucayali between Orellana and Contamana , 19.II.2006 (at light on boat), coll. N. Kluge: 5 I ♂; 17 km NNE Contamana, Aguas Termales (7°11’S, 74°57’W), 26.VII–4.VIII.2013, coll. N. Kluge & L. Sheyko: GoogleMaps 1 L /S ♂; San Alejandro (8°50’S, 75°13’W), 26.VIII.2013, coll. N. Kluge & L. Sheyko: 1 I ♂ GoogleMaps .


Larva. CUTICULAR COLORATION ( Figs 544–550 View FIGURES 543–562 ). Dorsal side of head brown with more or less expressed paired and unpaired blanks on frons and occipit. Pronotum and mesonotum brown with blanks of characteristic shape ( Fig. 546 View FIGURES 543–562 ); fore protopteron with veins lighter than background. Femur with 2 brown zigzag transverse bands, either separated ( Fig. 548 View FIGURES 543–562 ), or fused ( Fig. 550 View FIGURES 543–562 ); tibia with 2 wide brown bands (proximal and middle); tarsus with middle brown band. Abdominal terga brown; II–IX with pair of oblique lateral blanks; terga V and VIII also with pair of submedian blanks.

HYPODERMAL COLORATION. Larvae of various instars, besides cuticular coloration (see above) with following blackish hypodermal markings ( Fig. 543 View FIGURES 543–562 ): pair of large rhomboid longitudinal maculae on pronotum; several small maculae on mesothoracic tergum; maculae on mesothoracic and metathoracic pleura; apical macula on each femur and preapical macula on fore and hind femur; median longitudinal macula on each or some of abdominal terga; two pairs of small lateral maculae on abdominal terga I–VII; transverse band on posterior margins of terga I–IX. Among these maculae, at lest the paired maculae on pronotum are well expressed on all specimens examined. Tergalii gray.

SHAPE AND SETATION. Clypeus parallel-sided; labrum 1.15–1.25 times wider than clypeus ( Fig. 544 View FIGURES 543–562 ). Labrum widest at midlength, with lateral sides rounded; fore margin visible in dorsal view, without median emargination, shallowly concave, with all 5 denticles wide; anterior transverse setal row regular, as wide as anterior margin, subequal to poster transverse setal row ( Fig. 563 View FIGURES 563–568 ). Maxilla with 10 pectinate setae in apical-ventral row. Mandibles with outer margin shallow, with two concavities ( Fig. 545 View FIGURES 543–562 ).

Femora: Stout setae on anterior surface pointed ( Fig. 560 View FIGURES 543–562 ). Row of hairs near inner margin absent on fore and middle femora, absent or represented by a few setae on hind femur.

Fore tibia ( Fig. 558 View FIGURES 543–562 ): outer hairs form two irregular rows; inner-anterior row of recurved hairs absent; inneranterior row of stout setae represented by few (4–5) stout blunt setae in proximal part of tibia; inner field of stout pointed setae reduced: its setae as parse and small as on middle and hind legs, only near apex of tibia several longer and dense setae of this row present, including subapical inner-posterior row of arched pointed setae.

Hind tibia ( Figs 561–562 View FIGURES 543–562 ): each of three rows of stout setae—outer-anterior, outer-posterior and inner-anterior ones—consists of pointed stout setae; outer-anterior row, besides this, contains one or more long spoon-like stout seta(e); hairs located between outer-anterior and outer-posterior rows, form mostly one irregular row (besides row of hairs posteriad of outer-posterior row of stout setae).

Tarsus of hind leg with stout setae on inner and outer margins.

Claws with 4 denticles on rigid portion, often without denticles on articulatory portion.

Tergalii ( Figs 551–557 View FIGURES 543–562 , 585–588 View FIGURES 578–588 ): wide; on both lamellae main trachea arched repeating outline of anal margin, with branches directed toward costal margin; dorsal lamella oval, widest in distal part, apically abruptly turned to slen- der apical filament; ventral lamella widest near base, gradually narrowed toward apex, with slender apical filament.

Male genitalia in last larval instar ( Fig. 584 View FIGURES 578–588 ): protogonostyli long and widely separated, with few small hairs. Each protopenis lobe with gonopore-bearing process bent laterally; gonopore opened caudally-laterally.

Subimago ( Figs 569, 577 View FIGURES 569–577 , 581 View FIGURES 578–588 ). CUTICULAR COLORATION. Cuticle mostly colorless. Flagellum of antenna brownish. Mesonotum with antelateroparapsidal suture contrastingly colored with dark brown, some other sutures shed with brown; chromozones colorless ( Fig. 577 View FIGURES 569–577 ). Fore leg with tarsal segments 2–4 colored with light brownish. Middle and hind legs with tibiae and tarsi slightly colored with light brownish. Cuticle of wings colorless, microtrichia light brownish. Other cuticle of body, legs, gonostyli and caudalii colorless.

TEXTURE. On tarsi of all legs, 1st tarsomere with microtrichia (as tibia), 2nd–5th tarsomeres coved by blunt microlepides; pointed microlepides present near apical margins of 2nd–4th tarsomeres of middle and hind legs (as in Fig. 473 View FIGURES 464–473 ).

Male imago ( Figs 570–576 View FIGURES 569–577 ). Coloration contrasting, with white and black areas.

Head dorsally black, frons whitish; antennal scapus white, pedicellus black, flagellum white. Dorsal eyes contiguous medially, dull orange.

Pronotum whitish or pale yellowish, with pair of large, contrasting black maculae on pronotum, black median stripe between them and black stripe on posterior margin; sometimes with pair of black spots on pleura ( Fig. 574 View FIGURES 569–577 ). Mesonotum with cuticle brown ( Fig. 575 View FIGURES 569–577 ), sometimes with black hypodermal coloration ( Fig. 574 View FIGURES 569–577 ). Mesothorax always with black maculae on episternum, on pleuron between pleural suture and subalar sclerite, on lateropostnotum and on tip of scutellum; its basisternum and furcasternum always non-pigmented. Metathorax always with pair of large black maculae on pleura; is sternum always non-pigmented.

Legs with very contrasting black and brown markings. Cuticle of legs mostly colorless; on fore leg apex of femur and base of tibia with cuticle brown, middle part of tibia light brown. Legs with following hypodermal pigmentation on whitish background: Fore femur with black apical band; either with blackish-brown and purple spots proximad of it ( Fig. 574 View FIGURES 569–577 ), or without them ( Fig. 575 View FIGURES 569–577 ). Fore tarsus with proximal parts of 2nd–4th tarsomeres black or brown. Middle femur with black apical spot. Hind femur with black apical spot and larger black pre-apical band. Middle and hind tarsi with proximal parts of 2nd–3rd segments black. In holotype, relation of fore femur to fore wing length 56:245; proportions femur/tibia/tarsomeres on fore leg 56:68:2:22:26:9:7.

Fore and hind wings with membrane and veins colorless,with contrasting black spot on junction of costal brace with Sc and R (proximal coloration of fore and hind wings appears during larval development and present both in subimago and imago). Fore wing with or without cross veins in costal field proximad of bulla. Pterostigmatic cross veins few, perpendicular to longitudinal veins, non-branched ( Fig. 570 View FIGURES 569–577 ). Hind wing with costal projection shallow ( Fig. 578 View FIGURES 578–588 ).

Abdomen mostly white, with contrasting black hypodermal markings on terga; tergum VII always with pair of large black maculae laterally; following black markings present or absent on some or all terga: median longitudinal stripe, transverse stripe on posterior margin, pair of small sublateral spots, pair of small lateral spots, pair of stigmatic spots. Terga VII–X, besides black spots, with more or less developed red or yellow hypodermal coloration. Caudalii with segments alternated as following: black; white; white with longitudinal black stripe; white.

Genitalia ( Figs 579–582 View FIGURES 578–588 ): Styliger, gonostyli and penis light ocher. Dorsal extension of styliger not separated from styliger, either rather wide ( Fig. 579 View FIGURES 578–588 ) or smoothed out ( Fig. 580 View FIGURES 578–588 ). 1st segment of gonostylus with prominent medio-distal angle; 2nd segment thickest in middle, with convex inner margin ( Fig. 579 View FIGURES 578–588 ). Penis lobes long (nearly as long as gonostyli) and slightly divergent; each lobe with proximal part nearly parallel-sided, distal part slightly widened, without lateral pouch. From ventral view, medio-ventral ridge somewhat overlapping area laterad of it ( Fig. 580 View FIGURES 578–588 ). Apico-lateral area forming small ear; ventro-apical plate small, not hiding base of spear from ventral view. Telopenes in form of spear-like rolls, large, widest at middle, arched caudally, somewhat bent ventrally, with groove opened dorsally-laterally ( Fig. 582 View FIGURES 578–588 ).

Female imago (characters revealed by examination of subimago extracted from larva—Fig. 569). Black hypodermal markings on thorax as in male. Coloration of legs as in male. Coloration of abdomen with following features common with male: median longitudinal stripe, transverse stripes on posterior margins of terga, pair of especially large lateral maculae on tergum VII, smaller paired spots on other terga.

Eggs ( Figs 589–590 View FIGURES 589–590 ). Mostly ellipsoid. Each KTC surrounded by narrow, smooth, ring-like cover. Other chorion smooth, without protuberances.

Dimension. Fore wing length (and approximate body length) 6–7.5 mm.

Variability. All 5 male imagines collected on boat 19.II.2006, have minimum black markings on thorax ( Fig. 575 View FIGURES 569–577 ) and have red coloration on abdominal tergum IX only ( Figs 571, 573 View FIGURES 569–577 , 475 View FIGURES 474–478 ). Two male imagines from Pampa Hermosa (including the holotype) and from San Alejandro, as well as male subimago extracted from larva from Aguas Termales, have red and yellow coloration more or less developed on all terga VII–X ( Figs 572, 574, 576 View FIGURES 569–577 ).

Comparison. Unusual features of Th. alboniger sp. n., not found in other Thraulodes , are wider black preapical band and narrower black apical band on hind femur and brown middle area of fore tibia. Especially large black maculae on abdominal tergum VII, besides Th. alboniger sp. n., are reported for Thraulodes venezuelana Ulmer 1943 ; the new species differs from Th. venezuelana by other features of coloration and by longer penes with longer and arched spears.

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