Thraulodes telegraphicus Needham & Murphy 1924

Kluge, Nikita J., 2020, Systematic position of Thraulodes Ulmer 1920 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) and descriptions of new and little-known species, Zootaxa 4756 (1), pp. 1-142: 34-43

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.4756.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9FF62616-A7FA-4331-AC51-0F534400631D

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3811777

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/039787A6-FFBC-844F-8CFB-FE49DF79FF5E

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Carolina

scientific name

Thraulodes telegraphicus Needham & Murphy 1924
status

 

3. Thraulodes telegraphicus Needham & Murphy 1924  

( Figs 66–121 View FIGURES 66–69 View FIGURES 70–85 View FIGURES 86–93 View FIGURES 94–100 View FIGURES 101–105 View FIGURES 106–111 View FIGURES 112–120 View FIGURE 121 )

Thraulodes telegraphicus Needham & Murphy 1924: 41   , figs 99, 102 (♂ and ♀ imago); Traver 1946: 428 (holotype, synony-

my); Traver & Edmunds 1967: 379, figs 40, 60 (♂ and ♀ imago).

Thraulodes plicatus Needham & Murphy 1924: 42   , fig. 100 (♂ and ♀ subimago) (holotype redescribed and synonymy estab-

lished by Traver 1946).

Thraulodes   sp. 1, sp. 2, sp. 4, sp. 6: Roback 1966: 145, pl. 13 (larva).

Material examined. PERU: Region Junin, Provincia Satipo: Rio Satipo in Satipo, 5.I.2006, coll. N. Kluge: 1 L-S ♂, 4 larvae; Rio Sotorani near Pichanaki (10°57’S, 74°52’W), 8–10.I.2006, coll. N. Kluge: 1 L-S-I ♀, 1 S-I ♂, 2 S-I ♀, GoogleMaps   24 larvae; Puerto Prado (11°09’S, 74°14’W), 10–14.IX.2013, coll. N. Kluge & L. Sheyko: 11 L-S-I ♂, 5 L-S-I ♀, 6 L-S ♀, 10 L/S ♂, 6 L/S ♀, GoogleMaps   63 larvae; Rio Shima 5 km E Puerto Prado, (11°07’S, 74°13’W), alt. 350m, 6.I.2006, coll. A. Petrov: 2 S(m); GoogleMaps   Region Huanuco, Provincia Leoncio Prado, Rio Chunatahua near Cayumba (9°30’S, 75°57’W) and Rio Cantaria near Puente Perez (9°21’S, 75°58’W), 13–25.I.2006, coll., N. Kluge: 20 L-S-I ♂, 2 L-S/I ♂, 7 L- S ♂, 27 L-S-I ♀, 2 L-S/I ♀, 15 L-S ♀, 2 L/S ♂, 2 L/S ♀, GoogleMaps   74 larvae; Region Huanuco, Provincia Ambo: river Huertas near Ambo, 28.VIII.2013, coll. N. Kluge: GoogleMaps   2 larvae; Huacar (10°9’S, 76°15’W), 1–5.IX.2013: 1 L-S-I ♀, 1 L-S ♀, GoogleMaps   32 larvae; Region Loreto, Provincia Ucayali, Aguas Termales, 17 km NNE Contamana (7°12’S, 74°57’W), 26.VII– 4.VIII.2013, coll. N. Kluge & L. Sheyko: 1 S ♂. GoogleMaps  

Descriptions. Larva. CUTICULAR COLORATION ( Figs 66–67 View FIGURES 66–69 , 70–82 View FIGURES 70–85 ). Dorsal side of head, thorax and abdomen with highly variable coloration. Head either medially brown and laterally light ( Fig. 66 View FIGURES 66–69 ), or mostly brown ( Fig. 67 View FIGURES 66–69 ); pronotum either mostly light with contrasting brown maculae on these or that margins ( Figs 66 View FIGURES 66–69 , 70–73 View FIGURES 70–85 ), or mostly brown with light lateral margins ( Figs 67 View FIGURES 66–69 , 74–75 View FIGURES 70–85 ); mesonotum mostly brown, either with several separate blanks, or crossed by wide blanks ( Fig. 77 View FIGURES 70–85 ); abdominal terga either brown with blanks on lateral parts, or terga I–III and VI–VII brown and terga IV–V and VIII–X contrastingly light ( Figs 66 View FIGURES 66–69 , 81 View FIGURES 70–85 ). Femora with brown and light areas, tibiae and tarsi unicolor light ( Figs 77–80 View FIGURES 70–85 ).

HYPODERMAL COLORATION ( Fig. 68 View FIGURES 66–69 ). Abdominal terga, besides cuticular coloration (see above) often with paired transverse or round blackish spots corresponding to midway gray spots of imago. Tergalii either light grayish, or light brownish-reddish, or colorless; tracheae often black, sometimes light gray or colorless.

SHAPE AND SETATION. Clypeus widened distally; labrum 1.2–1.5 times wider than clypeus ( Fig. 76 View FIGURES 70–85 ). Labrum widest at 1/3 length from base; initial fore margin (often turned ventrally) without median emargination, slightly convex, with all 5 denticles wide; anterior transverse setal row regular, as wide as 3 or 5 denticles ( Fig. 88 View FIGURES 86–93 ). Maxilla with 14–17 pectinate setae in apical-ventral row.

Femora: Stout setae on anterior surface parallel-sided or widened distally, apically blunt ( Fig. 83 View FIGURES 70–85 ). Irregular row of hairs near inner margin sparse on fore femur, dense on middle and hind femora.

Fore tibia ( Fig. 84 View FIGURES 70–85 ): outer hairs form two irregular rows; inner-anterior row of recurved hairs absent; inner-anterior row of stout setae represented by few (2–4) blunt stout setae near tibia base; inner field of stout pointed setae dense (i.e. setae longer than distances between them), consists of pointed bipectinate and smooth setae, situated irregularly (about 3 setae in cross section).

Hind tibia ( Fig. 85 View FIGURES 70–85 ): outer-anterior row of stout setae consists of two clearly different types of stout setae: numerous short rounded ones and several long spoon-like ones; outer-posterior row of stout setae consists of stout blunt setae of various lengths; hairs located between these rows, numerous and form more than one row (besides row of hairs posteriad of outer-posterior row of stout setae); stout setae of inner-anterior row short, widened distally and truncated.

Claws with 6–10 denticles on rigid portion, with or without minute denticles on articulatory portion.

Tergalii ( Figs 90–93 View FIGURES 86–93 ): wide; on both lamellae main trachea with many branches directed toward costal and anal margins; dorsal lamella with costal margin most convex in proximal part and anal margin most convex in distal part, gradually narrowed toward apex, with slender apical filament; ventral lamella widest near base, gradually narrowed toward apex, with slender apical filament.

Male genitalia in last larval instar ( Figs 106–109 View FIGURES 106–111 ): protogonostyli separated one from another by deep emargination. Each protopenes lobe with gonopore-bearing process located near median margin; gonopore opened caudally.

Subimago ( Figs 94–95 View FIGURES 94–100 , 115 View FIGURES 112–120 ). CUTICULAR COLORATION. Cuticle mostly colorless. Flagellum of antenna brown. Pronotum colorless. Mesonotum with colorless and brown areas; antelateroparapsidal suture contrastingly colored with dark brown, lateroparapsidal suture and some other areas lighter brown; chromozone of medioscutum light brown, chromozone of submedioscutum contrastingly lighter ( Figs 94–95 View FIGURES 94–100 ), sometimes colorless. Fore femur mostly colorless, more or less colored by brown on outer margin and on apex; middle and hind femora colorless; on each leg tibia and tarsus light brown. Cuticle of wings colorless, microtrichia light brownish.Abdominal terga mostly colorless, diffusively shed by brown medially; sterna colorless; gonostyli colorless; caudalii light brownish.

TEXTURE. On tarsi of all legs, 1st tarsomere with microtrichia (as tibia), 2nd–5th tarsomeres coved by blunt microlepides; pointed microlepides present near apical margins of 2nd–4th tarsomeres of middle and hind legs (as in Fig. 473 View FIGURES 464–473 ).

Male imago ( Figs 96–99 View FIGURES 94–100 , 101–105 View FIGURES 101–105 , 110–120 View FIGURES 106–111 View FIGURES 112–120 ). Described by Needham & Murphy (1924) and Traver & Edmunds (1967).

Head brown. Antenna with scapus ocher with brown macula; pedicellus proximally ocher, distally brown; flagellum brownish with ocher base. Dorsal eyes contiguous medially, dull orange.

Prothorax ocher with pair of dark brown oblique stripes on pleura. Mesonotum and metanotum ocher or/and brown. Lateral sides of pterothorax with brown and ocher areas. Ventral side of pterothorax with mesothoracic epi- sterna, basisternum, furcasternal protuberances and furcasternal median impression either brown with ocher ( Fig. 98 View FIGURES 94–100 ), or brown.

Cuticle of legs mostly colorless; on fore leg apex of femur and base of tibia with cuticle brown. Legs with following hypodermal pigmentation on whitish-ocher background: Fore femur brown with diffusive spot(s) or interrupted band on proximal half and with multicolored apical band occupying distal 0.4 of femur; apical band brownish-yellowish, proximally bordered by brown, on inner and outer sides with brown longitudinal stripes. Middle and hind femora with multicolored pre-apical band within apical 0.4 of femur; pre-apical band brownish-yellowish, proximally bordered by brown, on inner and outer sides with brown longitudinal stripes; apical 1.0 of femur nonpigmented. Tibia of each leg apically dark brown. In selected individual, relation of fore femur to fore wing length 75:325; proportions femur/tibia/tarsomeres on fore leg 75:107:2:26:20:18:10; on middle leg 70:80:4:4:3:3:9; on hind leg 85:90:4:4:3:3:9.

Fore wing with longitudinal and cross veins ocher; costal braces and bases of Sc and R bordered by brown. Costal cross veins proximad of bulla either absent, of few, colorless and very thin, so that visible only under high magnification (as in Fig. 142 View FIGURES 133–142 ); occasionally proximal part of costal field with several well-visible cross veins. Pterostigmatic cross veins moderately dense, oblique, arched, non-branched ( Fig. 96 View FIGURES 94–100 ) or occasionally anastomozed. Hind wing with veins colorless, with brown macula on costal brace. Proximal coloration of fore and hind wings appears during larval development and present both in subimago and imago.

Abdominal hypodermal coloration: Tergum I ocher-brown. Terga II–VI mostly light ocher, translucent, with or without brown band on posterior margin, medially more or less tinged with darker ocher; terga III–VI or III–VI with pair of smaller or larger gray midway spots; pleura with gray stigmatic dots. Terga VII–X with orange or ocherbrownish coloration: tergum VII mostly colored with latero-posterior areas whitish, tergum VIII colored anteriorlymedially and whitish posteriorly-laterally, terga XI–X mostly colored; lateral margins of terga VIII and IX with blackish-brown longitudinal stripes. Abdominal sterna I–IX light ocher; posterolateral angles of sterna VII and VIII with pair of blackish-brown spots. Caudalii with segments alternated as following: black; white; white proximally and black distally; white.

Genitalia ( Figs 101–120 View FIGURES 101–105 View FIGURES 106–111 View FIGURES 112–120 ): Styliger ocher. Gonostyli either entirely ocher, or with long segment distally brownish ( Fig. 102 View FIGURES 101–105 ). Penis either entirely light ocher, or partly with brown cuticular or/and hypodermal coloration. Dorsal extension of styliger small and prominent. Penis lobes long and divergent; each lobe gradually widened apically, without lateral pouch; in other respects shape of penis lobes variable. Apico-lateral area usually forming well-expressed ear, occasionally without ear ( Fig. 119 View FIGURES 112–120 ). Telopenes in form of spear-like rolls, more or less straight, arising on dorsal side of penes and directed medially or medially-caudally (not inclined dorsally or ventrally), with groove opened dorsally-laterally; length of spear-like rolls varies individually.

Female imago ( Fig. 100 View FIGURES 94–100 ). Coloration of head, thorax, legs, wings and caudalii as in male. Abdominal terga II–VI ocher with brownish; coloration of other abdominal segments as in male.

Eggs ( Fig. 121 View FIGURE 121 ). Mostly barrel-shaped. Each KTC surrounded by smooth, ring-like cover. Few small protuberances located close to these rings; other chorion without protuberances.

Dimension. Fore wing length (and approximate body length) 7.5–9.5 mm (this study); 10–11 (according to Traver & Edmunds 1967).

Distribution. Peru ( Needham & Murphy 1924; this study).

Synonymy. Th. telegraphicus   is one of the most common mayfly species in low altitudes of eastern slopes of Andes (regions Junin and Huanuco of Peru). Originally ( Needham & Murphy 1924), imago of this species was described from the Region of Junin under the name Th. telegraphicus   , and subimago—under the name Th. plicatus   . Synonymy of these two names was established by Traver (1946), who reexamined the both holotypes.

Larvae were described by Roback (1966) from Region of Huanuco without species names. Probably, among six larval forms distinguished by Roback, the forms reported as Thraulodes   sp. 1, Th. sp. 2, Th. sp. 4 and Th. sp. 6 belong to Th. telegraphicus   . The forms «2» and «6» have contrastingly light pronotum and contrasting dark and light areas on mesonotum and abdomen (as in Figs 66 View FIGURES 66–69 , 70–73, 81 View FIGURES 70–85 ), while the forms «1» and «4» have more uniform brown coloration (as in Figs 67 View FIGURES 66–69 , 75, 82 View FIGURES 70–85 ). The forms «1» and «2» have tergalii with tracheal branches by sides of main trachea, while the forms «4» and «6» are said to lack these branches. Among material examined by me, all larvae have side trachea, but in some larvae from Huacar the side trachea are colorless and can be overlooked. Two other larval forms described by Roback, are different from Th. telegraphicus   . The form «3» (describes as one larva from Puente Perez) differs from Th. telegraphicus   by acute small stout femoral setae ( Roback 1966: fig. 184); its systematic position remains unknown. The form «5» is T. quevedoensis   (see below).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Ephemeroptera

Family

Leptophlebiidae

Genus

Thraulodes

Loc

Thraulodes telegraphicus Needham & Murphy 1924

Kluge, Nikita J. 2020
2020
Loc

Thraulodes

Roback, S. S. 1966: 145
1966
Loc

Thraulodes telegraphicus

Traver, J. R. 1946: 428
Needham, J. G. & Murphy, H. E. 1924: 41
1924
Loc

Thraulodes plicatus

Needham, J. G. & Murphy, H. E. 1924: 42
1924