Thraulodes sinuosus Mariano & Flowers 2011

Kluge, Nikita J., 2020, Systematic position of Thraulodes Ulmer 1920 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) and descriptions of new and little-known species, Zootaxa 4756 (1), pp. 1-142: 26-32

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4756.1.1

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Thraulodes sinuosus Mariano & Flowers 2011


2. Thraulodes sinuosus Mariano & Flowers 2011  

( Figs 42–65 View FIGURES 42–51 View FIGURES 52–59 View FIGURES 60–63 View FIGURES 64–65 )

Thraulodes sinuosus Mariano & Flowers   : Mariano, Flowers & Froehlich 2011: 391, figs 16–27 (♂ imago).

Material examined. PANAMA, Provincia Bocas del Toro, Punta de Peña, Rio Guabo (8°55’N, 82°11’W), 29– 31.I.2018, coll. N. Kluge & L. Sheyko: 1 L-S-I ♂, 1 L-S/I ♂, 2 L-S ♂, 1 L/S ♂; Bosque protector Palo Seco, Altos del Valle, Rio Buris (8°47’37’’N, 82°11’35’’W), 24–29.I.2018, coll. L. Sheyko & N. Kluge: 1 I ♀.


Larva. CUTICULAR COLORATION ( Figs 42–47 View FIGURES 42–51 ). Dorsal side of head, thorax and abdomen mostly brown with few blanks: pronotum bordered by light laterally and medioposteriorly, with pair of large roundish blanks anteriorly and pair of roundish blanks submedially; fore protoptera with convex and concave longitudinal veins lighter than background; abdominal terga with blanks on lateral parts, area mediad of tergalii attachments nearly unicolor brown. Femora mostly brown with blanks; tibiae and tarsi uniformly light brownish.

HYPODERMAL COLORATION. Unknown; probably, abdominal terga with paired blackish spots corresponding to midway gray spots of imago (as in Fig. 58 View FIGURES 52–59 ). Tergalii gray, tracheae black ( Fig. 48 View FIGURES 42–51 ).

SHAPE AND SETATION. Clypeus widened distally or parallel-sided; labrum 1.3–1.4 times wider than clypeus ( Fig. 42 View FIGURES 42–51 ). Labrum widest at 0.4 of length from base; initial fore margin (turned ventrally) without median emargination, with all 5 denticles wide; anterior transverse setal row regular, as wide as 3 denticles (as in Fig. 88 View FIGURES 86–93 ). Maxilla with 14–15 pectinate setae in apical-ventral row.

Femora: Stout setae on anterior surface parallel-sided and blunt ( Fig. 49 View FIGURES 42–51 ). Irregular row of hairs near inner margin absent on fore femur, sparse on middle and hind femora.

Fore tibia ( Fig. 50 View FIGURES 42–51 ): outer hairs form two separated irregular rows; inner-anterior recurved hairs absent; inneranterior row of stout setae represented by few (2–3) blunt stout setae near tibia base; inner field of stout pointed setae moderately dense (setae lengths subequal to distances between them), its setae subequal in lengths, forming 2 rows, setae of anterior row mostly bipectinate or dentate, setae of posterior row smooth.

Hind tibia ( Fig. 51 View FIGURES 42–51 ): each of three rows of stout setae—outer-anterior, outer-posterior and inner-anterior onesconsists of blunt stout setae of various lengths; hairs located between outer-anterior and outer-posterior rows, form one irregular row (besides row of hairs posteriad of outer-posterior row of stout setae).

Claws with 7–10 denticles on rigid portion, with one or several minute denticles on articulatory portion.

Tergalii ( Fig. 48 View FIGURES 42–51 ): each lamella slender, tracheae without side branches.

Male genitals in last larval instar ( Fig. 62 View FIGURES 60–63 ): protogonostyli separated one from another by moderately deep emargination. Each protopenes lobe conic, without gonopore-bearing process; gonopore opened caudally-laterally.

Subimago ( Figs 56 View FIGURES 52–59 , 61 View FIGURES 60–63 ). CUTICULAR COLORATION. Cuticle mostly colorless. Flagellum of antenna brownish. Mesonotum with antelateroparapsidal and lateroparapsidal sutures contrastingly colored with dark brown, chromozones and some other areas shed with very light brownish ( Fig. 56 View FIGURES 52–59 ). On all legs tibia and tarsus light brownish (as in Fig. 31 View FIGURES 25–34 ). Cuticle of wings colorless, microtrichia light brownish. Caudalii light brownish. Other cuticle of body, legs and gonostyli colorless.

TEXTURE. On tarsi of all legs, 1st tarsomere with microtrichia (as tibia), 2nd–5th tarsomeres coved by blunt microlepides; pointed microlepides present near apical margins of 2nd–4th tarsomeres of middle and hind legs (as in Fig. 473 View FIGURES 464–473 ).

Male imago ( Figs 52–55, 59 View FIGURES 52–59 , 60, 63 View FIGURES 60–63 ). Head ocher with brown. Antenna with scapus ocher, pedicellus reddishbrown, flagellum ocher. Dorsal eyes contiguous medially, dull orange.

Prothorax ocher with pair of dark brown spots above coxa. Meso- and metanotum light brown. Lateral sides of pterothorax ocher with brown. Ventral side of pterothorax mostly ocher, with transverse pale orange band crossing anterior part of mesothoracic episterna and basisternum.

Cuticle of legs mostly colorless; on fore leg apex of femur and base of tibia with cuticle light brown. Legs with following hypodermal pigmentation on whitish background: Fore femur with multicolored pre-apical band, occupying distal 0.4 of femur; pre-apical band mainly orange, proximally bordered by blackish-brown, on inner side with blackish-brown longitudinal stripe. Middle and hind femora ocher, with multicolored pre-apical band within apical 1/3 of femur; pre-apical band mainly orange, proximally bordered by blackish-brown. In selected individual, relation of fore femur to fore wing length 50:240; proportions femur/tibia/tarsomeres on fore leg 50:75:2:23:20:10:6; on middle leg 47:60:1:4:3:2:5; on hind leg 60:65:1:4:3:2:5.

Fore and hind wings with dark brown macula on costal brace and bases of Sc and R; longitudinal and cross veins colorless (proximal coloration of fore and hind wings appears during larval development and present both in subimago and imago). Costal cross veins proximad of bulla few, colorless and very thin, so that visible only under high magnification (as in Fig. 32 View FIGURES 25–34 ). Pterostigmatic cross veins not dense, perpendicular to longitudinal veins or slightly oblique, non-branched ( Fig. 59 View FIGURES 52–59 ). Hind wing with prominent costal projection ( Fig. 63 View FIGURES 60–63 ).

Abdominal hypodermal coloration ( Fig. 52 View FIGURES 52–59 ): Tergum I orange with brown. Terga II–VI mostly whitish, translu- cent, with brown band on posterior margin; terga IV–VI or III–VII with pair of small gray midway spots; tergum IV with pair of brown or orange median transverse spots; pleura with gray stigmatic dots. Tergum VII orange, tergum VIII anteriorly-medially orange and posteriorly-laterally white, terga XI–X orange. Abdominal sternum I looks brownish due to cuticular pigmentation ( Fig. 53 View FIGURES 52–59 ), other sterna whitish. Caudalii mostly white, with black dot on each joining; larger and smaller dots alternated (as in Fig. 58 View FIGURES 52–59 ).

Genitalia ( Figs 54–55 View FIGURES 52–59 , 60–62 View FIGURES 60–63 ): Styliger, gonostyli and penis light ocher. Dorsal extension of styliger wide and not separated from styliger. Penis lobes simplified, narrowed apically, without ventro-median ridges. Basal lobes (containing seminal pump) not separated from remainder penis. Telopenes short, sharply bent ventrally-proximally and curved, with groove shallow, widely opened and exposed ventrally-caudally.

Female imago (not reared) ( Figs 57–58 View FIGURES 52–59 ). Coloration of thorax as in male, except for pronotum, which is brown with ocher margins ( Fig. 58 View FIGURES 52–59 ) and median furcasternal impression, which has brown macula ( Fig. 57 View FIGURES 52–59 ). Coloration of head, wings, legs and caudalii as in male. Abdominal terga I–VII brown with ocher, tergum VIII anteriorly-medially brown and posteriorly-laterally white, terga IX–X orange.

Eggs (extracted from non-reared female imago) ( Figs 64–65 View FIGURES 64–65 ). Mostly barrel-shaped. Each KTC surrounded by narrow, smooth, ring-like cover. Small protuberances located mostly close to these rings; other chorion nearly without protuberances.

Dimension. Fore wing length (and approximate body length) 6–6.7 mm.

Distribution. Costa Rica ( Mariano et al. 2011), Panama ( Mariano et al. 2011; this study).














Thraulodes sinuosus Mariano & Flowers 2011

Kluge, Nikita J. 2020

Thraulodes sinuosus Mariano & Flowers

Mariano, R. & Flowers, R. W. & Froehlich, C. G. 2011: 391