Sparianthina Banks, 1929,

Jaeger, Peter, Rheims, Cristina & Labarque, Facundo, 2009, On the huntsman spider genera Sparianthina Banks, 1929 and Anaptomecus Simon, 1903 from South and Central America (Araneae, Sparassidae), ZooKeys 16 (16), pp. 115-147: 117-118

publication ID 10.3897/zookeys.16.236

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Sparianthina Banks, 1929


Genus Sparianthina Banks, 1929 

Sparianthina Banks, 1929  : (description of genus). Roewer 1954: 684. Bonnet 1958: 4110. Platnick 2009.

Type species by monotypy: Sparianthina selenopoides Banks, 1929  .

Extended diagnosis. Small sized Sparassidae  with total length: 5.2-9.8. Cheliceral teeth with 3 (in exceptional cases with 4) promarginal and 4 to 8 retromarginal teeth; cheliceral furrow with denticles, mostly arranged in a long row ( Figs 10View Figures 1-13, 26, 33View Figures 22-33, 38, 43View Figures 34-45, 52View Figures 50-54, 63View Figures 55-64). Eye arrangement similar to Heteropodinae  ( Jäger 1998) with lateral eyes larger than median eyes and anterior eye row recurved, posterior eye row slightly recurved to straight. Posterior lateral eyes close to transition between narrow head part and thoracic part of prosoma ( Figs 25, 32View Figures 22-33, 39, 44View Figures 34-45, 53View Figures 50-54, 62View Figures 55-64). Lateral projections of trilobate membrane extending beyond median hook ( Fig. 11View Figures 1-13). Female palpal claw with moderately elongated teeth ( Figs 13View Figures 1-13, 64View Figures 55-64; Jäger 2004: fig. 15 sub Anaptomecus  sp.). Males with tegulum shifted basally, leaving space in the distal alveolus for a strongly developed subtegulum (e.g., Figs 2, 6View Figures 1-13). Embolus in some species with embolic apophysis, membranous conductor situated on a membranous base, thus being movable ( Fig. 9View Figures 1-13). Heavy dorsal tegular apophysis (DTA) present, situated dorsally from embolus and being in tight contact with subtegulum by a hook or other appendages ( Figs 1-2, 4View Figures 1-13). RTA arising medially to distally from tibia with complex shape and more than one apex. Females hardly diagnosable by their copulatory organs; in most species known so far epigynal furrows (“epigyneale Falte/Furche” sensu Järvi 1912, 1914) only present in anterior epigyne ( Fig. 46View Figures 46-49: EF), not connecting to epigastric furrow (exception: S. pumilla  comb. n.), posterior epigyne slightly extending beyond epigastric furrow as a rounded median extension. Internal duct system with one pair of glandular appendages in functionally initial part, i.e. in anterior part.

Redescription. Total length (♁♁ and ♀♀) 5.2-9.8. Prosoma as long as wide. Cephalic region slightly higher than thoracic region. Fovea long and conspicuous on posterior third of prosoma. Eyes arranged in two rows, the anterior recurved and posterior straight or very slightly recurved. AME slightly smaller than ALE and further apart from each other than from laterals. PME smaller than PLE, equidistant. Clypeus low, as high as or slightly lower than AME diameter. Chelicerae longer than wide, the two retrolateral basal teeth smaller than others. Intermarginal denticles present, mostly scattered at the base of the cheliceral groove. Gnathocoxae parallel, longer than wide with dense scopula on internal margin ( Fig. 45View Figures 34-45). Leg formula 2143. Tarsi I-IV with pair of pectinate claws bearing 15-20 short and slightly curved teeth. Female pedipalp with single pectinate claw with 5-6 long and curved teeth. Opisthosoma slightly triangular, longer than wide. Tracheal spiracle contiguous to spinnerets. Anal tubercule small and triangular, covered by a few long hairs. Six spinnerets: anterior lateral spinnerets contiguous, conical and bi-segmented. Basal segment slightly elongate and cylindrical. Distal segment short and truncated. Posterior median spinnerets conical and short. Posterior lateral spinnerets conical and bi-segmented. Basal segment elongate and cylindrical. Distal segment short and truncated.

Male palp: Tibia slightly longer than cymbium, with one retrolateral, one dorsal and three prolateral spines. Distal margin with small ventro-retrolateral, triangular projection and retrolateral RTA. Cymbium with large median alveolus and elongate dorsal scopula. Subtegulum oval, smooth. Tegulum with retrolateral swelling and subembolic projection, the latter notched onto the subtegulum. Embolus with wide base and distally narrowed, with one or two small projections at its base. Conductor long and hyaline.

Female epigynum: epigynum divided longitudinally into a median septum and lateral borders. Lateral borders smooth, lacking projections. Anterior atrium bearing pair of copulatory openings. Vulva with long and convoluted internal duct system with small, anterior glandular projection close to copulatory openings. Fertilisation ducts very long and hook shaped.

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana (undescribed species are known from Ecuador, Trinidad and Tobago, French Guyana).

Composition. Sparianthina selenopoides Banks, 1929  , Sparianthina pumilla ( Keyserling, 1880)  comb. n., Sparianthina rufescens ( Mello-Leitão, 1940)  comb. n., Sparianthina milleri ( Caporiacco, 1955)  comb. n., Sparianthina deltshevi  sp. n., Sparianthina adisi  sp. n., Sparianthina saaristoi  sp. n.

Relationships. Sparianthina  resembles in several characters Heteropodinae  from Asia and Africa: Eye arrangement with lateral eyes larger than median eyes and at least the anterior eye row distinctly recurved, denticles in cheliceral furrow present in combination with 3 promarginal teeth, long teeth on the ♀ palpal claw and trilobate membrane with all three elements, i.e., median hook and lateral projections well developed and of about the same size ( Jäger 1998). Cheliceral denticles occur in various genera of Sparassidae  , e.g., in the Asian genera Gnathopalystes Rainbow, 1899  , Prychia L. Koch, 1875  and Tychicus Simon, 1880  , in some African, European and Asian species of Eusparassus Simon, 1903  , and in the South American genus Adcatomus Karsch, 1880  [only females of A. flavovittatus (Simon, 1897)  ] ( Jäger 1998, 2001; Rheims 2008). All these species have less than three promarginal teeth on the chelicerae and are not considered closely related to either Heteropodinae  or Sparianthina  . The character combination of denticles with three promarginal teeth is known from Asian, Australian, and African Heteropodinae  . Moreover, it occurs in some representatives in East Africa and Madagascar ( Jäger 2004). However, as Sparassidae  exist with denticles and three retromarginal teeth in combination with different character states in eye arrangement and female palpal claw, Sparianthina  is not included in Heteropodinae  . An extended systematic grouping (“ Heteropodinae  s. l.”) may include Heteropodinae  s. str. (sensu Jäger 1998, 2002), East African, Madagascan (key in Jäger and Kunz 2005: 166; Berlandia Lessert, 1921  , species group near “ Rhitymna  ” saccata Järvi, 1914) and South American ( Sparianthina  , Sadala Simon, 1880  , Anaptomecus Simon, 1903  ) genera.












Sparianthina Banks, 1929

Jaeger, Peter, Rheims, Cristina & Labarque, Facundo 2009


Sparianthina Banks, 1929
Roewer 1954: 684
Bonnet 1958: 4110
Platnick 2009