Leptopholcus tipula ( Simon, 1907 )

Huber, Bernhard A., 2009, Life on leaves: leaf-dwelling pholcids of Guinea, with emphasis on Crossopriza cylindrogaster Simon, a spider with inverted resting position, pseudo-eyes, lampshade web, and tetrahedral egg-sac (Araneae: Pholcidae), Journal of Natural History 43 (39 - 40), pp. 2491-2523 : 2506-2510

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1080/00222930903207876

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/0396E66E-FFFB-BB0B-FE7E-D11FFE007BC7

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Leptopholcus tipula ( Simon, 1907 )
status

 

Leptopholcus tipula ( Simon, 1907)

( Figures 8, 9 View Figures 7–14 , 26, 27, 30, 31 View Figures 15–31 , 82–100 View Figures 82–86 View Figures 87–100 , 149 View Figures 148–149 )

Micromerys tipula Simon 1907, p. 248 –249.

Leptopholcus tipula Brignoli 1980, p. 653 ; Deeleman-Reinhold 1986b, p. 206.

Type

The original description is based on a female from “Ile Fernando-Poo: Punta Frailes” ( Equatorial Guinea: Bioko, ∼ 3°46′N, 8°42′E); this specimen is apparently lost (could not be found in MNHN) GoogleMaps .

Note

Simon (1907) mentioned additional material from Gabon, and these non-type specimens are well preserved and still available in the MNHN (see later). They are identical to specimens newly collected on Bioko very close to the type locality. In addition, no other Leptopholcus species has been collected on Bioko, and the only other species collected in Cameroon is clearly different (B.A. Huber, unpublished data). Together, this suggests that the following material is in fact conspecific with Simon’s lost type.

Diagnosis

Easily distinguished from known congeners by the semitransparent flap dorsally on the uncus ( Figures 82 View Figures 82–86 , 87, 88 View Figures 87–100 ).

Male (Bioko: Punta Beecrof)

Total body length 7.1, carapace width 0.9. Leg 1: 36.8 (9.2 + 0.4 + 8.5 + 14.6 + 4.1), tibia 2: 6.4, tibia 3: 4.4, tibia 4: 7.2, tibia 1 L/d: 113. Habitus as in Figures 26 and 27 View Figures 15–31 ; entire spider mostly pale ochre-yellow to whitish, patella area and tibia-metatarsus joints brown. Distance PME–PME 370 µm, diameter PME 80 µm, distance PME– ALE 45 µm, no trace of AME. Ocular area not elevated, each triad on low hump, some stronger hairs on posterior side. No thoracic furrow, clypeus unmodified. Chelicerae as in Figure 84 View Figures 82–86 , with indistinct lateral apophyses distally. Sternum wider than long (0.65/0.50), unmodified. Palps as in Figures 82 and 83 View Figures 82–86 , coxa unmodified, trochanter with ventral apophysis with serrated tip ( Figure 89 View Figures 87–100 ), femur with distinct retrolateral apophysis proximally, widened ventrally, tarsal organ capsulate ( Figure 82 View Figures 82–86 ), procursus with distinctive distal elements ( Figures 90, 91 View Figures 87–100 ), some of them membranous, bulb with short weakly sclerotized embolus, uncus with long dorsal transparent flap, appendix short and massive ( Figures 82 View Figures 82–86 , 87 View Figures 87–100 ). Legs without spines and curved hairs, few vertical hairs; retrolateral trichobothrium on tibia 1 at 3%; prolateral trichobothrium missing on tibia 1, present on other tibiae; tarsal pseudosegments not visible in dissecting microscope. ALS with one widened and one pointed spigot; PMS with two small spigots ( Figure 93 View Figures 87–100 ). Gonopore with four epiandrous spigots ( Figure 94 View Figures 87–100 ).

Variation

In some males dorsal part of clypeus slightly darkened; in some abdomen appears (still) greenish. Tibia 1 in 36 other males: 7.2–8.8 (mean 8.0). In males from Bilik, Cameroon, uncus slightly smaller; in males from Mayombe, Congo D. R., sclerotized part of uncus slightly narrower; in males from Ghana and Guinea, both uncus and appendix minimally different in shape ( Figures 87 and 88 View Figures 87–100 are from slightly different angles of view and thus exaggerate this difference).

Female

In general similar to male but triads closer together (distance PME–PME 300 µm). Tibia 1 in 65 females: 5.9–7.5 (mean 6.8). Tip of palpal tarsus ending in sclerotized cone accompanied by several strong bristles ( Figure 96 View Figures 87–100 ). Spinnerets and spigots as in male ( Figure 98 View Figures 87–100 ). Tarsus 4 with ventral row of comb-hairs ( Figure 99 View Figures 87–100 ). Epigynum very simple and weakly sclerotized ( Figures 30 View Figures 15–31 , 95 View Figures 87–100 ), with distinctive internal structures (including pair of apparent pockets) visible through cuticle ( Figure 30 View Figures 15–31 ); internal genitalia as in Figures 31 View Figures 15–31 and 86 View Figures 82–86 . The female from Makokou, Gabon, has a slightly different epigynum and is therefore assigned tentatively.

Distribution

Widely distributed, ranging at least from western Congo D. R. to eastern Guinea ( Figure 149 View Figures 148–149 ).

Material examined

EQUATORIAL GUINEA: Bioko : Punta Beecrof (3°43.3′N, 8°39.7′E), at night, 18.x.1998 (D.K. Dabney, D. Ubick), 131♀ in CAS GoogleMaps ; 3.5 km N Luba (3°28.9′N, 8°35.0′E), swampy forest, 13.x.1998 (M. Boko, D.K. Dabney, L. Henwood, R. W. Tomos, D. Ubick, J. V. Vindum), 1♀ 1 juv. in CAS GoogleMaps .

CONGO DEM. REP.: Bas Congo, Mayombe, Luki Forest Reserve (5°37.3’S, 13°05.9′E), 270 m a.s.l., primary rainforest, 4.-13.xi.2006, 26.ix.-4.x.2007 (D. de Bakker, J.P. Michiels), 37365 ♀ in MRAC (15 vials separated from 219850-855, 224312-319; and 222067); same locality and collectors: beating along trail near guest house, 8./ 14.xi.2006, 232♀ in MRAC (2 vials separated from 219959 and 991); beating along trail, primary rainforest, 11.xi.2006, 13 in MRAC (221534); beating in secondary forest, 16.xi.2006, 132♀ in MRAC (219849); old secondary rainforest, 17.- 25.ix.2007, 14321 ♀ in MRAC (9 vials, separated from 224303-311); young secondary rainforest, 14.ix.2007, 1♀ in MRAC (separated from 224301) GoogleMaps .

GABON: unspecified locality and date, collected by “Mcq.”, 131♀ in MNHN (10499; Simon collection number 15558) . 10 km S Bigouenia [∼ 0°55’S, 10°21′E], 29.xii.1985 (A. Pauly), 1♀ in MRAC (172913) GoogleMaps . Ogooue-Maritime: Reserve de Faune de la Moukalaba-Dougoua, 12.2. km 305° NW Doussala (2°17.0’S, 10°29.8′E), 110 m a.s.l., rainforest, beating vegetation, 24.ii.2000 (B.L. Fisher), 13 in CAS GoogleMaps (9027072).

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: Sangha-Mbaéré: Parc National Dzanga- Ndoki, 37.9 km 169° S Lidjombo (2°22.2′N, 16°10.3′E), 360 m a.s.l., rainforest, beating low vegetation, 20.-28.v.2001 (B.L. Fisher), 13 in CAS (separated from 9027099) GoogleMaps .

CAMEROON: South Region: near Kribi (2°54.0′N, 9°54.4′E), 20 m a.s.l., 9.iv.2009 (B.A. Huber), 333♀ in ZFMK GoogleMaps ; same data, 2♀ 7 juvs. in pure ethanol, in ZFMK GoogleMaps . Between Kribi and Campo , “site 1” (2°42.2′N, 9°51.8′E), 10 m a.s.l., 10.iv.2009 (B.A. Huber), 13 in ZFMK GoogleMaps ; same data, 2♀ 2 juvs. in pure ethanol, in ZFMK GoogleMaps . Between Kribi and Campo , “site 2” (2°40.4′N, 9°51.4′E), 15 m a.s.l., 10.iv.2009 (B.A. Huber), 2♀ 2 juvs. in pure ethanol, in ZFMK GoogleMaps . Bilik (3°32′N, 11°17′E), Terminalia forest, fogging sample 92/13, 29.i.1993 (A. Russell-Smith), 131♀ in ZFMK GoogleMaps ; same data but “F04 A2/ 1B”, 132♀ 1 juv. in ZFMK GoogleMaps . Littoral Region: Douala [∼ 4°03′N, 9°45′E], 1913 (A. Haas), 1♀ in SMF GoogleMaps . Southwest Region: Fako Div., Limbe Subdiv. : 1.4 km NE of Etome (4°03.0′N, 9°07.5′E), ca. 400 m a.s.l., 13.-19.i.1992 (S. Larcher, G. Hormiga, J. Coddington, C.E. Griswold, C. Wanzie), 534♀ in CAS GoogleMaps ; same data, 9314 ♀ in USNM GoogleMaps . Mamfe [∼ 5°45′N, 9°19′E], 7.-11.i.1949 (B. Malkin), 1♀ in CAS GoogleMaps .

GHANA: Kakum forest (5°20′N, 1°23′W), secondary forest, 15./17./ 19.xi.2005 ( R. Jocqué, D. de Bakker, L. Baert), 734♀ in MRAC (3 vials: 217688, 691, 699); same data but primary forest, 16./18./21./23./ 25.xi.2005, 9310 ♀ in MRAC (5 vials: 217696, 700, 713, 716, 727) GoogleMaps .

GUINEA: Guinée Forestière : Forêt Classée de Diéké (7°32.0′N, 8°49.9′W), 430 m a.s.l., 1.xii.2008 (B.A. Huber), 33 in ZFMK GoogleMaps ; same data, 131♀ in pure ethanol, in ZFMK GoogleMaps ; Forêt Classée de Ziama (8°24.2′N, 9°19.3′W), 640 m a.s.l., 2.xii.2008 (B.A. Huber), 233♀ in ZFMK GoogleMaps ; same data, 2♀ in pure ethanol, in ZFMK GoogleMaps ; Mount Nimba (∼ 7°41.5′N, 8°24.5′W), ∼ 600 m a.s.l., forest, 29.xi.2008 (B.A. Huber), 2♀ in pure ethanol, in ZFMK GoogleMaps .

Assigned tentatively

GABON: Makokou , CNRS (0°04′N, 12°08′E), Ogooue-Invindo, ix.-xi.1976 (A.L. Rypstra), 1♀ in USNM GoogleMaps .

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

PMS

Peabody Essex Museum

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

MRAC

Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale

ZFMK

Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig

SMF

Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

CNRS

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Pholcidae

Genus

Leptopholcus

Loc

Leptopholcus tipula ( Simon, 1907 )

Huber, Bernhard A. 2009
2009
Loc

Leptopholcus tipula

Deeleman-Reinhold CL 1986: 206
Brignoli PM 1980: 653
1980
Loc

Micromerys tipula

Simon E 1907: 248
1907