Cyphocharax lundi, Dutra, Guilherme Moreira, Penido, Iago De Souza, Mello, Gabriel Caetano Guimarães De & Pessali, Tiago Casarim, 2016

Dutra, Guilherme Moreira, Penido, Iago De Souza, Mello, Gabriel Caetano Guimarães De & Pessali, Tiago Casarim, 2016, Two new species of Cyphocharax (Teleostei: Characiformes: Curimatidae) from headwaters of the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco river basins, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Zootaxa 4103 (2), pp. 154-164: 159-162

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4103.2.5

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A75C7E80-D00C-4CBB-8A40-ED61A8015EDA

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/039687E2-B47F-2A6D-F3EE-FC5EC641FEF3

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Cyphocharax lundi
status

new species

Cyphocharax lundi  , new species

( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4)

Holotype. MCNIP 807, 73.7 mm SL, Brazil, Minas Gerais State, Município Confins, Karst of Lagoa Santa, Córrego Capão de Santana, tributary of Córrego do Jaques, itself a tributary of the Rio das Velhas, Rio São Francisco drainage, 19 ° 36 ’ 55.61 ”S 43 ° 57 ’ 20.46 ”W, 0 6 Nov 2012, G. C. G. Mello and A. A. Rodrigues.

Paratype. All from Brazil, Minas Gerais State, Karst of Lagoa Santa, Córrego Capão de Santana, tributary of Córrego do Jaques, itself a tributary of the Rio das Velhas, Rio São Francisco drainage. MCNIP 1611, 1, 84.6 mm SL, Município Lagoa Santa, 19 ° 36 ’ 10.8 ”S 43 ° 56 ’ 22.54 ”W, 30 Oct 2011, G. C. G. Mello and J. S. Saliba. MPEG 33715, 1, 69.9 mm SL, Município Confins, 19 ° 36 ’ 55.61 ”S 43 ° 57 ’ 20.46 ”W, 12 Apr 2012, G. C. G. Mello and A. A. Rodrigues.

Diagnosis. Cyphocharax lundi  is distinguished from congeners, except C. jagunco  , C. punctatus  , and C. vanderi  by the presence of a midlateral series of irregular patches of dark pigmentation along the lateral line (vs. presence of a series of dark stripes or spots running between most scale rows in C. helleri  , C. multilineatus  , and C. pantostictus  ; a patch of dark pigmentation on the dorsal fin in C. notatus  and C. vexillapinnus  ; a single midlateral stripe in C. laticlavius  ; a patch of dark pigmentation on caudal peduncle in C. aninha  , C. biocellatus  , C. gilbert  , C. gangamon  , C. gillii  , C. gouldingi  , C. meniscaprorus  , C. mestomyllon  , C. modestus  , C. nagelii  , C. oenas  , C. saladensis  , C. sanctigabrieli  , C. santacatarinae  , C. signatus  , C. spilotus  , C. spiluropsis  , C. spilurus  and C. voga  ; or no pronounced pigmentation pattern on body in C. abramoides  , C. aspilos  , C. derhami  , C. festivus  , C. leucostictus  , C. magdalenae  , C. microcephalus  , C. nigripinnis  , C. platanus  , C. pinnilepis  , C. plumbeus  and C. stilbolepis  ). Cyphocharax lundi  differs from C. jagunco  , C. punctatus  and C. vanderi  by the presence of light brown spots above lateral line (vs. absence); and the number of scales in the lateral line, 36 (vs. 29–30 in C. jagunco  , 27–30 in C. punctatus  , and 27–29 in C. vanderi  ). It is further distinguished from C. punctatus  and C. vanderi  by possessing 7–11 irregular patches of dark pigmentation along the lateral line, including the caudal-peduncle spot (vs. 4–5 in C. punctatus  and 4–6 in C. vanderi  ); the 1–2 pored scales posterior to the hypural joint (vs. 3 or 4). Cyphocharax lundi  also differs from C. punctatus  by the presence of lateral line complete (vs. incomplete). It is further distinguished from C. vanderi  by the number of scales rows above lateral line, 5 ½– 6 ½ (vs. 4 ½). Cyphocharax lundi  also distinguished from C. jagunco  by the number of scales rows above lateral line, 5 ½– 6 ½ (vs. 4 ½ or 5).

Description. Morphometric data given in Table 1. Body elongate. Dorsal profile of head convex from margin of upper lip to vertical through anterior nostril, nearly straight from that point to supraoccipital spine. Dorsal profile of body convex from tip of supraoccipital spine to base of last dorsal-fin ray; nearly straight from base of last dorsal-fin ray to adipose-fin origin and then slightly concave to origin of anteriormost dorsal procurrent ray. Ventral profile of body convex to base of last anal-fin ray; and then concave to origin of anteriormost ventral procurrent ray. Greatest body depth at vertical through dorsal-fin origin.

Head compressed, greatest depth at nape. Mouth terminal. Upper jaw very slightly longer than lower jaw. Nostrils place close together and separated by thin flap of skin. Anterior nostril circular, closer to snout tip than to anterior margin of eye. Posterior nostril crescent-shaped; near midpoint between snout tip and anterior margin of eye. Nostrils separated by thin flap of skin. Adipose eyelid restricted to anterior margin of eye. Eye on middle of head length, laterally oriented. Branchial membranes joined at isthmus.

All scales of lateral line pored with primary laterosensory canal straight. Pored lateral-line scales from supracleithrum to hypural joint 35 (1) or 36 *(2). Pored scales on basal portions of caudal fin posterior to hypural joint 1 (1) or 2 *(1). Scales in transverse series from dorsal-fin origin to lateral line 5 ½(2) or 6 ½*(1). Scales in transverse series from anal-fin origin to lateral line 4 (1), 5 *(1) or 5 ½(1). Scales between anus and anal-fin origin 1 *(2) or 2 (1). Middorsal series of scales from rear of supraoccipital spine to dorsal-fin origin 12 (1) or 13 *(2). Scales covering proximal portion of caudal-fin rays. Caudal fin scales similar in size to those on posterior portion of caudal peduncle.

Pectoral fin pointed, i, 13 *(1), i, 14 (1) or i, 15 (1) rays; tip of adpressed pectoral fin reaching vertical through dorsal-fin origin. Dorsal-fin pointed, ii, 9 *(3) rays; first unbranched ray about one-half length of second unbranched ray, second unbranched ray and first branched ray larger than others, branched rays gradually decreasing in size. Pelvic fin emarginated, i, 8 *(3) rays. Pelvic-fin origin at vertical through fifth branched ray of dorsal fin. Tip of adpressed pelvic fin reaching one scale short of anus. Anal fin emarginated, ii, 7 *(3) rays; first unbranched ray about one-third length of second unbranched ray, first branched ray larger than others, subsequent branched rays gradually decreasing in size. Adipose fin present. Caudal fin forked, lobes somewhat pointed, i, 9 / 8,i*(3) rays.

Coloration in alcohol. Ground color of body light brown, becoming progressively white silvery ventrally. Body overall covered by dark chromatofores from dorsum becoming scarcely ventrally. Laterodorsal region of body with small light brown spots, irregular in shape, from point immediately posterior of head to caudal peduncle. Lateral surface of body with series of 7 to 11 irregular dark blotches. Last blotch on caudal peduncle horizontally elongated forming a large ovoid spot sometimes extending to base of middle caudal-fin rays. Centers of blotches typically near or slightly above lateral line.

Ground color of head light brown becoming progressively lighter ventrally. Neurocranium covered by chromatophores from upper lip to fourth or fifth infraorbitals bone and middle of operculum. Infraorbitals, operculum and suboperculum silvery retaining guanine.

All fins overall hyaline. Dorsal and caudal fin scattered dark chromatophores increasing in density at fin base. Adipose fin with concentration of dark chromatophores at borders.

Coloration in life. Based on a photograph of the paratype ( MCNIP 1611), taken immediately after fixation ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 B). Ground coloration of body and head yellowish silver. All fins overall hyaline.

Distribution and habitat. Known from Karst of Lagoa Santa, Córrego Capão de Santana, tributary of Córrego do Jaques, itself a tributary of the Rio das Velhas, Rio São Francisco drainage ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2). The Córrego Capão de Santana is a surface drainage of the karst area of Lagoa Santa with approximately 5.0 meters wide and maximum depth of 1.6 meters. It is characterized by murky waters of moderate flow, sandy substrate with small size pebbles, and vegetation on its margins ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5). Cyphocharax lundi  occurs syntopically with 18 other species, among them: Astyanax cf. bockmanni  , Astyanax fasciatus  , Hyphessobrycon santae  , Lepidocharax burnsi  , Piabina argentea  , Poecilia reticulata  , Rhamdia aff. quelen  and Rhamdiopsis microcephala  .

Etymology. The specific epithet “ lundi  ” is in honor to the Danish naturalist Peter W. Lund (1801–1880), in recognition to his contributions in paleontology, archeology, zoology and speleology. Lund made his major scientific discoveries in the karst area of Lagoa Santa, which includes the type locality of this species. A noun in the genitive case.

MPEG

Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi