Cyphocharax jagunco, Dutra, Guilherme Moreira, Penido, Iago De Souza, Mello, Gabriel Caetano Guimarães De & Pessali, Tiago Casarim, 2016

Dutra, Guilherme Moreira, Penido, Iago De Souza, Mello, Gabriel Caetano Guimarães De & Pessali, Tiago Casarim, 2016, Two new species of Cyphocharax (Teleostei: Characiformes: Curimatidae) from headwaters of the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco river basins, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Zootaxa 4103 (2), pp. 154-164: 155-159

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Cyphocharax jagunco

new species

Cyphocharax jagunco  , new species

( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1)

Holotype. MCNIP 1612, 48.5 mm SL, Brazil, Minas Gerais State, Município Olhos D ´água, Vereda Volta da Capoeira, tributary of Ribeirão da Areia, Rio Jequitinhonha drainage, 17 ° 15 ' 25.98 "S 43 ° 43 ' 35.91 "W, 0 2 Jan 2015, T. C. Pessali, I. S. Penido and J. C. Oliveira.

Paratypes. All collected with the holotype. MCNIP 1613, 2, 42.7–50.8 mm SL. MPEG 33714, 1, 51.9 mm SL.

Diagnosis. Cyphocharax jagunco  is distinguished from congeners, except C. lundi  , C. punctatus  , and C. vanderi  , by the presence of a midlateral series of irregular patches of dark pigmentation along the lateral line (vs. presence of a series of dark stripes or spots running between most scale rows in C. helleri  , C. multilineatus  , and C. pantostictus  ; a patch of dark pigmentation on the dorsal fin in C. notatus  and C. vexillapinnus  ; a single midlateral stripe in C. laticlavius  ; a patch of dark pigmentation on the caudal peduncle in C. aninha  , C. biocellatus  , C. gilbert  , C. gangamon  , C. gillii  , C. gouldingi  , C. meniscaprorus  , C. mestomyllon  , C. modestus  , C. nagelii  , C. oenas  , C. saladensis  , C. sanctigabrieli  , C. santacatarinae  , C. signatus  , C. spilotus  , C. spiluropsis  , C. spilurus  and C. voga  ; or no pronounced pigmentation pattern on body in C. abramoides  , C. aspilos  , C. derhami  , C. festivus  , C. leucostictus  , C. magdalenae  , C. microcephalus  , C. nigripinnis  , C. platanus  , C. pinnilepis  , C. plumbeus  and C. stilbolepis  ). Cyphocharax jagunco  differs from C. punctatus  and C. vanderi  by possessing 10–17 irregular patches of dark pigmentation along lateral line, including one on the caudal peduncle (vs. 4–5 in C. punctatus  and 4–6 in C. vanderi  ); and the 1 or 2 pored scales posterior to the hypural joint (vs. 3 or 4). Cyphocharax jagunco  also differs from C. punctatus  by the complete lateral line (vs. incomplete). Cyphocharax jagunco  can also be distinguished from C. lundi  by the absence of light brown spots above lateral line (vs. presence); the number of scales in the lateral line, 29–30 (vs. 36); and the number of scales rows above lateral line, 4 ½ or 5 (vs. 5 ½– 6 ½).

Description. Morphometric data given in Table 1. Body robust. Dorsal profile of head convex from margin of upper lip to vertical through anterior nostril, nearly straight from that point to supraoccipital spine. Dorsal profile of body convex from tip of supraoccipital spine to dorsal-fin origin; slightly convex on base of dorsal fin; nearly straight from last dorsal-fin ray to adipose-fin origin and then slightly concave to origin of anteriormost dorsal procurrent ray. Ventral profile of body convex to base of last anal-fin ray; and then concave to origin of anteriormost ventral procurrent ray. Greatest body depth at vertical through dorsal-fin origin.

Head compressed, greatest depth at nape. Mouth terminal. Upper jaw slightly longer than lower jaw. Nostrils close together and separated by thin flap of skin. Anterior nostril circular, near midpoint between snout tip and anterior margin of eye. Posterior nostril crescent-shaped, closer to anterior margin of eye than snout. Adipose eyelid restricted to anterior margin of eye. Eye on anterior one-half of head length. Branchial membranes joined at isthmus.

All scales of lateral line pored with primary laterosensory canal straight. Pored lateral-line scales from supracleithrum to hypural joint 29 *(3) or 30 (1). Pored scales on basal portions of caudal fin posterior to hypural joint 1 (2) or 2 *(2). Scales in transverse series from dorsal-fin origin to lateral line 4 ½ (2) or 5 *(2). Scales in transverse series from anal-fin origin to lateral line 5 *(4). Scales between anus and anal-fin origin 1 (2) or 2 *(2). Middorsal series of scales from rear of supraoccipital spine to dorsal-fin origin 10 *(1), 11 (2) or 12 (1). Scales covering proximal portion of caudal-fin rays. Caudal-fin scales similar in size to those on posterior portion of caudal peduncle.

Pectoral fin pointed, i, 12 (1), i, 13 *(2) or i, 14 (1) rays; tip of adpressed pectoral fin reaching vertical through eighth scale of lateral line. Dorsal-fin pointed, ii, 9 *(4) rays; first unbranched ray about one-half length of second unbranched ray, first and second branched ray larger than others, branched rays gradually decreasing in size posteriorly. Pelvic fin emarginate, i, 8 *(4) rays. Pelvic-fin origin at vertical through fourth unbranched ray of dorsal fin. Tip of adpressed pelvic fin reaching anus. Anal fin emarginate, ii, 7 *(4) rays; first unbranched ray about onethird length of second unbranched ray, first branched ray larger than others, subsequent branched rays gradually decreasing in size. Adipose fin present. Caudal fin forked with lobes somewhat pointed, i, 9 / 8,i*(4) rays.

Coloration in alcohol. Ground color of body dark brown, becoming progressively yellowish ventrally. Dorsum densely covered by dark chromatophores. Ventrum with only scarce chromatophores. Lateral surface of body with series of 10 to 17 irregular dark blotches. Blotch on caudal peduncle horizontally elongated forming a large ovoid spot sometimes extending to base of middle caudal-fin rays. Centers of dark blotches dorsal to lateral line anterior of vertical through last dorsal-fin ray. Posterior to that point, centers of dark blotches on lateral line.

Ground color of head dark brown becoming progressively yellower ventrally. Neurocranium densely covered by dark chromatophores from upper lip to horizontal through ventral margin of fourth infraorbital bone. Dark chromatophores concentrated on anterior-middle portion of operculum and becoming scarce at margins of bone. All fins overall hyaline. Dorsal and caudal fin with scattered dark chromatophores increasing in density at fin bases. Adipose fin with concentration of dark chromatophores at borders.

Coloration in life. Based on a photograph of the paratype ( MCNIP 1613), taken immediately after fixation ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 b). Ground coloration of body and head golden, progressively white silvery ventrally. Scales of two or three dorsalmost rows iridescent blue. All fins overall hyaline.

Distribution and habitat. Known from Vereda Volta da Capoeira, tributary of Ribeirão da Areia, Rio Jequitinhonha drainage ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2). The Vereda Volta da Capoeira is a small stream of clear water 0.4 to 0.7 meters wide and maximum depth of 0.5 meters. Its water flow slowly over a hydromorphic soil with lots of organic matter. The bed is completely shaded by herbaceous vegetation ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3). Small swampy pools can be found along its margins. The new species was collected near the headwaters, 800 m above sea level. It occurs syntopically with Astyanax aff. fasciatus  , Characidium  spp. and Corydoras  sp.

Etymology. The species name “ jagunco  ” is in reference to the Portuguese term “ jagunço  ”, a noun that probably derived of “jagun-jagun” from Yoruba (Africa), which means warrior. In Brazil, “ jagunço  ” is equivalent to "roughneck". The species name is also an honor to the modernist Brazilian masterpiece by João Guimarães Rosa “Grande Sertão: Veredas”. The story, which is narrated and starred by a “ jagunço  ”, occurs in the northern portion of Minas Gerais state, a region that includes the type locality of the species. A noun in apposition.

TABLE 1. Morphometrics for examined specimens of Cyphocharax jagunco and C. lundi.

  Holotype Range N Mean SD Holotype Range N Mean SD
Standard length (mm)  

Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi