Liriomyza hypopolymnia Eiseman & Lonsdale, 2021

Eiseman, Charles S., Lonsdale, Owen, Linden, John Van Der, Feldman, Tracy S. & Palmer, Michael W., 2021, Thirteen new species of Agromyzidae (Diptera) from the United States, with new host and distribution records for 32 additional species, Zootaxa 4931 (1), pp. 1-68 : 29-30

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Liriomyza hypopolymnia Eiseman & Lonsdale

spec. nov.

Liriomyza hypopolymnia Eiseman & Lonsdale   , spec. nov.

( Figs. 44–47 View FIGURES 40–47 , 76–77 View FIGURES 73–86 , 144–147 View FIGURES 144–147 )

Holotype. USA: IOWA: Winneshiek Co., Craggy Rocks , 43°25’58.82”N, 92° 0’29.92”W, 20.x.2017, em. 18.iv.2018, MJ Hatfield, ex Polymnia canadensis, CNC   1144061 (1♁). GoogleMaps  

Paratypes. USA: IOWA: same data as holotype, CNC1144055 View Materials , CNC1144058 View Materials , CNC1144062 View Materials (2♁ 1♀), Deco- rah, Dug Road ,, em. by 21.vii.2017, J. van der Linden, ex Polymnia canadensis   , # CSE4654 , CNC1144029 View Materials (1♀) GoogleMaps   .

Additional material examined. same data as holotype, CNC1144054 View Materials , CNC1144056–1144057 View Materials , CNC1144065– 1144073 View Materials (13 puparia) GoogleMaps   .

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the position of the larval mines (Gr. hypo —“under, beneath”) on the lower surface of leaves of Polymnia Kalm.  

Host. Asteraceae   : Polymnia canadensis L.  

Leaf mine. ( Figs. 76–77 View FIGURES 73–86 ) A long, rather indistinct, linear mine on the lower leaf surface, with frass in grains and beaded strips along the sides; the mine may be evident from above as a faint green line or mottling. Some mines intermittently switch to the upper surface, where they are much more distinct and appear whitish.

Puparium. ( Fig. 47 View FIGURES 40–47 ) Yellow; formed outside the mine.

Phenology and voltinism. This species is at least bivoltine in Iowa. Larvae have been found in late June, with an adult emerging within a few weeks; larvae of the overwintering generation have been found from mid-October to mid-November, emerging as adults in spring.

Distribution. USA: IA; leaf mines have also been found in PA ( Woods 2018) and TN.

Adult description. Wing length 1.9–2.0 mm (♁), 1.9 mm (♀). Length of ultimate section of vein M 4 divided by penultimate section: 2.5–3.1. Eye height divided by gena height: 5.3–7.0. First flagellomere rounded and slightly enlarged, being higher than long; distal margin with longer hairs subequal to width of base of arista. Thorax subshining. Vein dm-m slightly angled.

Chaetotaxy: Two ors, two ori; anterior ori slightly shorter. Four dorsocentral setae, decreasing in length anteriorly, only posterior two pairs strong. Six rows of acrostichal setulae; reduced in number posteriorly, typical of Liriomyza   , but posterior-most pairs between first pair of dorsocentrals atypical in being widely spaced and incurved. Eye bare and mid tibia without medial setae (eye often minutely haired and mid tibia with posteromedial seta in Liriomyza   with convergent posteromedial acrostichal setulae).

Coloration: ( Figs. 44–46 View FIGURES 40–47 ) Overall color of most specimens relatively pale yellow compared to congeners, perhaps because specimens were preserved while still slightly teneral; base color of most whitish-yellow with pigmented patches brown to orange-brown, but female specimen CSE4654 with color typical of most other Liriomyza   with pigment dark brown. Setae brown with yellowish shine (shine not pronounced on major setae of thorax and head). Ocellar tubercle light brown; posterolateral corner of frons with light brown spot reaching margin of eye, but not base of vertical setae; back of head brown with venter yellow. Scutum brown with complete lateral yellow stripe that is relatively wide and encompasses base of posterior inter-alar and supra-alar setae; posterior margin of scutum yellow with quadrate spot between dorsocentral rows that has anterior corners extending as one pair of small short points approaching bases of second dorsocentrals; spot on postpronotum and anterolateral spot on scutellum faded, small. Mediotergite dark brown; anatergite with small brown anteroventral spot extending onto posteroventral corner of katatergite. Anepisternum with very small faded anteroventral spot; anepimeron entirely pale; katepisternum brown ventrally, far from base of seta; meron brown on ventral half. Hind tarsus sometimes brownish apically. Abdomen paler brown dorsally with wide yellow lateral margin; stripe narrows to medial spot on tergite 5; epandrium light brown with dorsomedial region light yellow. Calypter margin slightly greyish, hairs yellow.

Genitalia: ( Figs. 144–147 View FIGURES 144–147 ) Epandrium separate from surstylus, with one pair of small ventral spines. Surstylus with one pair of large spines (apical and basal). Phallophorus with venter reduced, short. Basiphallus sclerotized along dorsal and left lateral surfaces, with narrow process extending from left apical margin. Hypophallus small, narrow, with short apical hairs. Paraphallus very small, narrow. Ejaculatory duct swollen and pigmented apically. Mesophallus subcylindrical, tapered at base and apex, very lightly fused to distiphallus; venter flared along suture. Distiphallus wider and longer than mesophallus, cup-shaped with base tapered (abruptly constricted in ventral view), widest before apex, enclosing small internal processes. Ejaculatory apodeme very pale, narrow; sperm pump with small ventral sclerotization.

Comments. The only previous record of an agromyzid from Polymnia   is that of an undetermined stem-boring Melanagromyza   species we reared from P. canadensis   in Iowa (Eiseman & Lonsdale 2019). The host of the Venezuelan M. polymniae Spencer   is Smallanthus riparius (Kunth) H.Rob. ( Spencer 1990)   .

Liriomyza hypopolymnia   is distinct in being quite pale with the vertical setae on yellow, the abdomen largely yellow and the scutum posteriorly yellow with a subquadrate yellow spot in front of the scutellum between the dorsocentral rows. This subquadrate spot has small points anterolaterally along the dorsocentral rows, and the few acrostichal setulae within the spot are incurved. These characters are also seen in some L. blechi   , except this species usually has the brown scutal spot divided into bands, the third dorsocentral is most reduced (not with anterior two pairs of dorsocentrals reduced with the fourth smallest), and the mid tibia has two posteromedial setae. The male genitalia of this species are also drastically different (see Lonsdale 2017a: Figs. 29–32 View FIGURES 24–31 View FIGURES 32–39 ). The genitalia of L. hypopolymnia   more closely resemble those of other species with a large, pale cup-shaped distiphallus such as L. eupatorii   , but the new species differs from most of these in having a lateromedially constricted distiphallus and a surstylus with two spines (one apical and one basal); both of these features are shared by L. sabaziae Spencer   , but this is a much darker species with a slightly smaller distiphallus that is dorsoventrally compressed on the basal half (see Lonsdale 2011: Figs. 202, 203).