Haplopeodes loprestii Eiseman & Lonsdale, 2021

Eiseman, Charles S., Lonsdale, Owen, Linden, John Van Der, Feldman, Tracy S. & Palmer, Michael W., 2021, Thirteen new species of Agromyzidae (Diptera) from the United States, with new host and distribution records for 32 additional species, Zootaxa 4931 (1), pp. 1-68 : 22-23

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Haplopeodes loprestii Eiseman & Lonsdale

spec. nov.

Haplopeodes loprestii Eiseman & Lonsdale   , spec. nov.

( Figs. 32–39 View FIGURES 32–39 , 133–139 View FIGURES 133–139 )

Holotype. USA. CALIFORNIA: San Diego Co., Coyote Canyon , 14.iii.2018, em. 18.v–3.vi.2018, E. LoPresti, ex Fagonia laevis   , # CSE4545 , CNC1135597 View Materials (1♁).  

Paratype. Same data as holotype, CNC1135598 View Materials (1♀)   .

Etymology. This species is named for Eric F. LoPresti, ecologist and evolutionary biologist, who collected the host material from which it was reared.

Host. Zygophyllaceae   : Fagonia laevis Standl.  

Larval biology. Apparently a leafminer. The host material was collected to rear leaf-mining larvae of a gelechiid moth, and the presence of the flies only became evident when the puparia appeared. The rearing vial also contained fruits and stems, so the possibility of these as feeding sites cannot be entirely excluded, but as far as is known all Haplopeodes   species are leafminers.

Puparium. ( Fig. 34 View FIGURES 32–39 ) Pale, straw-colored; formed externally.

Phenology and voltinism. The two known specimens were reared from larvae that fed in March, pupating by the 20 th and emerging as adults four to six weeks later.

Distribution. USA: CA.

Adult description. Wing length 1.2 mm (♁), 1.4 mm (♀). Vein dm-m absent. Eye height divided by gena height: 3.2–3.5. First flagellomere slightly longer than high, apically rounded. Arista short, only 1.5 times length of first flagellomere. Orbital plate shallow but distinctly projecting when viewed laterally, especially anteriorly on

head; continuing as modestly developed ring around eye. Seen dorsally, frons wider than eye, slightly broader anteriorly. Anterior ocellus slightly displaced anteriorly. Epistoma large, broad, subrectangular, resulting in correspondingly shorter face; face with shallow medial carina. Palpus small, narrow, length approximately three times width. Thorax subshining. Wing veins costalized (closely spaced anteriorly), with width of cell r 4+5 subequal to that of cell sc; length of costal cell subequal to length of cell r 1 past insertion of vein R 1.

Chaetotaxy: Setae short. Three ori, very gracile; ors absent. Few orbital setulae, slightly inclinate and erect, partially proclinate. Ocellar seta straight, approximately ¾ length of ori. Postvertical seta absent. Five dorsocentral setae, strongly decreasing in length anteriorly; female with additional small setula in dorsocentral row anteriorly. Only one notopleural seta, medially positioned. Notal setulae mostly absent; female with 1 anteromedial acrostichal setula and with few setulae in intra-alar region. One pair of lateral scutellar setae and two pairs of apical scutellar setae (left anterior seta absent in male). Katepisternal seta not visible in male.

Coloration: ( Figs. 32–33, 35–39 View FIGURES 32–39 ) Setae brown to dark brown with pale brown shine. Base color light yellow with head paler. First flagellomere brown with inner surface (not including margins) yellow; ocellar triangle dark brown; vertex light yellow; posterolateral corner of frons with brown patch fading to base of inner vertical seta; face deeper yellow with slight orange tint; venter of gena with brownish line; back of head dark brown with dorsomedial region paler and venter yellow. Notum dark brown to brown; center of scutellum and mediotergite slightly paler brown; postpronotum light brown, becoming yellower anteriorly and laterally; notopleuron and supra-alar spot light brown to yellow, with notopleuron yellower medially; katatergite light brown. Proepisternum light brown; anepisternum with anteroventral corner paler yellow, bordered posteriorly by oblique brown stripe; katepisternum with brown spot below level of seta; anepimeron irregularly brown; meron mostly dark brown. Legs light yellow; base of coxae narrowly brown; femora with indistinct brownish tint on apical ¼–½; tibiae brown with mediolateral and medioventral regions broadly yellow; tarsi brown. Abdomen brown with lateral margin of tergites narrowly yellow; epandrium darker brown. Calypter margin and hairs yellow.

Variation. Female: Darker than male. Setae darker brown to blackish. Only inner-basal surface of first flagellomere yellow; scape and pedicel yellow. Posterolateral corner of frons darker. Paler parts of scutum brown tinted. Anepisternum, anepimeron and meron brown; base color of katepisternum brownish-orange. Femora extensively brown mottled. Abdominal tergites entirely brown.

Genitalia: ( Figs. 133–139 View FIGURES 133–139 ) Epandrium shallow. Surstylus short, incurved, apical margin irregular but essentially straight, without tubercle-like setae or narrow protrusions referred to as “teeth” in Steyskal (1980a); base (concealed within epandrium) incurved. Cerci weakly sclerotized, much thicker laterally, closely spaced. Hypandrium with short, semicircular arch; inner lobe weakly sclerotized, more so on distal margin bearing single seta; arm long, well-defined. Postgonite dark, narrow, with single subapical seta. Phallus small and weakly sclerotized, but comparatively large and dark for Haplopeodes   ; phallophorus cylindrical, fused to curved basiphallus, which is represented by short ventral sclerotization that is slightly elongated on left side. Ejaculatory duct strongly upcurved past basiphallus, with exposed portion approximately as long as basiphallus; apex rounded, dorsoventrally flattened and lightly sclerotized. Ejaculatory apodeme narrow but well-developed, darker stem grading into blade.

Comments. This is the first record of any agromyzid from Fagonia   , and the only agromyzids previously recorded from Zygophyllaceae   are extremely polyphagous Liriomyza   spp. Known hosts of Haplopeodes   are otherwise restricted to Amaranthaceae   , Portulacaceae   , and Solanaceae ( Benavent-Corai et al. 2005)   .

While minor color differences between the sexes are evident in some Haplopeodes   , the sexual dimorphism observed here is pronounced and unique, with the female being much darker than the male. Both sexes are considerably darker than other Haplopeodes   , with the scutellum entirely dark brown (unique among Nearctic Haplopeodes   ), the first flagellomere and scutellum brown, the pale grey pruinosity usually observed on the thorax is absent (the scutum is subshining), the tibiae are brown with yellow medial regions and the femora are brown mottled. Furthermore, the acrostichal setulae are virtually absent, the orbital plate and parafacial are produced, an epistoma is present, the radial veins are crowded anteriorly, the phallus is pigmented apically and surstylus spines are absent.