Phytomyza flavilonicera Eiseman & Lonsdale, 2021

Eiseman, Charles S., Lonsdale, Owen, Linden, John Van Der, Feldman, Tracy S. & Palmer, Michael W., 2021, Thirteen new species of Agromyzidae (Diptera) from the United States, with new host and distribution records for 32 additional species, Zootaxa 4931 (1), pp. 1-68 : 34-36

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Phytomyza flavilonicera Eiseman & Lonsdale

spec. nov.

Phytomyza flavilonicera Eiseman & Lonsdale   , spec. nov.

( Figs. 48–52 View FIGURES 48–58 , 82–83 View FIGURES 73–86 , 148–153 View FIGURES 148–153 )

Holotype. USA. OKLAHOMA: Payne Co., Stillwater, Bustani Plant Farm , 22.iv.2018, em. 4–14.v.2018, M.W. Palmer, ex Lonicera sempervirens   , # CSE4480 , CNC1144151 View Materials (1♁).  

Paratypes. OKLAHOMA: same data as holotype, CNC1144152–1144157 View Materials (3♁ 3♀)   ; Payne Co., Stillwater, Bustani Plant Farm , 22.iv.2018, em. 29.iv.2018, M.W. Palmer, ex Lonicera flava   , # CSE4614 , CNC1135622–1135624 View Materials (3♀)   ; same data, # CSE4621 , CNC1135639–1135640 View Materials (2♀)   ; em. 5.v.2018, # CSE4623 , CNC1144147–1144150 View Materials (1♁ 3♀)   ; Bustani Plant Farm , 22.iv.2018, em. 22–25.iv.2018, M.W. Palmer, ex Lonicera sempervirens   , # CSE4450 , CNC1144144 View Materials , CNC1144146 View Materials (1♁ 1♀)   ; em. 29.iv.2018, # CSE4616 , CNC1135618–1135621 View Materials (1♁ 3♀)   ; em. 6.v.2018, # CSE4618 , CNC1135610–1135618 View Materials (5♁ 4♀)   ; Sanborn Lake ,, em., M.W. Palmer, ex Lonicera sempervirens   , # CSE3940 , CNC939928 View Materials (1♀)   .

Etymology. The specific epithet is a noun in apposition, a portmanteau referring to the yellow head of the adult (L. flavus —yellow) and the host plant genus, Lonicera L.  

Hosts. Caprifoliaceae   : Lonicera flava Sims   , L. sempervirens L.  

Leaf mine. ( Figs. 82–83 View FIGURES 73–86 ) Whitish, on the upper leaf surface; initially stellate, and in some cases remaining a small, digitate blotch throughout development; in other cases one or a few linear branches emanate from the stellate beginning. Frass forms a dark central patch in the stellate portion and is otherwise deposited in closely spaced grains or beaded strips.

Puparium. ( Fig. 52 View FIGURES 48–58 ) Whitish to pale brown, with a broad, dark, elongate central band on the ventral surface; formed within the mine, with the ventral surface against the upper epidermis.

Phenology and voltinism. This species is probably multivoltine. Leaf mines have been collected in April with adults emerging from late April to mid-May, as well as in early June with an adult emerging in mid-June.

Distribution. USA: OK.

Adult description. Wing length 1.5–1.6 mm (♁), 1.7–1.8 mm (♀). Vein dm-m absent. Eye height divided by gena height: 3.7–4.2. First flagellomere slightly longer than high, stout and appearing somewhat enlarged with dorsal and ventral margins parallel for short distance medially. Orbital plate projecting along anterodorsal eye margin (seen laterally). Cheek distinct. Posterior ocelli slightly displaced. Thorax pruinose (see below).

Chaetotaxy: Two ors, two ori, decreasing in length anteriorly; anterior ori sometimes setula-like; sometimes smaller third ori present on one side posteriorly; one ors sometimes missing. Postvertical seta subequal to posterior ors. Ocellar seta slightly shorter than postvertical. Four dorsocentral setae, decreasing in length anteriorly. Approximately six scattered rows of acrostichal setulae. Setulae on pleuron nearly absent.

Coloration: ( Figs. 48–51 View FIGURES 48–58 ) Setae dark brown. Head mostly light yellow; first flagellomere dark brown, scape and pedicel deep yellow; back of head, vertex (slightly paler), broad spot around ocellar tubercle and posterolateral corner of frons past base of inner vertical seta dark brown; orbital plate dark brown posteriorly with stripe extending to surround base of posterior ors and paler stripe with slight silvery pruinosity extending to meet base of anterior ors; slight mottling at base of posterior ori; remainder of orbital plate and frontal vitta dirty yellow; clypeus greyish-brown, very narrow and pale medially; palpus brown. Thorax dark brown dorsally, paler on pleuron; with bluish-grey pruinosity that is dense on notum and with a coppery tint posteriorly on scutum and scutellum; yellow mottling along notopleural sutures and postalar wall; anterior spiracle and vertical line dorsal to it yellow; anepisternum sometimes with margins irregularly yellow; yellow above coxopleural streak; halter yellow. Wing veins light brownish-yellow. Legs brown; apices of fore and mid coxae yellow; apices of femora yellow for distance equal to width of femur apex; bases of tibiae yellow (spot narrower on posterior legs) and dorsal apex of fore tibia yellow; fore tarsus brownish-yellow. Abdomen brown with lateral margin of tergites yellow; epandrium paler brown with anterior and posterior margins yellow. Calypter yellow with hairs light brown to golden.

Variation. Female: Pigmented line along vertex paler, usually at least at base of postvertical setae. Apex of fore tibia faintly yellow; fore tarsus light brown. Abdominal tergites entirely brown or with very narrow yellow margin restricted to tergites 1–3. Calypter hairs light brown to brown.

Genitalia: ( Figs. 148–153 View FIGURES 148–153 ) Surstylus small, rounded, incurved, short setose; fused to epandrium. Hypandrium subtriangular with broad, rounded apex; inner lobe narrow, V-shaped with two apical setae. Postgonite narrow with one seta. Phallophorus simple, cylindrical, with one pair of narrow band-like lateral lobes. Basiphallus consisting of one pair of long narrow plates with irregular margins and tapered apices; right plate with base positioned dorsally, left plate with base wrapping around venter. Hypophallus (one pair of lateral sclerites) small, irregular in outline, longer than wide; some dissected males with sclerite atrophied to entirely absent. Mesophallus not evident. Distiphallus short, sharply angled dorsally, narrow; when viewed ventrally, with wider, rounded base that splits into one pair of narrow subparallel bands that slightly diverge apically and appear slightly bifid with outer arm weaker and shorter. Ejaculatory apodeme very small, weakly sclerotized, with long weak tubule emerging from base opposite duct; sperm pump clear.

Comments. The leaf mine of Phytomyza flavilonicera   is similar to that of P. sempervirentis Eiseman & Lonsdale   , which also occurs on Lonicera sempervirens   , but the latter species usually moves to the lower leaf surface before pupating, and the dark ventral area on its puparium is usually a narrow stripe rather than a broad band ( Eiseman & Lonsdale 2018). However, a pair of mines photographed in Missouri ( Hartley 2017) seems to be within the range of variation of both species. The two are not known to be sympatric, with P. flavilonicera   found only in Oklahoma and P. sempervirentis   recorded from Oregon, Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Alabama, but more collecting of these mines from Midwestern states will be needed to clarify the extents of their distributions.

Twelve parasitoids reared from Phytomyza flavilonicera   were identified by J.T. Huber as Diglyphus websteri (Crawford)   ( Eulophidae   ), a specialist on Agromyzidae   but with a wide host range within this family.

Phytomyza flavilonicera   is a relatively pale Caprifoliaceae-mining Phytomyza   , being yellowish laterally on the scutum (the central disc is bluish-grey pruinose), and paler on the pleuron and legs with the knees yellowish. The head is also mostly pale, having a yellow face, a dirty yellow frontal vitta and anteriorly yellowish orbital plate. It is further characterized by having numerous rows of acrostichals, a small to absent subovate sclerite on the hypophallus, and a relatively small, simple, upturned distiphallus. In ventral view, the outline of the distiphallus differs from that of similar species such as P. nigrilineata   in being very narrow with a broader lobate base, and it is medially split past the insertion point of the duct, with the points slightly diverging, fading and appearing partially bifurcated apically. This distiphallus structure is similar to some P. sempervirentis Eiseman & Lonsdale   (see Eiseman & Lonsdale 2018: Figs. 358, 359), but this is a darker species with a brown head, the distiphallus is much more wedge-shaped in appearance laterally and in ventral view a dark V-shape predominates.