Masner lubomirus Deans & Mikó, Deans & Miko ZooBank, 2009
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|Masner lubomirus Deans & Mikó|
Masner lubomirus Deans & Mikó , sp. n.
Figs 1A-4C, 4E, 5A-B
Description. Body length: 1.0– 1.7mm (n=21, median=0.92)
Figure ļ. Masner lubomirus Deans and Mikó , sp. n. A head, anterior view B head posterior view C mesosoma lateral view D mesosoma dorsal view E mesosoma anterior view F mesosoma posterior view. Scale bars in micrometer.
Color: body brown, (with) low variability of color; maxillo-labial complex yellow; mandible yellow; blade brown; clypeus yellow; radicle yellow; scape yellow; pedicel yellow; leg yellow; tegula yellow; wing base yellow; syntergum yellow; synsternite yellow; male genitalia yellow.
Head: anterior side (part of cranium) elliptic, widest at medial region, height 1.4× length and width 1.25× height anterior side (part of compound eye) 2× as long as wide; setae (part of cranium) sparse, long, adpressed; setae (part of compound eyes) sparse, long, adpressed; setae (part of mandible) sparse, long, adpressed; setae (part of maxillo-labial complex) sparse, long, adpressed; epistomal sulcus distinct laterally, indistinct medially (ess: Fig. 1A), extending between structured anterior tentorial pits (atp: Fig. 1A); anterior side (part of clypeus) trapezoidal, slightly raised medially; ventral margin (part of clypeus) slightly concave, wider than long, granulose; punctures (part of clypeus) scattered, associated with setae; setae (part of clypeus) recumbent, longer than clypeus height; malar area granulose; area between torulus and epistomal sulcus granulose; margin (part of torulus) raised; lateral margin (part of torulus) increased height (relative to remaining margin); intertorular carina unstructured (itc: Figs 1A, 6D); crenulae (part of upper face) present in vicinty of torulus, slightly reticulate; foveae (part of upper face) dorsal to torulus, irregular; frontal scrobe absent; vertex reticulate; gena reticulate; foveae (part of vertex) irregular; foveae (part of gena) irregular; OOL:POL:LOL=2.3:1:1; ocellar foveae distinct (of: Figs 1A, 6D); ocellar foveae width equal to ocellus diameter; preocellar pit absent; facial pit absent; facial sulcus absent; preoccipital furrow structured, crenulate, in contact with anterior ocellus (pof: Fig. 1A, 6E); preoccipital carina absent; preoccipital lunula absent; occipital carina crenulate (oc: Fig. 1B); occipital depression present (od: Fig. 1B); occiput smooth; postgena smooth; crenulae (part of occiput) curved externally, in contact with occipital carina; posterior tentorial pit distinct, closer to occipital foramen than to oral foramen (ptp: Fig. 1B); postgenal suture present (mspb: Fig. 1B); hypostomal sulcus present, unsculptured (hys: Fig. 1B); stipes rectangular (st: Fig. 1B); medial margin (part of stipes) notched; anterior margin (part of stipes) notched; maxillary palp divided into 4 palpal segments; labial palp whole; mandible cleft; dorsal tooth shorter than ventral tooth.
Antenna: scape 2.5× as long as pedicel; flagellomere 2 2.5× as long as pedicel; flagellomere 3 2.5× as long as pedicel; flagellomere 4 2.5× as long as pedicel; flagellomere 5 2.5× as long as pedicel; flagellomere 6 2.5× as long as pedicel; flagellomere 7 2.5× as long as pedicel; flagellomere 8 2.5× as long as pedicel; flagellomere 1 2.75× as long as pedicel; flagellomere 9 3× as long as pedicel; flagellum as wide as pedicel, cylindrical, covered with adpressed setae, pedicel as long as wide ( Fig. 5A View Figure 5 ); scape wider than pedicel; scape cylindrical, covered with adpressed setae, lenght about 2× width ( Fig. 5A View Figure 5 ); 3 rows of sensilla (part of sensillar patch part of flagellomere 5) present (sp: Fig. 5B View Figure 5 ); sensillum trichodeum curvatum (part of flagellum) absent (e.g. stc: Fig. 5E View Figure 5 ).
Mesosoma: pronotal cervical sulcus crenulate (cps: Fig. 1E), in contact with ventral pronotal pit (vpp: Fig. 1C); ventral pronotal pit distinct, bare; median pronotal area
138 Istvan Mikó & Andrew R. Deans / ZooKeys 20: 127–153 (2009)
sg pns 500 A B 500 hrp asp hrp prp mig gsp prs gsp br 20 C br 20 D
raised, granulose; dorsal pronotal region corner indistinct (dpp: Fig. 1E); transverse pronotal sulcus crenulate medially (tps: Figs 1C, E), in contact with posterolateral pronotal sulcus (pps: Figs 1C, E) above midlevel; posterolateral pronotal sulcus shallow; posterolateral pronotal area narrow (pla: Fig. 1E), reticulate; propleuron smooth; epicoxal sulcus (ecs: Fig. 1E) present medially; propleural cervical sulcus present ventrally along medial margin of propleuron (pcs: Fig. 1E); mesoscutum finely reticulate, sparsely setose; setae (part of mesoscutum) elongate, curved posterior; mesoscutellum finely reticulate, sparsely setose; setae (part of mesoscutellum) elongate, curved posterior; dorsal axillar area finely reticulate, sparsely setose; setae (part of dorsal axillar area) elongate, curved posterior (msc, msl, das: Fig. 1D); mesoscutum 2× as wide as long; median mesoscutal sulcus (mms: Fig. 1E) crenulate anteriorly, continuous posteriorly; interaxillar sulcus present (ias: Fig. 1D); anteroadmedian line indistinct; distance from anteroadmedian line to median mesoscutal sulcus equal to anterior sulcus width (aal: Fig. 1E); mesoscutal suprahumeral sulcus crenulate medially, unsculptured laterally of anterolateral mesoscutal region corner (mss, aem: Fig. 1E); mesoscutal humeral sulcus distinct, unsculptured (msh: Fig. 1D); notaulus absent; parapsidal line absent; posterior margin (part of mesoscutum) concave; preaxilla smooth (pax: Fig. 1C); lateral axillar area reticulate; 3–4 carinae (part of lateral axillar area) present posteriorly (las: Figs 1C, D); scutoscutellar sulcus angled medially, foveolate; fovea (part of scutoscutellar sulcus) 2× as wide as long (sss: Fig. 1D), continuous with interaxillar sulcus (ias: Fig. 1D); mesoscutellum length equal to width; axillular carina present posteriorly, absent anteriorly (aux: Figs 1C, F); posterior mesoscutellar sulcus (pms: Fig. 1D) crenulate between axillular carinae, extending anteriorly along lateral margin of axillula and in contact with axillar carina (axc: Figs 1C, F); anterior mesopleural sulcus crenulate; anterior mesopleural area finely reticulate (ams, ama: Fig. 1C); posteroventral area (part of mesopleuron) smooth; acetabular carina tapered medially (ac: Fig. 1E); acetabulum reticulate; depression (part of subpleural signum) shallow (ss: Fig. 1E); sternaulus absent; mesodiscrimen foveolate (dsc2: Fig. 1E); 3–4 dorsal mesometapleural carinae present (dmc: Fig. 1 C); dorsal mesometapleural carinae straight; anterior mesopleural sulcus perpendicularly intersecting mesometapleural carinae; mesometapleural sulcus present, crenulate, in contact with mesopleural pit (mts, mp: Fig. 1 C); mesopleural pit adjacent to ventralmost dorsal mesometapleural carina; ventralmost dorsal mesometapleural carina continuous with metapleural carina (mpc: Figs 1C, F); ventral metapleural carina (vmc: Figs 1C, F) contiguous with ventral mesopleural carina (vsc: Fig. 1F); ventral metapleural carina and ventral mesopleural carina foveolate; foveae (part of ventral mesopleural carina) rectangular, transverse,>2× as long as wide; foveae (part of ventral metapleural carina) rectangular, transverse,>2× as long as wide; metanotal-propodeal sulcus foveolate; 2 rows of foveae (part of metanotal-propodeal sulcus) present medially (mps: Figs 1D, F); lateral propodeal carina curved dorsolaterally, raised medially; 2 projections (part of propodeal carina) small (lpc: Fig. 1D, F); metasomal depression smooth; one median carina (part of metasomal depression) whole (mcp: Fig. 1F); one lateral carina (part of metasomal depression) whole, extending between small posterior propodeal projections (ppp: Fig. 1C, F) and lateral part of propodeal foramen (lcp: Fig. 1F); plica present (plc: Fig. 1F).
Wings: Fore wing darkly pigmented, translucent, less melanized proximally; hind wing darkly pigmented, translucent, less melanized proximally; medial area (part of fore wing) unpigmented medially (pns: Fig. 3A; between pterostigma and posterior margin of fore wing); pterostigma 2× as long as wide; posterior margin (part of pterostigma) straight; lateral margin (part of pterostigma) slightly convex; r-rs crossvein straight, 4× as long as pterostigma width.
Legs: apical tarsomere plus pretarsus as long as tarsomeres 2–4; basitarsus as long as tarsomeres 2–5 ( Figs 2A, C View Figure 2 ); longitudinal metacoxal carina absent.
Metasoma: syntergum smooth, wider than long; syntergal translucent patch transverse (stp: Fig. 2E View Figure 2 ); transverse carina (part of syntergum) present; basal grooves absent (lmt: Fig. 2E View Figure 2 ); metasomal tergum 3 reticulate ( Figs 2E, 2F View Figure 2 ); metasomal tergum 4 reticulate; metasomal tergum 5 reticulate; metasomal tergum 6 reticulate; metasomal tergum 7; metasomal tergum 8 reticulate; transverse carina (part of synsternum) present; metasomal sterna smooth ( Fig. 2F View Figure 2 ); anteromedian areolate area (part of Waterston’s evaporatorium) surrounded posterolaterally by concentric sulci (Waterston’s evaporatorium without calyx-like anterior area).
Male genitalia (see additional files: Movie 18 and Movie 29) cupula prominent ventromedially (cu: Fig. 3 C-4A); gonostipital arm oblique, oriented anteromedially (axg: Fig. 4A View Figure 4 ); harpe concave externally, conical, setose medially; setae (part of harpe) as long as proximal harpe width (hrp: Fig. 3 C-4A); gonostipes as wide as long, fused dorsally; apical margin (part of gonostipes) cleft medially (mig: Fig. 3D); parapenis fused with gonostipes (i.e., not separated from gonostipes by apical incision) (prp: Fig. 3D); one seta (part of parossiculus) present apically (asp: Fig. 3C, 4A View Figure 4 ); penisvalva curved proximally (pv: Fig. 4A View Figure 4 ).
Etymology. The dense setae on the clypeus of Masner lubomirus resembles the recumbent pilosity on the chin of Lubomír Masner . Th erefore the new specific epithet is the Latinized first name of Lubomír Masner , in the nominative singular case.
Material examined. Holotype male: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Mount Glorious , 27°19’54”S 152°45’29”E, 7–13.II.1998, N.Power, T. Hiller, Malaise trap GoogleMaps . Paratypes males: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Mount Glorious , 27°19’54”S 152°45’29”E, 24–30.XI.1997, N.Power, T. Hiller, Malaise trap, 3 males GoogleMaps ; 24–30.I.1998, 4 males; 7–13.II.1998, 6 males; 24–30.X.1998, 1 male. FIJI: Vanua Levu, Macuata Prov. 0.4 km S Rokosalase Village, [-16.532°, 179.019°] 118m, 23.IV-8. V.2004 Malaise. Schlinger Tokota’a. FJVN57 c_M02_03.FBA067015, 2 males, Taveuni , Cakaudrove Prov. 5.3 km SE Tavuki Village, Mt Devo 1064m 17–24.X.2002. Malaise 3. Schlinger, M. Tokota’a, 16.841° S, 179.968° W. FBA 098106 GoogleMaps . Holotype in SAMA, paratypes in CNCI, NCSU and FNIC .
Discussion. Ceraphronoidea is divided into two families: Ceraphronidae and Megaspilidae based on ten two-state characters that are, with one exception, invariable within each family ( Table 2.). Th e pterostigma is present only in Megaspilinae , but absent in Lagynodinae and Ceraphronidae . Th is observation, and the considera- tion of Bethylidae as the sister group of Ceraphronoidea led Masner and Dessart (1967) to assume that the absence of the pterostigma is the ground plan for the superfamily. Although the subfamily and generic classification of the superfamily is currently considered to be unstable, it is widely accepted that Megaspilidae and Ceraphronidae are two distinct and probably monophyletic taxa. Although the presence of non-overlapping two-state characters strongly support the latter hypothesis, it has never been tested phylogenetically. Overlapping characters in Masner weakens both of the above-mentioned hypotheses (apomorphic pterostigma and the dichotomous Ceraphronoidea ). Th e presence of the Waterston’s evaporatorium is an important character state that indicates Masner belongs in Ceraphronidae . Th e absence of the anterior calyx-like concave area and the presence only of sculptured cuticle, however, could be considered an ancestral state of Waterston’s evaporatorium. The structure of Waterston’s evaporatorium and the fact that Masner shares two family level characters with Megaspilidae leads us to hypothesize that this taxon is the sister to the remaining Ceraphronidae . Future work will focus on testing this hypothesis using molecular and morphological data.
We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Chuck Mooney (North Carolina State University Analytical Instrumentation Facility) with scanning electron microscopy and Eva Johannes (NCSU-NSCORT Department of Botany, N.C. State University) with confocal laser scanning microscopy. We thank Matt Yoder for his valuable comments on antennal sensillum types, Bob Blinn for comments on the evaporatorium and Lubomír Masner for his valuable comments regarding this new taxon. ARD gratefully acknowledges Wasila Dahdul, Jim Balhoff, Todd Vision, and the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NSF EF-0423641) for fostering his growing interest in the application of biomedical ontologies to biodiversity discovery. This research was enabled by a CANACOL Foundation grant to IM and by the National Science Foundation (DBI-0850223).
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