Empoasca concava, Southern, 2008

Southern, Phillip Sterling, 2008, New species and color forms of Empoasca (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Empoascini) from South America, Zootaxa 1949 (1), pp. 51-62: 55-57

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.1949.1.4



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scientific name

Empoasca concava

n. sp.

Empoasca concava   n. sp.

( Figs. 1b View FIGURE 1 , 3 View FIGURE 3 )

Body (male): Length: 4.3–4.5 mm; crown length: 0.24–0.28 mm; crown production: 0.10–0.13 mm; crown projection ratio: 0.39–0.46; head length (including eyes): 0.50–0.56 mm; interoccular width: 0.58–0.64 mm; head width (including eyes): 0.99–1.13 mm; face length: 1.25–1.38 mm; pronotal width: 0.93–1.03 mm; pronotal length: 0.61–0.69 mm; hind tibia length: 2.10–2.43 mm; hind tarsus length: 0.99–1.06 mm; hind tarsomere I: 0.60–0.78 mm; hind tarsomere I/hind tarsus ratio: 0.63–0.77. Crown blue-green laterally, with medial yellow-gold spot broad posteriorly narrowed anteriorly ( Fig. 1b View FIGURE 1 ); eyes brown with network of lighter brown lines; coronal suture reaching anterior margin. Face blue-green laterally, yellow-gold along midline dorsally and along margins of frontoclypeus, blue-green in center of frontoclypeus. Ocelli on or just below anterior margin of crown, nearer midline than eye. Frontal suture evident to below ocelli, faint to near midline. Rostrum long, reaching hind coxae. Pronotum yellow-gold, with blue-green spot on each side of midline and blue-green along lateral and posterior margins. Scutellum yellow-gold, with faint blue-green medially in some specimens. Forewing with basal 2/3 yellow-gold marked with blue-green spots, punctations along or paralleling obscure veins R and M; apical 1/3 hyaline, brown with center of cells lighter, pale blue-green along apical veins; apical veins R 2, RM and MCu confluent basally, arising from cell R, in most specimens, MCu separating first ( Fig. 3r View FIGURE 3 1 View FIGURE 1 ), R 2 and RM separate for only short distance; in one specimen R2 separating first with RM and MCu confluent beyond this point ( Fig. 3r View FIGURE 3 2 View FIGURE 2 ). Hind wing venation characteristic of Empoasca fabae (Harris)   . Abdomen and lateral and sternal structures of thorax greenish-yellow with some blue-green markings; pleural and tergal surfaces of genital capsule blue-green. Legs generally greenish yellow; tibiae of all legs becoming darker green distally and dark brown at apex. Body (female): Length: 4.4–4.8 mm. Coloration as in male, except sternum of abdominal segment VIII powdery white.

Pygofer of male in lateral view ( Fig. 3a View FIGURE 3 ) with dorsal margin slightly concave in apical half, tapering on both dorsal and ventral margins to apex; macrosetae (20–30) along dorsal and caudal margins, most on outer face but few on inner face at apex; long filamentous setae (4–8) on outer face, in some specimens these forming rough line from anteroventral corner toward apex. Plate in lateral view ( Fig. 3a View FIGURE 3 ) expanded dorsolaterally near base, thence nearly parallel-margined to rounded apex, curving very gradually dorsad in apical half; Agroup setae (3–7, most 4–5) only slightly longer than B-group and distinct primarily by location; B-group setae (15–49) highly variable in number, in some specimens uniseriate and very sparse in mid-range, in other specimens roughly biseriate and more evenly spaced, distributed along dorsolateral margin of plate apically but continuing onto dorsomedial face of plate basally; C-group setae (14–20) narrowly biseriate in mid-range, otherwise uniseriate; D-group setae (17–21) roughly biseriate and sparse; also with ca. 20 structures that may be sensory pits or bases of missing D-group setae. Style in lateral view ( Fig. 3f View FIGURE 3 ) long and thin, nearly reaching apex of pygofer process, relatively straight or bowed slightly ventrad, apex narrowly truncate; in ventral view ( Fig. 3g View FIGURE 3 ) nearly straight through most of length or bowed slightly mediad, tapering very gradually and evenly from near articulation with connective, dentifer not well demarcated from body; teeth (6–13) more peglike than ridgelike, distributed evenly along dentifer; setae (8–12) short and stout, distributed along ventromedial face from near articulation with connective (where 3–4 setae may be bunched) to or exceeding basal-most tooth. Pygofer process in lateral view angled slightly upward from near base to follow ventral margin of pygofer, relatively straight and parallel-margined to near apex, thence angled more abruptly upward and tapered to a narrow apex ( Fig. 3h View FIGURE 3 ). In ventral view, relatively straight and parallel-margined to near apex, apically bowed laterad on medial margin to form shallow cup. Anal hook in lateral view ( Figs. 3a, j View FIGURE 3 ) large, nearly reaching ventral margin of pygofer, tapered to narrow apex, slightly sinuate, collar connecting hooks around dorsum of anal tube is well sclerotized. Aedeagus in lateral view ( Fig. 3c View FIGURE 3 ) with shaft continuing line of preatrium, shaft narrow, tapering slightly from atrium through about ½ its length, thence more rapidly to a narrowly rounded apex, apically curved slightly upward, shaft longer than preatrium/atrial complex; in ventral view ( Fig. 3d View FIGURE 3 ) pratrium expands gradually to a relatively narrow atrium, shaft tapered rapidly in the basal fourth, thence narrow and nearly parallel-margined to narrowly rounded apex, gonopore terminal. Connective ( Fig. 3e View FIGURE 3 ) with well sclerotized anterior bar, roughly trapezoidal but narrowed distally, thence expanded into lateral lobes, apical notch deep, V-shaped. Dorsum of genital capsule ( Fig. 3k View FIGURE 3 ) with horns narrow and widely spaced, in some specimens medial margins of horns distinct only apically; anterior margin nearly reaching transverse bar; bridge may or may not be distinct.

First sternal complex ( Fig. 3m View FIGURE 3 ) with sternal bar reduced medially; dorsal apodemes large, appearing folded anteroventrad to lie cephalad of sternal bar, apodemes sometimes joined loosely at apex by transverse structure and apparently articulating with small Y-shaped structure extending from second sternite. Second sternal apodemes ( Figs. 3n, s View FIGURE 3 ) extending to 4.5–5.0 (length: 0.45 mm), narrowly separated medially, apically curved strongly dorsad, each apodeme also curved dorsad on lateral and medial margins to varying degrees to form cuplike or bowllike structure; lateral apophyses strongly sclerotized and large. Third sternal complex with caudodorsally directed peglike apodemes arising laterad of and well separated from second sternal apodemes. Second tergal apodeme a low wall continuous across midline, variable in shape. Other tergal apodemes not strongly developed. Posterior margin of abdominal sternum VIII evenly and slightly convex (recurved at lateral ends).

Holotype male: ECUADOR: Provincia de/ Francisco de Orellana / Yasuni National Park / S00° 40.478 W76° 23.866 // 27.IV.2005, CRBartlett/ N Nazdrowicz, D Chang / ex:@ Hg Vapor light/night// PSS RESEARCH/ 08-030-7// GoogleMaps   HOLOTYPE / Empoasca concava   n. sp. / P.S. Southern 2008 ( NCSU)   . Paratypes: 9 males, 7 females same collection data as holotype ( NCSU, UDEL)   .

The specific name concava   , a Latin adjective meaning hollowed or arched inward, refers to the shape of the second sternal apodemes.

In the key to Empoasca   of eastern Peru ( Southern, 1982), this species keys to couplet 64 and E. olara Langlitz. Nonetheless   , E. concava   differs from E. olara   in numerous ways (e.g. anal hook not abruptly narrowed, aedeagal shaft narrow and gradually tapered from base, style without distinct dentifer) and is not closely related. E. concava   , belongs among the Empoascini   based on the venation of the hind wings, body size and shape, and the general structure of the genitalia. Based on the forewing venation, the shape of the style, and the downward-folded dorsal apodemes of the first abdominal sternal complex, it seems probable that E. concava   will eventually be moved from Empoasca   to another (probably new) genus within Empoascini   . At this time I have chosen not to describe a new monobasic genus for this species in the hope that the confusing state of genera within the Empoascini   will soon be resolved.


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University of Delaware