Pheidole tenebrovulgaris, Salata & Fisher, 2020

Salata, Sebastian & Fisher, Brian L., 2020, The ant genus Pheidole Westwood, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Madagascar-taxonomic revision of the bessonii species-group, Zootaxa 4843 (1), pp. 1-64: 51-54

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4843.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:57044928-1950-4525-850E-E381A52599A1

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4488405

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03938025-FFBC-A923-A7D8-B052FF0CFA60

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Pheidole tenebrovulgaris
status

sp. nov.

Pheidole tenebrovulgaris   sp. nov.

Figs 23 View FIGURE 23 A–F, 27O, 28O

HOLOTYPE: 1s., Madagascar, Antananarivo, Ambohidratrimo , -18.821 47.44183, 1362 m, 8-May-2007, Urban garden, under stone, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. BLF17538 View Materials , CASENT0128508 ( CASC) GoogleMaps   . PARATYPES: 1w., the same data as holotype, CASENT0235036 ( CASC) GoogleMaps   .

Other material. Madagascar. Antananarivo: 1w., Ilafy , -18.85415 47.56575, 1385 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 4w., Kaloy , -18.59568 47.65333, 1338 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 1w., Tsimbazaza , -18.928 47.527, 1300 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   . Antsiranana: 1w., Ampasindava, Forêt d’Ambilanivy , 3.9 km 181° S Ambaliha, -13.79861 48.16167, 600 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 3w., Forêt d’ Andavakoera, 21.4 km 75° ENE Ambilobe; 4.6 km 356° N Betsiaka , -13.11833 49.23, 425 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC)   ; 1w., 1q., Forêt d’Ampondrabe , 26.3 km 10° NNE Daraina, -12.97 49.7, 175 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC)   ; 1w., Forêt d’Analabe, 30.0 km 72° ENE Daraina , -13.08333 49.90833, 30 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 1w., Forêt de Bekaraoka , 6.8 km 60° ENE Daraina, -13.16667 49.71, 150 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC)   ; 1w., 1s., Masoala National Park , -15.32331 50.30751, 60 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 1w., 1s., Masoala, Cap Est, Forêt d’Andranoanala , -15.26158 50.4758, 15 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 6w., Nosy Be, Réserve Naturelle Intégrale de Lokobe , 6.3 km 112° ESE Hellville, -13.41933 48.33117, 30 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 2w., Parc National Montagne d’Ambre , 12.2 km 211° SSW Joffreville, -12.59639 49.1595, 1300 m, Alpert et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 4w., 1s., R.S. Manongarivo, 10.8 km 229° SW Antanambao , -13.96167 48.43333, 400 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 1w., 1s., Réserve Spéciale de l’Ankarana , 22.9 km 224° SW Anivorano Nord, -12.90889 49.10983, 80 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 2w., 2s., Sahamalaza Peninsula, Forêt d’Anabohazo , 21.6 km 247° WSW Maromandia, -14.30889 47.91433, 120 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   . Fianarantsoa: 1w., Belle Vue trail, Ranomafana National Park   , Fianarantsoa Prov., -21.2665 47.42017, 1020 m, R. Harin’Hala leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 4w., dry wash, 1 km E of Isalo National Park Interpretive Center   , Fianarantsoa Prov., -22.62667 45.35817, 885 m, R. Harin’Hala leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 7w., 3s., Parc National d’Isalo , 9.1 km 354° N Ranohira, -22.48167 45.46167, 725 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 3w., Parc National d’Isalo, Sahanafa River , 29.2 km 351° N Ranohira, -22.31333 45.29167, 500 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 1s., R.S. Ivohibe , 6.5 km ESE Ivohibe, -22.49667 46.955, 1575 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 1w., Réserve Forestière d’Agnalazaha, Mahabo, 42.9 km 215° Farafangana , -23.19383 47.723, 20 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 1w., stream area, 900 m E of Isalo National Park Interpretive Center   , Fianarantsoa Prov., -22.62667 45.35817, 750 m, R. Harin’Hala leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   . Mahajanga: 2w., Parc National de Baie de Baly , 12.4 km 337° NNW Soalala, -16.01 45.265, 10 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC)   ; 8w., 5s., Parc National de Namoroka , 16.9 km 317° NW Vilanandro, -16.40667 45.31, 100 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC)   ; 2w., Parc National Tsingy de Bemaraha, 10.6 km ESE 123° Antsalova , -18.70944 44.71817, 150 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   . Toamasina: 2w., 1s., Ambatovy , 12.4 km NE Moramanga, -18.85813 48.28488, 1040 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 2w., F.C. Didy , -18.19833 48.57833, 960 m, H. J. Ratsirarson leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 1w., 1s., Forêt d’Analava Mandrisy, 5.9 km 195º Antanambe , -16.48567 49.847, 10 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 2w., 2s., 1m., Menafotaka, village near Onibe , -17.75872 48.85178, 785 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 1w., 1s., Moramanga , -18.94417 48.23067, 922 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 1w., Reserve Betampona, Camp Rendrirendry 34.1 km 332°   Toamasina, -17.924 49.19967, 390 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   . Toliara: 4w., Makay Mts. , -21.13513 45.33098, 650 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 1w., Parc National de Zombitse , 17.7 km 98° E Sakaraha, -22.88833 44.70167, 760 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC) GoogleMaps   ; 4w., Parc National de Zombitse, 19.8 km 84° E Sakaraha , -22.84333 44.71, 770 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC)   ; 1w., Réserve Spéciale d’Ambohijanahary, Forêt d’Ankazotsihitafototra , 34.6 km 314° NW Ambaravaranala, -18.26 45.41833, 1100 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC)   ; 1w., southern Isoky-Vohimena Forest , 59 km NE Sakaraha, -22.46667 44.85, 730 m, B. L. Fisher et al. leg. ( CASC)   .

Geographic range. Madagascar, species recorded from most of the island.

Diagnosis. Major workers. Head in full-face view sub-rectangular, not widening posteriorly, with lateral margins relatively straight; side of head with moderately dense, short, and appressed to subdecumbent pilosity; medial frons with dense and thick costulae; interspaces between costulae smooth; frons laterally rugulate; interspaces between rugulae punctate; occipital lobes with thin rugae; interspaces between rugae indistinctly punctate to smooth; scape, when laid back, exceeding the midlength of head by one-fifth of its length; inner hypostomal tooth indistinct, small and bulge-like, with top directed posteriorly; outer hypostomal tooth lobe-like, high, and wide, with top directed posteriorly; median tooth absent; promesonotum short, angular, and moderately low; posterior mesonotum moderately steep; mesonotal process distinct; mesosoma punctate; promesonotum with additional transverse and thin rugae; katepisternum and lateral sides of propodeum with additional rugae; gaster shagreened; body dark brown. Minor workers. Occiput not elongated; nuchal collar distinct; head sculpture punctate; sometimes frons and vertex with puncta reduced or absent; scape, when laid back, exceeding the posterior head margin by two-fifths of its length; promesonotum moderately low, moderately long, and arched; promesonotal groove absent to indistinct; metanotal groove distinct; propodeal spines moderate and with narrow base; mesosoma punctate; body dark brown.

Description. Major workers. Measurements (n=10): HL: 1.65–1.85 (1.74); HW: 1.68–1.8 (1.74); SL: 0.92– 0.99 (0.95); EL: 0.22–0.26 (0.23); WL: 1.38–1.53 (1.45); PSL: 0.25–0.31 (0.28); MTL: 0.94–1.1 (1.02); PNW: 0.7–0.78 (0.73); PTW: 0.21–0.31 (0.24); PPW: 0.58–0.71 (0.65); CI: 98.2–103.1 (100.6); SI: 52.6–57.6 (54.9); PSLI: 14.0–17.8 (15.8); PPI: 32.8–43.7 (37.2); PNI: 40.7–44.4 (42.2); MTI: 54.8–65.2 (58.4).

Head. In full-face view sub-rectangular, not widening posteriorly, with lateral sides relatively straight ( Fig. 23B View FIGURE 23 ). In lateral view sub-oval, not depressed posteriorly; ventral and dorsal margins convex; inner hypostomal tooth not visible. Side of head with moderately dense, short, and appressed to subdecumbent pilosity; head dorsum with relatively dense, long, and decumbent to erect pilosity. Medial frons with dense and thick costulae; interspaces between costulae smooth. Frons laterally rugulate; interspaces between rugulae punctate. Occipital lobes with thin rugae; interspaces between rugae indistinctly punctate to smooth. Gena with dense and thick costulae; interspaces between costulae distinctly punctate. Sides posterolateral from eyes with dense but very thin network of rugoreticulae. Center of clypeus shiny and smooth, lateral sides with distinct rugulae; median notch present, moderately wide, and shallow; median longitudinal carina present; lateral longitudinal carinae present. Scape, when laid back, exceeding the midlength of head by one-fifth of its length; pilosity appressed and subdecumbent ( Fig. 23B, D View FIGURE 23 ). Inner hypostomal tooth indistinct, small and bulge-like, with top directed posteriorly; outer hypostomal tooth lobe-like, high, and wide, with top directed posteriorly; median tooth absent ( Fig. 27O View FIGURE 27 ). Mesosoma. In lateral view, promesonotum short, angular, and moderately low; posterior mesonotum moderately steep; mesonotal process distinct and tubercle-like; promesonotal groove absent; metanotal groove absent; propodeal spines moderately long, with moderately wide base and acute top; humeral tubercle weakly produced ( Fig. 23D View FIGURE 23 ). Surface shiny and punctate; promesonotum with additional transverse and thin rugae; katepisternum and lateral sides of propodeum with additional rugae. Pilosity moderately dense, moderately long, and erect ( Fig. 23D, F View FIGURE 23 ). Postpetiole. In dorsal view distinctly wider than long ( Fig. 23D, F View FIGURE 23 ). Gaster. Dull and shagreened; pilosity moderately sparse, long, and erect ( Fig. 23D, F View FIGURE 23 ). Color. Dark brown, legs slightly brighter, antennae yellowish ( Fig. 23D, F View FIGURE 23 ).

Description. Minor workers. Measurements (n=10): HL: 0.62–0.79 (0.66); HW: 0.55–0.68 (0.59); SL: 0.73– 0.85 (0.79); EL: 0.13–0.15 (0.14); WL: 0.78–0.93 (0.86); PSL: 0.13–0.19 (0.15); MTL: 0.58–0.75 (0.64); PNW: 0.36–0.48 (0.39); PTW: 0.07–0.11 (0.09); PPW: 0.13–0.2 (0.14); CI: 100.8–118.5 (133.3); SI: 115.6–142.8 (133.4); PSLI: 20.6–25.4 (22.8); PPI: 49.7–74.0 (62.0); PNI: 59.1–70.3 (66.7); MTI: 92.8–117.9 (109.7).

Head. In full-face view oval, posterior region not elongated; nuchal collar distinct ( Fig. 23A View FIGURE 23 ). Pilosity relatively sparse, long, subdecumbent to absent. Sculpture shiny and punctate; sometimes frons and vertex with puncta reduced or absent. Clypeus with median longitudinal carina absent; two lateral longitudinal carinae absent. Scape, when laid back, exceeding the posterior head margin by two-fifths of its length; pilosity dense, subdecumbent to erect ( Fig. 23A, C View FIGURE 23 ). Mesosoma. In lateral view, promesonotum moderately low, moderately long, and arched; promesonotal groove absent to indistinct; metanotal groove distinct; propodeal spines moderate and triangular, with narrow base ( Fig. 23C View FIGURE 23 ). Sculpture punctate. Pilosity very sparse, short, and erect ( Fig. 23C, E View FIGURE 23 ). Gaster. With sparse and erect pilosity ( Fig. 23C, E View FIGURE 23 ). Color. Dark brown, legs and antennae brighter ( Fig. 23C, E View FIGURE 23 ).

Biology. The species was collected between 10–1575 m elevation, in tropical dry forest, rainforest, gallery forest, gardens, and littoral rainforest. Nests were located in rotten logs, in soil, under stones, under root mats, and in dead twigs above the ground. Workers were collected from sifted litter and on tree bark.

Comments. Pheidole tenebrovulgaris   is a common species widespread across the entire island. Its majors are most similar to majors of sympatric P. bessonii   , P. atsirakambiaty   , and P. voreios   , and can be separated based on presence of dense and thick costulae with smooth interspaces on medial frons, and occipital lobes with rugae that never arch posterolaterally and most often not weaken posteriorly. Minors can be separated based on the combination of the following characters: lack of neck and distinct nuchal collar, entirely or predominantly punctate head, scape exceeding the posterior head margin by two-fifths of its length, moderate propodeal spines with narrow base, entirely punctate mesosoma, and dark brown body.

Etymology. Latin for dark and widespread, in reference to body coloration and distribution range of the species.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Pheidole