Callibaetis nigracyclus, Cruz & Salles & Hamada, 2013

Cruz, Paulo Vilela, Salles, Frederico Falcão & Hamada, Neusa, 2013, Callibaetis Eaton (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from Brazil, Journal of Natural History (J. Nat. Hist.) 48 (11 - 12), pp. 591-660: 638-646

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1080/00222933.2013.791883

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5198789

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/038F4646-FFA1-0843-FE56-D678FECCFC8C

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Callibaetis nigracyclus
status

sp. nov.

Callibaetis nigracyclus   sp. nov.

( Figures 21–24 View Figure 21 View Figure 22 View Figure 23 View Figure 24 )

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:A21878EB-8D8A-4233-9EBF-AC8AED542405

Known stages: I ♀ ♂, N

Diagnosis

Male imago. (1) Dorsal portion of turbinate eyes circular, base of the turbinate portion of eyes as wide as apex in lateral view; ( Figure 21A View Figure 21 ) (2) forewing hyaline, except C, Sc, R 1 and area around bulla ( Figure 21D View Figure 21 ) brown coloured; (3) marginal intercalary veins paired, except between veins ICu 2 and A ( Figure 21D View Figure 21 ); (4) hind wing hyaline with brown mark basally, medially and apically ( Figure 21E View Figure 21 ); (5) costal process of hind wing compound ( Figure 21E View Figure 21 ); (6) abdominal sterna black; (7) forceps segment I cylindrical ( Figure 21C View Figure 21 ).

Female imago. (1) Forewing hyaline, except C, Sc, R 1 and area around bulla brown coloured; area near posterior margin with some elongate brown marks ( Figure 21G View Figure 21 ); (2) marginal intercalary veins single ( Figure 21G View Figure 21 ); (3) hind wing with two or one brown mark on middle and sometimes with small mark near costal process, always with pigmented apex; ( Figure 21H, I View Figure 21 ); (4) costal process of hind wing compound ( Figure 21H View Figure 21 ); (5) abdominal sterna with many light brown spots and four brown spots submedially ( Figure 21J View Figure 21 ); (6) abdominal terga I, III, IV, V, VI with red inverted “V” mark medially ( Figure 21F View Figure 21 ).

Mature nymph. (1) Antenna without spines, with fine, simple setae ( Figure 22A View Figure 22 ); (2) distal margin of labrum with deep medial emargination ( Figure 22B View Figure 22 ); (3) labrum with lateral and anterolateral margin with long and simple setae; distal margin, submedially with long and apically bifid setae; distal margin, medially with robust bipectinate setae ( Figure 22B View Figure 22 ); (4) maxillary palp reaching apex of galea-lacinia ( Figure 22E View Figure 22 ); (5) glossa subequal in length to paraglossa ( Figure 22G View Figure 22 ); (6) labial palp with spine-like setae ( Figure 22G View Figure 22 ); (7) anterior surface of forefemur with robust spine-like setae near dorsal margin and one row of robust spine-like setae near ventral margin ( Figure 23B View Figure 23 ); (8) tarsus ventrally with one row of robust spine-like setae ( Figure 23C View Figure 23 ); (9) hind femur similar to forefemur ( Figure 23F View Figure 23 ); (10) hind claw without minute spines on surface ( Figure 23H View Figure 23 ); (11) gill VII as long as length of segments VIII to half IX combined, with one fold ( Figure 24F View Figure 24 ); (12) cerci with spines on all segments ( Figure 24H View Figure 24 ); (13) terminal filament with spines on each segment ( Figure 24I View Figure 24 ).

Description

Male imago. Length: body, 4.2 mm; cercus, 6.8 mm; forewing, 4 mm; hind wing, 0.6 mm; antenna, 1 mm; tibia, I 1 mm; tibia II, 0.7 mm; tibia III, 0.7 mm. (n = 2). Head ( Figure 21A, B View Figure 21 ). Coloration brown. Turbinate portion of compound eyes dorsally light brown, stalk brown, apical third light brown. Antenna. Scape and pedicel light brown with apex brown, flagellum brown with white base. Dorsal portion of turbinate eyes circular; length 1 × width; stalk height 2.3 × dorsal portion height; base of the turbinate portion of eyes as wide as apex in lateral view; inner margins parallel, not reaching each other. Thorax ( Figure 21A, B View Figure 21 ). Anteronotal protuberance, mesoscutum, submesoscutum, posterior scutal protuberance and scutellum brown. Anteronotal protuberance rounded. Metascutellar protuberance pointed. Legs: Femur I with continuous longitudinal black marks on external surface, tibia I, tarsus I and claws white; femur II with continuous longitudinal black marks on internal surface, tibia II white with light marks on base and apex, tarsus II and claws white; femur III with continuous longitudinal black marks on internal surface, tibia III white with light marks on base and apex, tarsus III and claws white. Leg I: tibia 1.1 × length of femur; tarsus 0.7 × length of femur. Leg III: tibia 0.8 × length of femur; tarsus 0.4 × length of femur. Wings. Forewing ( Figure 21D View Figure 21 ) hyaline, except C, Sc, R 1 and area around bulla brown coloured (black arrow in Figure 21D View Figure 21 ); veins light brown; stigmatic area with seven to eight cross veins touching subcostal vein and one or two veins not touching subcostal vein; marginal intercalary veins paired, except between veins ICu 2 and A; length of each intercalary vein 0.3–0.6 × distance between adjacent longitudinal veins; length of forewing about 2.7 × width. Hind wing ( Figure 21E View Figure 21 ) hyaline with brown marks basally, medially and apically; costal process compound. Abdomen. Terga brown; tracheation black. Sterna black. Caudal filaments white with base brown. Genitalia ( Figure 21C View Figure 21 ). Forceps segment I brown, segments II and III light brown. Forceps segment I cylindrical; 0.3 × length of segment II; distance between base of forceps 0.3 × distance between lateral margins of forceps. Forceps segment III oval, 4 × as long as wide; 0.2 × length of segment II. Posterior margin of styliger plate without medial projection.

Female imago. Length: body, 6.2 mm; forewing, 5.4 mm; hind wing, 0.8 mm; antenna, 0.8 mm; tibia I, 0.9 mm; tibia II, 0.9 mm; tibia III, 0.8 mm. (n = 2). Head ( Figure 21F View Figure 21 ). Coloration light brown, posterior margin with two brown spots; compound eyes black, sometimes with brown transversal line. Antenna. Scape and pedicel with brown apex, flagellum light brown with base white. Thorax ( Figure 21F, J View Figure 21 ). Anteronotal protuberance, mesoscutum, submesoscutum, posterior scutal protuberance and scutellum light brown. Anteronotal protuberance rounded. Metascutellar protuberance pointed. Legs: Femora I, II and III light brown with discontinuous longitudinal pigmented line on external surface; tibiae I, II and III light brown with reddish brown mark ventrally on base and brown around apex; tarsi I, II and III light brown, tarsus I with two brown marks on apex of first and second segments, tarsi II and III with one brown mark on first segment; claws light brown. Leg I: tibia 1.2 × length of femur; tarsus 0.8 × length of femur. Leg II: tibia 0.8 × length of femur; tarsus 0.5 × length of femur. Leg III: tibia 0.7 × length of femur; tarsus 0.5 × length of femur. Wings. Forewing ( Figure 21G View Figure 21 ) hyaline, except C, Sc, R 1 and area around bulla brown coloured (black arrow in Figure 21G View Figure 21 ); near posterior margin with some elongate brown marks; veins brown; stigmatic area with seven cross veins touching subcostal vein and one not; marginal intercalary veins single; length of each intercalary vein 0.3–0.5 × distance between adjacent longitudinal veins; length of forewing about 2.3 × width. Hind wing ( Figure 21H,I View Figure 21 ) with two or one brown mark on middle and sometimes with small mark near costal process, always with pigmented apex; normally with three complete longitudinal veins, sometimes first not reaching; costal process compound. Abdomen ( Figure 21F, J View Figure 21 ). Terga with all segments with two light brown marks submedially and one spot laterally; terga I, III, IV, V, VI with red inverted “V” mark medially. Tracheation black. Sterna with many brown spots and four brown spots submedially.

Mature nymph. Length: body, 5.5 mm; cercus, 3.3 mm; terminal filament, 2.7 mm. (n = 2). Head. Coloration: light brown. Antenna light brown, ( Figure 22A View Figure 22 ) without spines, with fine, simple setae. Labrum ( Figure 22B View Figure 22 ). Excavate medially; length about 0.7 × maximum width; distal margin with deep medial emargination; lateral and anterolateral margin with long and simple setae; distal margin submedially with long and apically bifid setae; distal margin medially with robust bipectinate setae; dorsally with long, fine, simple setae scattered over surface; ventrally with short spine-like setae near lateral margin and many long, simple setae near anterolateral margin. Right mandible ( Figure 22C View Figure 22 ) with 4 + 3 denticles; prostheca slender and bifurcated, sometimes simple; margin between prostheca and mola convex; tuft of spine-like setae at base of mola present; tuft of setae at apex of mola present; lateral margins slightly convex; basal half with short, fine, simple setae and pores scattered over dorsal surface. Left mandible ( Figure 22D View Figure 22 ) with 4 + 3 denticles; prostheca robust and bifid, sometimes trifid; margin between prostheca and mola straight; tuft of spine-like setae at base of mola present; subtriangular process wide, above level of area between prostheca and mola; denticles of mola not constricted; tuft of setae at apex of mola present; lateral margins slightly convex; basal half with short, fine, simple setae and pores scattered over dorsal surface. Hypopharynx ( Figure 22F View Figure 22 ). Lingua with three lobes in distal margin; superlingua not expanded; short, fine, simple setae scattered over distal margin of lingua and superlingua. Maxilla ( Figure 22E View Figure 22 ). Double row of setae with one simple denti-setae and other with spines. Medial protuberance of galea with 1 + 4 spine-like setae. Maxillary palp reaching apex of galea-lacinia; palp segment II 0.7 × length of segment I; outer margin of segment I scattered with robust and pointed setae, apex of inner margin with seven or eight pointed setae, dorsal and ventral surface with pores; segment II with short pointed setae in inner margin, outer margin with long, fine and simple setae. Labium ( Figure 22G View Figure 22 ). Glossa with regular width along entire length and subequal in length to paraglossa; inner margin with nine to eleven spine-like setae; apex with three to five spine-like setae; outer margin with many long spine-like setae. Dorsally with many long spine-like setae. Ventral surface scattered with few long, fine and simple setae, inner margin with one row of short spine-like setae. Paraglossa curved inward; apex with three to five robust and simple setae. Ventrally with one row of spine-like setae near inner margin (black arrow in Figure 22G View Figure 22 ). Labial palp with segment I 0.8 × length of segments II and III combined; segment I dorsally covered with micropores, near outer margin with robust spine-like setae; ventrally, near inner margin with robust spine-like setae, sometimes with robust spine-like setae on base of outer margin; segment II without distomedial protuberance; inner and outer margin, respectively, with eight or nine short spine-like setae and with few robust spine-like setae; dorsally with row of four to six short spine-like setae; segment III concave; length 1.2 × width; covered with spine-like simple setae along margins and fine, simple setae, scattered over outer surface. Thorax light brown. Foreleg ( Figure 23A–D View Figure 23 ) light brown, posterior surface with longitunal discontinous brown mark. Ratio of foreleg 1.2: (0.8 mm): 0.6: 0.4. Forefemur. Length about 4.7 × maximum width; dorsally with few short spine-like setae, apex with two robust spine-like setae; length of setae about 0.3 × maximum width of femur; ventrally with few long, fine and simple setae. Anterior surface with robust spine-like setae near dorsal margin and one row of robust spine-like setae near ventral margin, surface with micropores. Tibia. Dorsally bare; ventrally with one row of short spine-like setae. Anterior surface with few long, fine simple setae. Tarsus. Dorsally abundant short, fine, simple setae; ventrally one row of robust spine-like setae. Tarsal claw with two rows of denticles increasing in size distally, many minute spines on surface. Hind leg ( Figure 23E–H View Figure 23 ). Tarsus, ventrally with one row of spine-like setae, anterior surface with one row of robust bipectinate setae. Abdomen ( Figure 24A View Figure 24 ). Light brown, segments I, II and VI darker. Terga. Posterior margin with regular spines, 3 × as long as wide ( Figure 24B View Figure 24 ). Sterna. Surface with scattered fine, simple setae. Gills ( Figure 24C–F View Figure 24 ). Trachea black pigmented, extending from main trunk to outer margin. Gill I about half length of segment II, with two folds. Gill IV 1.5 × length of segment V, with three folds. Gill VII as long as length of segments VIII to half IX combined, with one fold. Paraproct ( Figure 24G View Figure 24 ) with 21–25 marginal spines; surface with micropores and short fine, simple setae; posterolateral extension with minute marginal spines. Terminal filament ( Figure 24I View Figure 24 ) light brown; posterior margin with spines on each segment. Cerci ( Figure 24H View Figure 24 ) with spines on all segments.

Etymology

The specific epithet is a reference to the forewing pigmentation pattern ( nigracyclus   , from Greek and Latin, meaning “black circle”).

Comments

The adults of C. nigracyclus   sp. nov. and C. gelidus   sp. nov. are similar; however, the male imago of C. nigracyclus   sp. nov. has the base of the turbinate portion of eyes as wide as apex and larger number and small size of ommatidia in the upper portion of compound eyes ( Figure 21A View Figure 21 ), while in C. gelidus   sp. nov. the base is wider than apex and small number and large size of ommatidia in the upper portion of compound eyes ( Figure 10A View Figure 10 ); female imago of C. nigracyclus   sp. nov. has brown marks near posterior margin of forewing ( Figure 21G View Figure 21 ), while in C. gelidus   sp. nov. these marks are absent ( Figure 10H View Figure 10 ). The nymphs of C. nigracyclus   sp. nov. and C. gelidus   sp. nov. cannot be distinguished.

Material examined

Holotype. Female imago with corresponding nymphal exuviae, BRAZIL, Amazonas, Manaus, Lake of Reserva ZF2 (03 ◦ 10 ′ 59.9 ′′ S, 060 ◦ 05 ′ 17.7 ′′ W), 14 / vii / 2008, illuminated sheet, P. V. Cruz col. ( CZNC). GoogleMaps  

Paratypes. Two female imagos, four male imagos and one female imago (with exuviae), BRAZIL, Amazonas, Manaus, Lake of Reserva ZF2 (03 ◦ 10 ′ 59.9 ′′ S, 060 ◦ 05 ′ 17.7 ′′ W), 14 / vii / 2008, illuminated sheet, P. V. Cruz col. ( CZNC). Two female imagos, BRAZIL, Amazonas, Presidente Figueiredo, Igarapé Pantera (1 ◦ 28 ′ 29.82 ′′ S, 60 ◦ 16 ′ 26.52 ′′ W), AM 240 GoogleMaps   Km 20, 19 / x / 2008, illuminated sheet, P. V. Cruz col. ( INPA). Female imago (with nymphal exuviae on slides) and four nymphs, BRAZIL, Amazonas, Manaus , Lake of Reserva SokaGakkai (3 ◦ 7 ′ 28.87 ′′ S, 60 ◦ 0 ′ 45.68 ′′ W), 03 / x / 2008, reared, P. V. Cruz col. ( CZNC). Female imago (with exuviae), BRAZIL, Amazonas, Manaus, Balneário no Km 18 – Br 174 (2 ◦ 49 ′ 00.8 ′′ S, 60 ◦ 02 ′ 05.6 ′′ W), 17 / iv / 2009, reared, P. V. Cruz col. ( INPA). Female imago, BRAZIL, Pará, Parauapebas ( Flona do Carajás – Buritizal) (6 ◦ 04 ′ 14.88 ′′ S, 49 ◦ 54 ′ 15.59 ′′ W), brook, 26 / ix / 2008, light trap, ( INPA) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution

Brazil: Amazonas state, Manaus county, Presidente Figueiredo county   ; Pará state, Parauapebas county   .

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia