Vaejovis oaxaca, López, Carlos Santibañez & Sissom, David, 2010

López, Carlos Santibañez & Sissom, David, 2010, A new species of the Va e j o v i s eusthenura group in Oaxaca, Mexico (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Zootaxa 2493, pp. 49-58: 51-56

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.195673

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/038E633F-8B07-FF8F-E2F6-F8DB917A81F5

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Vaejovis oaxaca
status

new species

Vaejovis oaxaca   , new species

( Figs. 1–17 View FIGURES 1 – 4 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURES 6 – 8 View FIGURES 9 – 17 )

Type data. Holotype male ( Figs. 1–2 View FIGURES 1 – 4 ) taken from 4 km N Totolapam, Oaxaca   , Mexico (N 16 ° 41 ' 45.9 ”, W 96 ° 18 ' 52.1 ”, elevation 1078 m) on 1 November 2004 by O. Francke, R. Paredes & G. Villegas. Deposited in the Colección Nacional de Áracnidos (CNAN-T0376), Departamento de Zoología, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

Etymology. The specific epithet is derived from the Mexican state of Oaxaca   , which encompasses most of the geographical range of the species.

Distribution. Known from central Oaxaca   southeast into southern part of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the eastern edge of Chiapas ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ).

Diagnosis. Vaejovis oaxaca   is most similar to V. punctatus Karsch, 1879   , V. variegatus Pocock, 1898   , V. subcristatus Pocock, 1898   , and V. occidentalis Hoffmann, 1931   (although occidentalis   and subcristatus   currently reside in the intrepidus group). The possession of six subrows of denticles on the cutting edge of the chela fixed finger readily distinguishes the new species from V. punctatus   and V. subcristatus   , which have five subrows. Its larger body size, more reddish coloration, different hemispermatophore structure, and higher metasomal setation counts further distinguish it from V. punctatus   . The absence of ventral submedian carinae on metasomal segments I –III (and with weak, smooth carinae on IV) distinguishes V. oaxaca   from V. subcristatus   , which has developed carinae on at least II –IV, with the posterior carinae usually bearing crenulations or serrations.

From V. variegatus   , V. oaxaca   may be distinguished by coloration (V. v a r i e g a t u s is typically darker reddish brown, and the median dark stripe on the tergites includes dark posteromedian patches) and lower setal counts on the metasoma (e.g., variegatus   typically has 6–8 [mode = 7] dorsolateral and 7–10 [mode = 7] ventrolateral setae on metasoma V). In V. variegatus   , the ventral submedian carinae are entirely absent on I – IV and the ventromedian carina is absent basally on V.

From V. occidentalis   , V. o a x a c a may be distinguished by the absence of ventral submedian carinae on metasomal segments II –III (and with only weak, smooth carinae on IV); the former has developed carinae on at least II –IV, with the posterior carinae bearing crenulations or serrations. The ventrolateral metasomal carinae are smooth in V. oaxaca   , but bear crenulations on segments II –IV in V. occidentalis   . Vaejovis oaxaca   has weaker scalloping in the chela fingers: the basal lobe on the chela movable finger is noticeably smaller and the corresponding notch in the fixed finger is less pronounced. The metasomal intercarinal spaces are sparsely granular in V. oaxaca   , but are densely coarsely granular in V. occidentalis   . Finally, the color pattern of the tergites is different in the two species: in V. oaxaca   there are dusky markings connecting the medial and lateral dusky patches, whereas in V. occidentalis   , the area between these is almost devoid of markings (i.e., it is uniformly pale).

Description of holotype male. Coloration. ( Figures 1–2 View FIGURES 1 – 4 ). Carapace, tergites, and metasomal segments I – IV light yellow brown to orange brown; ventrolateral and ventral submedian carinae underlined with strong dusky pigment. Mesosomal tergites with paired submedian and lateral fuscous patches, producing a distinct striping pattern. Metasoma V and telson darker orange brown. Telson yellow brown to light orange brown; aculeus dark brown. Pedipalps: femur and patella yellow brown to orange brown with dusky markings; chela orange brown, darker at base of fingers, with yellowish fingertips; denticles of finger dentate margins brown. Legs yellow brown with some faint dusky markings; tarsi yellowish. Venter: coxosternal region light orange brown; pectines yellowish white; sternites light orange brown; sternite V with whitish patch along posteromedial margin.

Prosoma. Carapace approximately as long as posterior width. Median ocular prominence moderately raised above carapacial surface. Anterior margin nearly straight, lacking median notch; with 11 setae. Entire carapacial surface a densely minutely granular field arrayed with coarser granulation.

Mesosoma. Tergites I –IV: median carina on I obsolete, on II –VI weak, granular. Submedian carinae on I – II vestigial; on III –V weak, granular; on VI moderate, granular. Tergite VII: median carina represented by a rounded, granular raised area, present on anterior two-thirds; submedian and lateral carinae strong, granulose. Genital opercula without median longitudinal membranous connection, genital papillae well developed. Pectinal tooth count 19–20. Sternites III –VI smooth to shagreened medially, densely minutely granular laterally; sparsely setose. Sternite VII with pair of very weak, smooth lateral carinae.

Metasoma. Segment I 0.77 times as long as wide, II 0.93 times as long as wide, III 1.10 times longer than wide, IV 1.52 times longer than wide, V 2.10 times longer than wide. Segments I –IV: Carination: Dorsolateral carinae on I –IV strong, serrate; distalmost denticles on I –IV distinctly enlarged, spinoid. Lateral supramedian carinae on I –II strong, crenulate; on III strong, irregularly crenulate; on IV moderate, granular; distalmost denticles distinctly enlarged, spinoid on I –III; widely flared on IV. Lateral inframedian carinae on I complete, strong, crenulate; on II present only on posterior one-third, moderate granular; on III present on posterior onefourth, weak, granular; on IV absent. Ventrolateral carinae weak, smooth. Ventral submedian carinae on I –IV obsolete. Dorsal intercarinal spaces densely minutely granular with a few larger granules, lustrous; lateral and ventral spaces smooth, lustrous. Setation ( Figs. 6–8 View FIGURES 6 – 8 ): dorsolaterals, 0/0: 2 / 2: 3 / 3: 3 / 3; lateral supramedians, 0/ 0: 3 / 3: 4 / 4: 4 / 4; lateral inframedians, 2 / 2: 1 / 1: 1 / 1:0/0; ventrolaterals, 4 / 4: 4 / 4: 5 / 5: 5 / 5; ventrolateral accessories 0/ 0: 1 / 1: 1 / 1: 1 / 1; ventral submedians (total) 6: 8: 10: 12. Segment V: Dorsolateral carinae strong basally, granular, weakening distally. Lateromedian carinae present on anterior three-fourths, weak, smooth. Ventrolateral and ventromedian carinae strong, serrate. Intercarinal spaces smooth, lustrous; dorsal, dorsolateral, and ventral faces with sparse coarse granulation. Segment V setation ( Figs. 6–8 View FIGURES 6 – 8 ): dorsolaterals, 9 / 9; lateromedians, 6 / 6; ventrolaterals, 12 / 12; ventrolateral accessories 5 / 5; ventromedians, 7 + 2 / 6 + 2.

Telson. All surfaces smooth, lustrous. Vesicle with about 26 pairs of setae; aculeus with a few setae on base. Subaculear tubercle lacking. Aculeus 32 % of telson length.

Pedipalp. Femur ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 9 – 17 ) tetracarinate. Dorsointernal, dorsoexternal, and ventrointernal carinae strong, granulose. Ventroexternal carina strong, with irregularly spaced, large rounded granules. Internal face densely minutely granular, with about 12 medium-sized and large, subconical granules; dorsal face densely, minutely granular with medium-sized to large granules in medial area; ventral and external faces densely, minutely granular with sparse coarse granulation. Trichobothrial pattern Type C, orthobothriotaxic ( Vachon 1974). Setation: internal face with 3 / 3 supramedial setae, 6 / 5 inframedial setae; external face with 5 / 5 medial setae.

Patella ( Figs. 10–11 View FIGURES 9 – 17 ) tetracarinate. Dorsointernal and ventrointernal carinae moderate, granulose. Dorsoexternal carina moderate, smooth. Ventroexternal carina moderate, smooth. Internomedian carina strong, with several larger granules, terminating just distal to i trichobothrium. Intercarinal spaces densely, finely granular. Trichobothrial pattern Type C, orthobothriotaxic ( Vachon 1974). Setation: internal face with 4 / 3 supramedial setae, 5 / 5 inframedial setae.

Chela ( Figs. 12–15 View FIGURES 9 – 17 ): Essentially acarinate, with positions of keels indicated in cross section by faint, rounded elevations. Dentate margin of fixed finger ( Fig. 14 View FIGURES 9 – 17 ) with primary row divided into six subrows by five larger granules; six inner accessory granules (right side) with the distalmost paired with the terminal denticle and the others with enlarged primary row granules (five on left side, each paired with an enlarged primary row denticle). Dentate margin of movable finger ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 9 – 17 ) with primary row broken up into seven subrows by six enlarged granules; seven inner accessory granules, with the distal granule paired with the terminal denticle and the others with enlarged primary row granules. Chela length/width ratio 3.57; fixed finger length/carapace length ratio, 0.55; fixed finger length 39 % of total chela length. Trichobothrial pattern Type C, orthobothriotaxic ( Vachon 1974).

Legs. Basitarsus on legs I –II with two ventrosubmedian and one retrolateral rows of spinules; spinule rows interrupted at irregular intervals by large, stiff setae. Leg III with submedian row on prolateral side absent, on retrolateral side vestigial; retrolateral spinule row present, with coarser spinules. Leg IV with only sparse retrolateral spinule row.

Telotarsus on all legs with single ventromedian row of spinules, procurved basally, terminating distally between three to four pairs of spinules.

Measurements (mm, L = length, W = width, D = depth) – Holotype male: Total L, 41.5, carapace L, 5.3, mesosoma L, 11.6; metasoma L, 19; telson L, 5.6. Metasomal segments: I L/W, 2.4 / 3.1; II L/W, 2.8 /3.0; III L/ W, 3.2 / 2.9; IV L/W, 4.1 / 2.7; V L/W, 6.5 / 3.1. Telson: vesicle L/W/D, 3.8 / 2.3 / 1.9; aculeus L, 1.8. Pedipalps: total L, 16.3; femur L/W, 4.1 / 1.1; patella L/W, 4.7 / 1.1; chela L/W/D, 7.5 / 2.1 / 2.6; fixed finger L, 2.9; movable finger L, 4.4.

Paratype female: Total L, 50.9; carapace L, 6.5; mesosoma L, 16.1; metasoma L, 21.0; telson L, 7.3. Metasomal segments: I L/W, 2.8 /4.0; II L/W, 3.3 / 3.9; III L/W, 3.7 / 3.8; IV L/W, 4.9 / 3.1; V L/W, 6.3 / 3.3. Telson: vesicle L/W/D, 4.8 / 3.4 / 2.6; aculeus L, 2.5. Pedipalps: total L, 19.7; femur L/W, 4.7 / 1.2; patella L/W, 5.6 / 1.2; chela L/W/D, 9.4 / 2.5 /3.0; fixed finger L, 3.8; movable finger L, 5.7 (left).

Hemispermatophore (dissected from paratopotype male; Figs. 16–17 View FIGURES 9 – 17 ). Hemispermatophore as in other eusthenura   group species ( Sissom 1991), i.e., with broad flange on ectal edge of distal lamina, lamellar “hooks” displaced distally from its base, and spines in the sperm plug; distance from tip of ectal flange to base of dorsal trough 54 % of length from tip of flange to base of trunk; capsular region as in Fig. 18; sperm plug of capsular region with 15 spines on ectal process.

Intraspecific Variation. Variation in pectinal tooth counts is as follows: males (n = 30 specimens, or 60 combs): 12 combs with 19 teeth, 18 combs with 20, 14 combs with 21, 11 combs with 22 and three combs with 23 (two combs were damaged); females (n = 73 specimens, or 146 combs): one comb with 17 teeth, 44 combs with 18, 82 combs with 19, 17 combs with 20 (two combs were damaged).

Modes and ranges in setal counts for 25 specimens are given in Table 1. This species has high setal counts on both the metasoma and pedipalps, and each carina exhibits considerable variation.

Pedipalp chela finger dentition varied as follows (left side, n = 25): for the fixed finger, 24 fingers had six subrows of denticles and one had five (the specimen with five had an aberrant finger, with the second and third rows fused); 24 fingers had six inner accessory denticles and one had five. For the right movable finger, 20 fingers had seven subrows and five had six (one of the five exhibited a damaged distal end on the finger, with the loss of the distal subrow); 22 fingers had seven inner accessory denticles, two had six, and one had nine.

Table 1. Variation in setal count in V. oaxaca   . Setal counts of metasomal segments I-IV are separated by “/”.

Morphometric variation is as follows: Males (n = 10): Chela length/width 3.26–3.87, patella length/width 3.00– 3.75, fixed finger length/carapace length 0.47–0.63, segment III length/width 0.97–1.06, segment V length/width 1.73–2.03, fixed finger length/chela length 0.36–0.42, carapace length/segment V length 0.81– 0.92. Females (n = 10): Chela length/width 3.23–3.77, patella length/width 3.06–3.44, fixed finger length/ carapace length 0.57–0.63, segment III length/width 0.95–1.06, segment V length/width 1.62–2.06, fixed finger length/chela length 0.41–0.47, carapace length/segment V length 0.86–0.99.

Comments. Beutelspacher (2000: 103, map 85) listed several records of “ Vaejovis punctatus   ” from Oaxaca   within the range of this species, including Mixtequilla, Ixtlan de Juarez, and Salina Cruz. We   were able to locate the Ixtlan de Juarez specimen in the CNAN collection, and it is referable to an undescribed species in the mexicanus group; specimens upon which the other records were based could not be located.

Paratypes. MEXICO: Chiapas: Arriaga, " 4-8 - 75 " (H. L. Stahnke), juvenile ( CAS); Municipio Arriaga, 4 km NE Arriaga, 16 º 15.59 ’ N: 93 º 51.96 ’ W, 1 Sept 2005 ( O. F. Francke, M. Cordova, A. Jaimes, H. Montaño), 1 male, 1 female ( CNAN); Arriaga, near edge of town at Hwy intersection (sandy soil, field burned, UV light), “ 4-8 - 75 ” (H. L. Stahnke), 1 male ( CAS). Oaxaca   : Caballo Blanco (under rocks), 12 July 1963 (G. Sluder), 1 male, 2 females ( AMNH); 1.5 mi S Carrizal (9500 ft), 25 July 1963 (G. Sluder), 1 female, 1 juvenile ( AMNH); 3 mi E Chichicapan (Distrito de Ocotlan, 5400 ft), 23 Aug 1966 (C. M. Bogert), 1 male, 2 juveniles ( AMNH); 4.5 mi S El Punto (8500 ft), 7 July 1966 (C. M. Bogert, P. Peckham), females ( AMNH); 2 mi E Ixtlan de Juarez (7600 ft), 20 July 1963 (G. Sluder), 2 females ( AMNH); Juan Garcia, 16 ° 18.6 ’ N: 95 ° 28.2 ’ W, 1 Sept 1964 (J. & W. Ivie), 1 male, 1 female ( AMNH); NW of Juchitan, 3 Apr 1969 (W. Peck), 1 male, 1 female ( CAS); 4 km E Miahuatlan, 16 ° 19.503 ’ N: 96 ° 32.4606 ’ W, 23 June 2006 ( O. F. Francke, G. Villegas, H. Montano, A. Valdez, C. Santibanez), 1 male, 4 subadult males, 2 females, 1 subadult female, 1 juv male ( CNAN); 6 males, 2 juveniles ( AMNH); 4 males, 1 female ( CAS); 8 mi N Miahuatlan, 3 Sept 1962 (M. Bogert), 2 females, 1 subadult female, 2 juvs. ( AMNH); Mitla, 1962 (W. Miller), 2 juv. female ( AMNH); ca. 6 mi E Mitla (above, to the NE of Xaaga, between 6000 & 7500 ft), 3 Sept 1965 (M. R. & C. W. Bogert), 1 male, 1 female, 2 juveniles ( AMNH); 15 km E Mitla, 13 -VIII- 1988 (Stockwell), 1 female ( UCB), 17 Aug 1988 (Stockwell), 1 subadult male, 2 females ( UCB); 15 km E Mitla, 16 ° 66.606 ' N: 96 ° 17.114 ' W, elevation 2081 m); 18 July 2007; ( O. Francke, A. Ballesteros, H. Montaño, C. Santibañez, A. Valdez), 3 males, 4 females; 14.5 km E Mitla, 12 July 2002 ( O. Francke, E. Gonzalez, L. Prendini & J. Ponce), 1 female ( AMNH); 14.5 km E Mitla, 17 º 15.642 ’ N: 96 ° 17.112 ’ W, 23 July 2002 (L. Prendini, O. Francke, E. Gonzalez, J. Ponce), 1 female (AMNH-ARA 00001146); 3 mi NE Mitla (under rocks, 5800 ft), 13 July 1966 (P. Peckham, C. Bogert), 3 females ( AMNH); 5 mi NE Mitla (on ridge, ca. 6800–7200 ft), near ruins called "El Crucero", 27 Aug 1963 (M. Bogert, G. Sluder, N. Bucknell), 3 males, 3 females, 1 juv. female ( AMNH); about 6 mi N Mitla (6200 ft), 1 Sept 1962 (M. R. Bogert), 1 female, 1 juv. female ( AMNH); Nueve Puntas (under stones), 13 July 1963 (G. Sluder), 3 females ( AMNH); 2 mi SE Niltepec, 16 ° 19.2 ’ N: 94 ° 19.8 ’ W, 16 Aug 1966 (J. & W. Ivie), 1 female, 1 juv. male ( AMNH); Oaxaca   de Juarez, 21–22 Aug 1965 (C. M. Bogert), 1 female, 1 juv. male ( AMNH); 17 km SE Oaxaca   nr. Dainzu Ruins, 11 Aug 1988 (Stockwell), 1 juv male ( UCB); Portillo Nejapa (4200 ft, under rocks in pine-oak habitat), 20 July 1966 (C. M. Bogert), 2 females ( AMNH); Summit, SE Nejapa, 16 ° 20.4 ’ N: 95 ° 33.6 ’ W, 29 Aug 1967 (J. & W. Ivie), 1 female, 1 juvenile ( AMNH); San Juan del Rio, SE of Mitla (4100 ft, in river bottom), Aug 1961 (C. M. & M. R. Bogert), 1 female ( AMNH); Tehuantepec, 27 Dec 1947 (T. MacDougall), juvenile ( AMNH); 8 mi W Tehuantepec, 16 ° 13.2 ’ N: 95 ° 13.2 ’W, 29 Aug 1966 (J. & W. Ivie), 6 females, 3 males, 1 juv. male, 1 juvenile ( AMNH); 12 mi WNW Tehuantepec, 16 ° 13.3 ’ N: 95 ° 13.3 ’W, 1 Sept 1964 (J. & W. Ivie), 1 male, 1 female, 1 juv. female ( AMNH); 20 mi W Tehuantepec along Hwy 190 (4450 ft, dry acacia area), 23 June 1970 (Riechert, Reeder), 1 juv. male ( AMNH); 3 km down dirt road to Santo Domingo Tepuxtepec (between Ayutla and Tepuxtepec), Mixes District, 16 ° 58.044 ' N: 96 ° 08.626' W, elevation 1805 m, 18 July 2007 ( O. Francke, A. Ballesteros, H. Montaño, C. Santibañez, A. Valdez), 1 juvenile ( CNAN); 5 mi W Tequisistlan, 16 ° 15 ’ N: 95 ° 2.4 ’W, 1 Sept 1964 (J. & W. Ivie), 1 juvenile ( AMNH); Tlacolula, 16 July 1955 (J. & P. Vaurie), 1 female, 1 male ( AMNH); Totolapam, “ 9 - 2-66 ” (R. Hubbard), 1 female ( CAS); 2 km NNW Totolapam (3200 ’), 12 Aug 1988 (T. Doyen), 1 male, 2 females, 2 juvs. ( UCB); 4 km N Totolapam, 16 ° 41.765 ’ N: 96 ° 18.8683 ’ W, elevation 1078 m, 1 November 2004 ( O. Francke, R. Paredes & G. Villegas), 2 males, 4 females, 1 juv male (CNAN-T0377/ AMNH-ARA 00002012), 2 males, 4 females, 2 juv. males, 1 juv. female ( AMNH /AMNH-ARA 000011511); 1 male, 2 females, 2 juvs. ( CAS /AMNH-ARA 00001850); nr. Yagul, ca. 30 km SE Oaxaca   , 13 Aug 1988 (S. Stockwell), 1 subadult male, 2 females ( UCB); 14 Aug 1988 (S. Stockwell, T. Doyen), 3 females ( UCB); Yahuiche (mesa east of Yagúl), 30 Aug 1962 (M. R. Bogert), 1 female ( AMNH); Magdalena Mixtepec, 16 ° 52.824 ’ N: 96 ° 51.0558 ’ W, 19 Jun 2006 ( O. Francke, G. Villegas, H. Montaño, C. Santibáñez & A. Valdez), 1 female, 1 juvenile ( AMNH), 1 female, 3 juveniles ( CNAN), 1 female ( CAS); 1 km N San Lorenzo Mixtepec, 16 ° 17.5206 ’ N: 96 ° 19.983 ’ W, elevation 1925 m, 22 Jun 2006 ( O. Francke, G. Villegas, H. Montaño, C. Santibáñez & A. Valdez), 1 male, 2 females, 4 juveniles ( AMNH), 3 females, 1 subadult male, 5 juveniles ( CNAN), 1 female, 2 juveniles ( CAS); 1 km E Yagul, 16 ° 57.297 ’ N: 96 ° 26.4606 ’ W, elevation 1662 m, 14 Nov 2005 ( O. Francke, M. Córdova, A. Jaimes, G. Montiel & C. Santibáñez), 1 male, 1 juvenile female ( AMNH).

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

UCB

University of California at Berkeley