Tholerosoma monteithi, Mesibov, Robert, 2006

Mesibov, Robert, 2006, Dirt-encrusted and dragon millipedes (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae) from Queensland, Australia, Zootaxa 1354, pp. 31-44: 38-41

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.174573

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:64FDBA20-DF3E-4638-9FC0-B934EF64764F

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/038D879B-2468-FF8E-FEC0-FEB27F88FE72

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Tholerosoma monteithi
status

n. sp.

Tholerosoma monteithi  n. sp.

Figs. 3View FIGURE 3, 4View FIGURE 4, 5View FIGURE 5 A, 5 D, 5 E, 6 B; map Fig. 7View FIGURE 7

Holotype: Male , Downey Creek Road , Palmerston National Park, 17 ° 36 ’ 30 "S 145 ° 46 ’E, 30.xi. 1992 – 15.iv. 1993, R. & S. Raven, P. & E. Lawless, pitfall NQ 11 a, QM S 73973View Materials.GoogleMaps 

Paratypes: 2 males, 1 female, details as for holotype, QM S 73974View MaterialsGoogleMaps  ; 3 males, Bluewater Range , 45 km WNW of Townsville, 19 ° 12 ’S 146 ° 24 ’E, 600–700 m, 6–8.xii. 1986, G. Monteith, G. Thompson & S. Hamlet, QM S 73975View MaterialsGoogleMaps  ; male, Bluewater Range, 45 km WNW of Townsville, 19 ° 12 ’S 146 ° 24 ’E, 750 m, 7.xii. 1986 – 16.ii. 1987, G. Monteith, G. Thompson & S. Hamlet, rainforest, pitfall traps, QM S 73976View MaterialsGoogleMaps  .

Other material examined: QM: female, Upper Boulder Creek via Tully, 17 ° 50 ’S 145 ° 54 ’E, 900 m, 25–27.x. 1983, G. Monteith, D. Yeates & G. Thompson, QM S 73977View Materials;GoogleMaps  male, Mt Macalister area , Cardwell Range, 18 ° 18 ’S 145 ° 57 ’E, 900–1000 m, 18–19.xii. 1986, G. Monteith, G. Thompson & S. Hamlet, rainforest, QM S 73978View Materials;GoogleMaps  2 males, Mt Graham , 8 km N of Abergowrie, 18 ° 25 ’S 145 ° 52 ’E, 600–700 m, 26–30.xii. 1986, S. Hamlet, rainforest, QM S 73979View Materials;GoogleMaps  female, stadium VII male, stadium VII female, Downey Creek , 25 km SE of Millaa Millaa, 17 ° 39 ’S 145 ° 47 ’E, 400 m, 7.xii. 1988, G. Monteith & G. Thompson, rainforest, sieved litter, QM berlesate 813, QM S 73980View Materials;GoogleMaps  female, Bartle Frere Track , 17 km W of Malanda, 17 ° 23 ’S 145 ° 47 ’E, 700 m, 8.xii. 1988, G. Monteith & G. Thompson, QM S 73981View Materials;GoogleMaps  2 females, Upper Mulgrave Road , Kearneys Falls, 17 ° 14 ’S 145 ° 47 ’E, 100 m, 10.xii. 1988, G. Monteith & G. Thompson, QM S 73982View Materials;GoogleMaps  male, Lamb Range , 19 km SE of Mareeba, 17 °07’S 145 ° 34 ’E, 1100–1200 m, 11.xii. 1988, G. Monteith & G. Thompson, QM S 73983View Materials;GoogleMaps  female, 2 km SE of Mt Spurgeon, via Carbine , 16 ° 27 ’S 145 ° 12 ’E, 1100 m, 20–21.xii. 1988, G. Monteith & G. Thompson, ex QMS 18018View Materials, QM S 73984View Materials;GoogleMaps  female, Tully Falls Road , 10 km S of Ravenshoe, 17 ° 43 ’S 145 ° 31 ’E, 900 m, 8.xii. 1989, G. Monteith, G. Thompson & H. Janetzki, rainforest, sieved litter, QM berlesate 831, QM S 73985View Materials;GoogleMaps  2 females, Mt Lewis Road , 25 km from highway, 16 ° 32 ’S 145 ° 17 ’E, 14.i. 1990, ANZSES personnel, QM S 73986View Materials;GoogleMaps  female, Mt Lewis Road, end , 10 km N of Mt Lewis, 16 ° 29 ’S 145 ° 15 ’E, 1100 m, 25.xi. 1990, G. Monteith, G. Thompson, D. Cook, R. Sheridan & H. Janetzki, QM S 73987View Materials;GoogleMaps  female, Pauls Luck , Carbine Tableland, 16 ° 26 ’S 145 ° 15 ’E, 1100 m, 28–30.xi. 1990, G. Monteith, H. Janetzki & D. Cook, pitfall traps, QM S 73988View Materials;GoogleMaps  male, Pauls Luck , Carbine Tableland, 16 ° 26 ’S 145 ° 15 ’E, 1100 m, 28–30.xi. 1990, G. Monteith, G. Thompson, D. Cook, R. Sheridan & H. Janetzki, QM S 73989View Materials;GoogleMaps  stadium VII male, Mt Halifax, summit , 19 °07’S 145 ° 23 ’E, 1050 m, 21.iii.– 10.v. 1991, D. Cook, pitfalls & intercepts, ex QMS 41245View Materials, QM S 73990View Materials;GoogleMaps  female, above Kearneys Falls , 17 ° 14 ’S 145 ° 47 ’E, 550 m, 12.x. 1991, G. Monteith, H. Janetzki & D. Cook, QM S 73991View Materials;GoogleMaps  female, Mt Halcyon , 16 °03’S 145 ° 25 ’E, 870 m, 22–24.xi. 1993, G. Monteith, D. Cook, H. Janetzki & L. Roberts, QM S 73992View Materials;GoogleMaps  male, Maalan State Forest on highway , 17 ° 35 ’S 145 ° 35 ’E, 850 m, 25.xi. 1994 – 10.i. 1995, G. Monteith & J. Hasenpusch, rainforest, intercept, QM S 38942View Materials;GoogleMaps  female, Josephine Falls , 17 ° 26 ’S 145 ° 51 ’E, 200 m, 19.iv. 1997, G. Monteith & Russell, QM S 40078View Materials;GoogleMaps  3 females, Mt Lewis Road , 22 km from highway, 16 ° 33 ’S 145 ° 17 ’E, 1000 m, 29.xi. 1997, G. Monteith & D. Cook, sample 1668, QM S 35901View Materials;GoogleMaps  2 stadium VII females, Mt Lewis Road , 29 km from highway, 16 ° 31 ’S 145 ° 16 ’E, 1210 m, 29.xi. 1997, D. Cook, rainforest, leaf litter, QM berlesate 964, QM S 35904View MaterialsGoogleMaps  .

ANIC: female, 2 km N by E of Mt TipTree , 17 °03’S 144 ° 37 ’E, 800 m, 1.iv. 1984, A. Calder & T. Weir, rainforest, ANIC berlesate 950, ANIC 64 –000016View MaterialsGoogleMaps  ; female, Mt Spec S 1, 19°00’S 146 ° 11 ’E, 875 m, 4.xi.– 1.xii. 1994, M. Cermak, pitfalls, ANIC 64 –000017View MaterialsGoogleMaps  ; male, Mt Spec S 1, 19°00’S 146 ° 11 ’E, 875 m, 6.xii. 1994 – 10.i. 1995, M. Cermak, pitfall A 2, ANIC 64 -000018View MaterialsGoogleMaps  ; female, Mt Spec S 1, 19°00’S 146 ° 11 ’E, 875 m, 9.iii.– 6.iv .. 1995, M. Cermak, pitfall A 2, ANIC 64 -000019View MaterialsGoogleMaps  ; male, Mt Spec S 1, 19 ° 00’S 146 ° 11 ’E, 875 m, 9.iii.– 6.iv .. 1995, M. Cermak, pitfall B 2, ANIC 64 -000020View MaterialsGoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis: Distinguished from T. corrugatum  by having anterior and posterior pairs of paramedian swellings on metatergites; distal portion of gonopod telopodite not curving towards base; and plate-like structures covering spiracle surface.

Description: Male/female approximate measurements: length to 25 / 27 mm, maximum vertical diameter to 2.0/2.2 mm, maximum width across paranota to 2.6/3.0 mm. Ground colour in alcohol variable, tan to chestnut brown. Integument finely rugose on all surfaces carrying a coating of dirt. Head slightly wider than collum; vertigial sulcus well impressed to level of top of antennal sockets; sockets only slightly impressed ventrolaterally, separated by about one socket diameter; clypeus sparsely setose with long setae, vertex bare. Antenna ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 D) relatively short; antennomeres 3–5 nearly equal in length and diameter; antennomere 2 longer, antennomere 6 longest and widest. Collum in dorsal view semicircular, corners bluntly rounded and tilted upwards; 6 small, low, rounded swellings near anterior margin, 2 larger paramedian swellings near posterior margin. Overall widths of rings 2–4 about equal to collum width; ring 5 wider, ring widths very slightly and gradually increasing to ring 17. Lateral, anterior margin of ring 2 metazonite produced slightly to form a partial collar for head. Waist pronounced, with deep longitudinal corrugations ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 F). Prozonites with rough texture; at high magnification, covered with minute, blunt, processes pointed posteriorly ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 D). Metazonite surface with cellular texture, thrown into small, sharp-edged, irregular folds ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 E). Metatergites with 2 sets of paired paramedian swellings ( Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 A, 3 B), one anterior and one posterior to faintly indicated transverse furrow; posterior swellings the largest, sometimes raised as thick “fins”, generally increasing very slightly in size from rings 2 to 17; small, low lateral swellings sometimes present on metatergites as well. Paranota ( Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 A –C) on all rings wide, inflated, tilted slightly upwards; anterior and posterior corners thick, rounded and blunt; margin with variably pronounced median indentation. Spiracles large, protruding, the surface composed of minute, slightly separated plates overlying a dense mass of extremely minute, bluntly pointed processes ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 B); anterior spiracle on diplosegments larger than posterior spiracle. Ozopore a simple pore opening ventrolaterally near posterior corner of paranotum; pore formula 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15–19. Sternites apparently bare, slightly wider than long, with only a faint transverse impression. Limbus minutely serrate.

Legs ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 E) long, slender; femur the longest podomere, tarsus about three-quarters femur length, claw small; leg setae mainly coarse and blunt. Pre-anal ring ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 B) with a few long, thick setae; epiproct thick, blunt, rounded, extending well past anal valves; hypoproct trapezoidal; spinnerets ( Adis et al. 2000) in square array.

Male with gonopore on short cone medially and distally on leg 2 coxa, no process on leg 1 femur. Ring 5 sternal lamella (between legs 4) short, narrow with shallow marginal indentation, posterior surface bare with 2 large pores on slight eminences. Gonopods ( Figs. 4View FIGURE 4 A, 5 A) in situ reaching leg 6 bases. Aperture only slightly constricted anteriorly by median tooth on rim. Gonocoxae fairly short, with broad indentation on anterior surface basally and a few long setae on anterior surface distally. Cannula prominent, inserting medially at base of telopodite. Basal portion of telopodite (“prefemur”) densely setose with long setae on posteromedial corner, a few shorter setae on posterodistal surface; triangular in shape in posterior view, the triangle base being the flat medial surface, the distal corner slightly overlapping base of distal portion of telopodite on posterior side.

Distal portion bare, unbranched, subcylindrical, curving anterolaterally from slight medial shoulder at base, then posteromedially, bending abruptly laterally at about four-fifths of the telopodite height and curving 180 ° medially, then tapering, curving posteriorly and terminating in slightly expanded, flattened, forked tip. Prostatic groove following the curves and bends of the distal portion to the tip of the latter.

Female without extension of rim of epigynum; cyphopods not examined.

Distribution and habitat: Known from 23 sites in tropical rainforest from the Daintree area north of Cairns to the Bluewater Range near Townsville in north Queensland, an approximate linear range of 400 km and an elevation range of 100–1210 m. Sympatric with T. corrugatum  in the Bluewater Range.

Etymology: In honour of Geoff Monteith, Curator of Insects at the Queensland Museum, 1978–2006.

Remarks: This species varies considerably in overall size over its geographical range, e.g. male length 18–25 mm. The pattern of curves in the gonopod telopodite is constant in the specimens examined, but in some males the terminal curve (after the abrupt lateral bend) lies in a plane perpendicular to the telopodite long axis, while in other males the terminal curve spirals distally. There is also substantial variation in size and prominence of the metatergite swellings, in how much the paranota are inflated, and in the prominence of the indentation in the paranotal margin. Variation in these metazonite features is often obscured by the coating of dirt, but there seems to be a geographical trend, with metatergite swellings larger in the south of the T. monteithi  range. In a male from the Mt Macalister area ( QM S 73978View Materials), the paranota are relatively thin, deeply indented marginally and elevated at ca. 45 °, but the gonopod is typical. In a male from Mt Graham ( QM S 73979View Materials), the marginal indentation in the ring 5 sternal lamella is barely detectable.

QM

Australia, Queensland, South Brisbane, Queensland Museum

ANIC

Australia, Australian Capital Territory, Canberra City, CSIRO, Australian National Insect Collection

QM

Queensland Museum

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection