Sibaria Stål, 1872, Stal, 1872

Krein, Verônica, Bianchi, Filipe M., Rider, David A. & Grazia, Jocelia, 2020, Taxonomic review of Sibaria Stål, 1872 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Carpocorini), with description of a new species, Zootaxa 4779 (3), pp. 391-408: 392-394

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4779.3.7

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AE0E75A6-62EA-4989-8193-E1D707ACC6A3

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3851791

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/038C879D-FF80-3061-1F84-FB1FE69B7B20

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Sibaria Stål, 1872
status

 

Sibaria Stål, 1872  

( Figs. 1–8 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 View FIGURE 7 View FIGURE 8 , Table 1)

Sibaria Stål, 1872: 23   (original description); Rolston, 1975: 218–220 (revision); Rolston & McDonald, 1984: 71, 76 (key); Barão et al., 2016: 16 (morphology); Bianchi et al., 2017b: 400, 402–407, figs. 1, 2 (phylogeny).

Type species: Mormidea armata Dallas, 1851   , by monotypy.

Included species: Sibaria amazonica   sp. nov.; Sibaria armata ( Dallas, 1851)   ; S. andicola Breddin, 1904   and S. englemani Rolston, 1975   .

Distribution: Neotropical. Sibaria   is known to occur in Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Trinidad Tobago, Guyana, French Guiana, Surinam, Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 ).

Description. Somewhat wedge-shaped, widest at humeral angles (even discounting humeral projections), tapering posteriorly ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ).

Coloration: Dorsal surface ochraceous with black punctures, giving an overall dark-brown to fuscous aspect; usually with the following small, pale, ivory spots: one behind each pronotal callus, three along scutellar base, one on scutellar apex, and one just at apex of each radial vein on endocoria ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ). Antennae dark-brown with antennomere I brownish yellow basally, antennomeres III–V with a small brownish-yellow band basally, sometimes absent on antennomere V. Pronotal callus brown to dark-brown. Connexivum dark-brown, bearing a small band at anterior margin, middle third brownish-yellow. Ventral surface ochraceous ( Fig. 2A View FIGURE 2 ); head impunctate, thorax with brownish-yellow punctures, abdomen with a few small yellow punctures. Legs ochraceous with dark-brown spots on femora and tibiae; apex of each tarsomere brown ( Fig. 2E View FIGURE 2 ).

Head: Apex of head slightly declivent, tapering, narrowly rounded; clypeus as long as mandibular plates; margins of mandibular plates reflexed; lateral margins of mandibular plates concave. Eyes large, conspicuous, occupying more than half of head width (see below); ocelli red to brownish-yellow. Antennomere proportions: I<II<III<IV≈V; each antennomere I reaching to, or slightly beyond, apex of head; antenniferous tubercles visible from above. Anterior margins of bucculae distinctly angulate to toothed, posterior margins evanescent ( Fig. 2C View FIGURE 2 ). Distal end of rostral segment I not reaching beyond posterior margins of bucculae; rostral apex reaching mesocoxae or slightly beyond, but not reaching metacoxae.

Sibaria amazonica Krein   , Sibaria englemani Rolston   Sibaria andicola Breddin 1904   Sibaria armata Dallas 1851  

Rider & Grazia sp nov. 2019 1975

Male (n = 3) Female (n = 2) Male (n = 1) Female (n = 2) Male (n = 5) Female (n = 5) Male (n = 5) Female (n = 4) 9.70 ± 0.26 10.56 ± 0.79 11.00 ± 0.35 9.97 ± 0.89 10.45 ± 0.67 9.77 ± 0.38 9.78 ± 0.43 9.37

BL (9.50 - 10.00) (10.00 - 11.12) (10.75 - 11.25) (9.00 - 11.37) (9.75 - 11.50) (9.37 - 10.25) (9.25 - 10.25) 5.16 ± 0.07 5.37 ± 0.35 5.56 ± 0.08 5.05 ± 0.45 5.22 ± 0.28 5.00 ± 0.31 5.03 ± 0.11 4.62

AW (5.12 - 5.25) (5.12 - 5.62) (5.50 - 5.62) (4.62 - 5.75) (4.87 - 5.62) (4.75 - 5.50) (4.87 - 5.12) 1.87 ± 0.00 2.00 ± 0.00 1.93 ± 0.08 1.77 ± 0.10 1.82 ± 0.14 1.71 ± 0.05 1.71 ± 0.06 1.50

HL (1.87) (2.00) (1.87 - 2.00) (1.62 - 1.87) (1.62 - 2.00) (1.62 - 1.75) (1.62 - 1.75) 2.06 ± 0.06 2.18 ± 0,08 2.18 ± 0.08 2.02 ± 0.10 2.07 ± 0.06 2.00 ± 0.00 1.96 ± 0.06 1.87

HW (2.00 - 2.12) (2.12 - 2.25) (2.12 - 2.25) (1.87 - 2.12) (2.00 - 2.12) (2.00) (1.87 - 2.00) 0.91 ± 0.07 0.87 ± 0.00 0.93 ± 0.08 0.85 ± 0.05 0.90 ± 0.10 0.80 ± 0.06 0.81 ± 0.07 0.87

LE (0.87 - 1.00) (0.87) (0.87 - 1.00) (0.75 - 0.87) (0.75 - 1.00) (0.75 - 0.87) (0.75 - 0.87) 0.87 ± 0.12 0.87 ± 0.0 0.93 ± 0.08 0.82 ± 0.06 0.97 ± 0.18 0.87 ± 0.88 0.84 ± 0.06 0.75

ID (0.75 - 1.00) (0.87) (0.87 - 1.00) (0.75 - 0.87) (0.75 - 1.25) (0.75 - 1.00) (0.75 - 0.87) 0.58 ± 0.07 0.68 ± 0.08 0.68 ± 0.08 0.57 ± 0.06 0.60 ± 0.10 0.57 ± 0.06 0.56 ± 0.07 0.50

I (0.50 - 0.62) (0.62 - 0.75) (0.62 - 0.75) (0.50 - 0.62) (0.50 - 0.75) (0.50 - 0.62) (0.50 - 0.62) 0.87 ± 0.00 0.93 ± 0.08 1.00 ± 0.00 0.88 ± 0.09 0.90 ± 0.10 0.87 ± 0.00 0.84 ± 0.06 1.00

II (0.87) (0.87 - 1.00) (1.00) (0.75 - 1.00) (0.75 - 1.00) (0.87) (0.75 - 0.87) 1.20 ± 0.07 1.31 ± 0.08 1.37 ± 0.00 1.17 ± 0.06 1.15 ± 0.10 1.07 ± 0.06 1.06 ± 0.07 1.12

III (1.12 - 1.25) (1.25 - 1.37) (1.37) (1.12 - 1.25) (1.00 - 1.25) (1.00 - 1.12) (1.00 - 1.12) 2.12 ± 0.00 2.18 ± 0.08 2.37 ± 0.00 1.97 ± 0.10 1.97 ± 0.16 1.75 ± 0.08 1.66 ± 0.07 IV (2.12) (2.12 - 2.25) (2.37) (1.87 - 2.12) (1.75 - 2.12) (1.62 - 1.87) (1.62 - 1.75) 2.12 ± 0.00 2.25 ± 0.00 2.25 ± 0.17 1.92 ± 0.11 1.84 ± 0.06 1.92 ± 0.27 1.70 ± 0.19

V (2.12) (2.25) (2.12 - 2.37) (1.75 - 2.00) (1.75 - 1.87) (1.62 - 2.37) (1.50 - 1.87) 2.54 ± 0.19 2.56 ± 0.26 2.68 ± 0.08 2.47 ± 0.22 2.52 ± 0.13 2.50 ± 0.08 2.43 ± 0.16 1.87

PL (2.37 - 2.75) (2.37 - 2.75) (2.62 - 2.75) (2.25 - 2.75) (2.37 - 2.75) (2.37 - 2.62) (2.25 - 2.62) 8.08 ± 0.40 8.43 ± 0.44 8.56 ± 0.44 7.9 ± 0.56 (7.12 8.87 ± 1.19 8.17 ± 0.37 7.84 ± 0.64 7.37

PW (7.62 - 8.37) (8.12 - 8.75) (8.25 - 8.87) - 8.50) (8.12 - 11.00) (7.62 - 8.62) (6.87 - 8.25) 3.29 ± 0.14 3.62 ± 0.35 3.75 ± 0.00 3.37 ± 0.38 3.60 ± 0.16 3.42 ± 0.14 3.37 ± 0.17 3.25

SL (3.12 - 3.37) (3.37 - 3.87) (3.75) (2.87 - 3.87) (3.37 - 3.75) (3.25 - 3.62) (3.12 - 3.50) 3.41 ± 0.07 3.56 ± 0.44 3.68 ± 0.08 3.32 ± 0.32 3.57 ± 0.25 3.35 ± 0.20 3.25 ± 0.17 3.00

SW (3.37 - 3.50) (3.25 - 3.87) (3.62 - 3.75) (3.00 - 3.75) (3.12 - 3.75) (3.12 - 3.62) (3.00 - 3.37) 3.70 ± 0.28 3.87 ± 0.35 4.12 ± 0.17 2.95 ± 0.27 2.97 ± 0.16 2.72 ± 0.05 2.62 ± 0.20 3.25

RL (3.37 - 3.87) (3.62 - 4.12) (4.00 - 4.25) (2.62 - 3.37) (2.75 - 3.12) (2.62 - 2.75) (2.37 - 2.87)

Thorax: Anterolateral margins of pronotum rugose in anterior halves, not edged or reflexed, anterior angles each subapically projected as small spine. Each humeral angle produced dorsolaterally as a dark, stout spine. Pronotal cicatrices each with a yellowish spot posterior to inner angle. Scutellum triangular, apex narrowly rounded, a small fovea present in each basal angle. Apex of each radial vein bearing a small ivory dot on endocorium. Membrane of hemelytra fumose, veins subparallel. Prosternum and metasternum flat, mesosternum medially carinate, more pronounced anteriorly. Each evaporatorium extending halfway from ostiole to metapleural lateral margin, present on posterior margin of mesopleuron; surface impunctate, gyrificate near ostiole; lateral fold present; peritreme spout-like ( Fig. 2A, D View FIGURE 2 ). Ventral surface of each fore femur bearing a pair of well-developed spines apically, often also present on middle and hind femora; sometimes also with a second pair of small spines or tubercles close to first pair, becoming less well-developed on middle and hind femora ( Fig. 2E View FIGURE 2 ).

Abdomen: Abdominal venter somewhat bulbous basally, but not produced anteriorly as spine or tubercle ( Fig. 2A View FIGURE 2 ). Posterolateral angles of each connexival segment developed as a black spine. Posterolateral angles of urosternite VII each slightly projected as a spine. Spiracles concolorous with abdominal disk.

Male genitalia: Pygophore in dorsal view ( Figs. 3A View FIGURE 3 ; 4A, D, G, J View FIGURE 4 ): pygophore trapezoidal; genital cup not wellexposed; posterolateral angles of pygophore projected, sometimes bifid; median projection of dorsal rim short; transverse ridge convex; posterior margin of pygophore excavated. Pygophore in posterior view ( Figs. 3B View FIGURE 3 ; 4B, E, H, K View FIGURE 4 ): superior process of dorsal rim rounded, sometimes extended to lateral walls into genital cup; transverse ridge concave medially; inferior layer of ventral rim slightly convex medially, sometimes bearing distinct lateral projections produced ventrally. Pygophore in ventral view ( Figs. 3C View FIGURE 3 ; 4C, F, I, L View FIGURE 4 ): posterior margin concave; posterolateral angles projected. Segment X bearing a pair of lateral tubercles near basal third; apical portion with shallow transverse ridges and sensilla. Parameres ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ): each basal apodeme and crown usually subequal in length; ventral margin bending almost in a right angle to posterior margin; apical process well-developed, usually paddle-like, with setae posteriorly, outer surface with microsculptures scale-like; when present, middle process tooth-like, triangular; basal process represented by an enlargement of base of crown. Phallus ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 ): phallotheca tubular, usually slightly expanded apically; ventral basal processes of phallotheca quadrangular; dorsal processes of phallotheca digitiform, bent ventrally, short, not surpassing expanded conjunctiva; vesica process gutter-like; conjunctiva lacking processes; ductus seminis distalis short, not exposed out of phallotheca.

Female genitalia: In posteroventral view ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 ): gonocoxites VIII bearing brownish punctures close to mesial margins; mesial margins straight, but may overlap basally; posterior margins sinuous; posterior margins of laterotergites VIII each bearing a short spine. Gonocoxites IX rectangular to trapezoidal; laterotergites IX obtuse apically; mesial margins concave, lateral margins convex; segment X rectangular. Ring sclerites elliptical; ductus receptaculi proximally short; pars intermedialis coiled at the base, posterior half straight and membranous; capsula seminalis digitiform, dilated anteriorly ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 ).

Diagnosis: Within Carpocorini   , few Neotropical genera have the femora armed with subapical spines. The femoral spines should not be confused with femoral tubercles, for instance as present in species of Agroecus Dallas. Among   the genera closely related to Sibaria   (see Bianchi et al. 2017b), Adustonotus   and Mitripus   can be distinguished by the unarmed femora. In contrast, both Sibaria   and Ladeaschistus   have armed femora. These genera can be distinguished by the short rostrum present in Sibaria   , just reaching or slightly surpassing the posterior margin of mesocoxae, whereas in Ladeaschistus   , the rostrum reaches the metacoxae.

Comments. The somatic morphology of Sibaria   is homogeneous among the species. Intraspecific variations overlap the interspecific variations, and as far as we can observe, non-genitalic features provide weak evidence for an accurate identification. However, Rolston (1975) called attention to apparent differences in the coloration of antennomere V among species of Sibaria   . Nevertheless, he also cautioned that too few specimens of S. andicola   were studied to be sure about the robustness of this feature as a diagnostic character. In this study, additional specimens of S. andicola   have been examined, and their antennal color pattern corroborates Rolston’s conclusion. It appears that the color pattern of antennomere V is a useful character to recognize species of Sibaria   , but specimens lacking the antennomeres is common, making the usefulness of this feature limited.

Species of Sibaria   have relatively large eyes when compared to those of closely related genera. Rolston (1975, p. 218) also highlighted the “eyes large, together about as wide as interocular distance.” Bianchi et al. (2017b) hypothesized an evolutionary lineage composed of Adustonotus   ( Sibaria   ( Ladeaschistus   + Mitripus   )). For instance, Cioato et al. (2015) described Mitripus saramagoi (Bianchi, Cioato & Grazia)   and Ladeaschistus borgesi Bianchi, Cioato & Grazia   whose eyes occupied 41% and 46% of the head width respectively, whereas in the species of Sibaria   , the eyes occupy a range from 56% to 60% of the head width ( Table 1).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Pentatomidae

Loc

Sibaria Stål, 1872

Krein, Verônica, Bianchi, Filipe M., Rider, David A. & Grazia, Jocelia 2020
2020
Loc

Sibaria Stål, 1872: 23

Bianchi, F. M. & Depra, M. & Ferrari, A. & Grazia, J. & Valente, V. L. S. & Campos, L. A. 2017: 400
Barao, K. R. & Ferrari, A. & Adami, C. V. K. & Grazia, J. 2016: 16
Rolston, L. H. & F. J. D. McDonald 1984: 71
Rolston, L. H. 1975: 218
Stal, C. 1872: 23
1872