Dysderina principalis (Keyserling)

Platnick, Norman I. & Berniker, Lily, 2013, The South American goblin spider genera Dysderina and Tridysderina (Araneae, Oonopidae), American Museum Novitates 2013 (3772), pp. 1-52: 24-46

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1206/3788.1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/038C8782-FFB5-5D53-FE24-FA426B8BFAEC

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Dysderina principalis (Keyserling)
status

 

Dysderina principalis (Keyserling)  

Figures 31–80

Oonops principalis Keyserling, 1881: 296   , fig. 16 (male holotype from “Neu-Granada,” no specific locality, in BMNH; examined).

Dysderina principalis: Simon, 1891: 557   (misidentified). – Chickering, 1968: 25, figs. 55, 56. – Platnick and Dupérré, 2011a: 2, figs. 1–12.

NOTE: Males and females have not been collected together. Although Keyserling (1881) provided no specific type locality, the types of Oonops similis Keyserling   and Oonops propinquus Keyserling   , the descriptions of which immediately follow that of O. principalis   , and which also have only “Neu-Granada” as their type locality, were apparently taken in montane areas near Bogotá, Colombia (see Platnick et al., 2013). The females here associated with the male holotype are also from elevations of 2000–2200 m in Cundinamarca department, and are a good match to that specimen in sternal morphology.

DIAGNOSIS: Males resemble those of D. sasaima   but have a wider conductor (figs. 67–72); females have a wide genital atrium with a sinuous posterior margin (figs. 78–80).

MALE (PBI_OON 569, figs. 61–72): Total length 1.65. Carapace lateral margin with blunt denticles. ALE separated by their radius to diameter. Endites distally excavated, ventral and dorsal projections each with long, narrow, heavily sclerotized extension. Leg spination (right and left leg I both missing, but Keyserling reported four or five pairs on tibia, three on metatarsus): tibia II v4-4-0; metatarsus II v2-2-0. Sperm pore circular. Embolus evenly curved for two-thirds its length, then straight, narrowed; conductor greatly widened at about half its length; bulb stout.

FEMALE (PBI_ OON 49891 View Materials , figs. 31–60, 73–80): Total length 2.83. Postepigastric scutum extending to nearly full length of abdomen. Leg spination: femora: I p0-0-2, r1-1-1; II p0-0-2, r0-1-1; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-1p; metatarsi: I v2-2-2; II v2-1p-2. Genital atrium wide, anterior and posterior margins sinuous.

MATERIAL EXAMINED: Colombia: no specific locality ( BMNH PBI_OON 569), 1♂ (holotype). Cundinamarca: Bosque El Ermitaño, Vereda La Máquina, San Antonio del Tequendama , Dec. 1997 – Jan. 1998, pitfall traps, low vegetation, secondary forest, elev. 2000 m (S. Forero, ICN PBI_ OON 49890 View Materials ), 4♀   ; farm of Padre Luna, Municipio Albán , Oct. 18, 2001, elev. 2200 m (A. Gómez, ICN 767 View Materials , PBI_ OON 49891 View Materials ), 1♀   .

DISTRIBUTION: Colombia (Cundinamarca).

Dysderina sasaima   , new species

Figures 1–30, 81–91

TYPE: Male holotype collected under damp leaves and rocks at Finca Bella Vista, near Sasaima, Cundinamarca, Colombia (Apr. 8, 1965; P., D. Craig), deposited in CAS (26312, PBI_ OON 2604)   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality.

DIAGNOSIS: Males resemble those of D. principalis   but have a longer, narrower conductor (figs. 84–89); females have a narrower genital atrium with a more heavily sclerotized posterior margin (figs. 83, 90, 91).

MALE (PBI_OON 2604, figs. 1–30, 81, 84–89): Total length 2.27. Carapace lateral margin with blunt denticles. ALE separated by their radius to diameter. Endites distally not excavated, ventral process short, narrow, dorsal process greatly elongated, with distinct articulation. Leg spination: femur I p0-0-2, r1-1-0; tibiae: I v4-4-1p; II v4-4-0; metatarsi: I v2-1p-2; II v2-0-2. Sperm pore circular. Embolus short, narrow, bent at half its length; conductor much longer, narrow, bent at about half its length; bulb stout.

FEMALE (PBI_OON 2594, figs. 82, 83, 90, 91): Total length 2.61. Postepigastric scutum extending to nearly full length of abdomen. Leg spination: femora: I p0-0-2, r1-1-1; II p0-0-2, r1-1-0; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-1p; metatarsi: I v2-1p-2; II v3-0-2. Genital atrium reduced to narrow slit, anterior and posterior margins heavily rebordered, anterior margin enlarged near midline.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: Colombia: Cundinamarca: Finca Bella Vista, near Sasaima, Apr.   9, 1965, under rocks and leaves (P., D. Craig, CAS 26303 View Materials , PBI_OON 2594), 1♀, Apr. 10, 1965 (P., D. Craig, CAS 26304 View Materials , PBI_OON 2595), 1♂   , Apr. 21, 1965, damp leaf mold by creek (P. Craig, CAS 26328 View Materials , PBI_OON 2735), 5♂, 1♀   , June 4, 1965, under plant cover in root-soil leaf mold (P. Craig, CAS 26305 View Materials , PBI_OON 2596), 1♂   , June 5, 1965 (P. Craig, CAS 26321 View Materials , PBI_OON 2753), 2♂   .

DISTRIBUTION: Colombia (Cundinamarca).

Dysderina cunday   , new species

Figures 357–367

TYPES: Male holotype and female allotype taken at an elevation of 650 m outside the Cueva El Eden , 4.01196°N, 74.75515W °, Vereda La Camelia, Cunday, Tolima, Colombia (Feb. 6, 2010; A. Perez, L. Benavides, D. Luna), deposited in ICN (6484, PBI_ OON 50765 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality.

DIAGNOSIS: Males have a distinctively short conductor (figs. 363, 365); females have a distinctively long, narrow, U-shaped genitalic atrium (figs. 366, 367).

MALE (PBI_ OON 50765 View Materials , figs. 357, 360–365): Total length 1.83. Carapace lateral margin with blunt denticles. ALE separated by more than their radius. Endites distally excavated, ventral process enlarged, with anteriorly directed tip; dorsal process narrow. Leg spination: femur I p0-0-2, r0-1-1; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-1p; metatarsi: I v2-1p-2; II v2-1p-0. Sperm pore narrow, slitlike. Embolus sinuous, with beaklike tip; conductor much shorter than embolus.

FEMALE (PBI_ OON 50765 View Materials , figs. 358, 359, 366, 367): Total length 2.27. ALE separated by less than their radius. Leg spination: femora I, II p0-0-2, r0-1-1; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-1p; metatarsi: I v2-2-2; II v3-0-2. Genitalic atrium relatively long, narrow, U-shaped; apodemes extremely long.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: None.

DISTRIBUTION: Colombia (Tolima).

Dysderina amaca   , new species

Figures 92, 95–100

TYPE: Male holotype from Winkler sample of litter taken at an elevation of 150 m at Matamata, Parque Nacional   Natural Amacayacu, 3°23′S, 70°06′W, Amazonas, Colombia (June 9–11, 2000; A. Parente), deposited in IAVH (108111, PBI_ OON 49892 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a noun in apposition shortened from the type locality.

DIAGNOSIS: Males have a complex, bent conductor that is basally flat and wide but is abruptly narrowed at about half its length (figs. 95–100).

MALE (PBI_ OON 49892 View Materials , figs. 92, 95–100): Total length 1.87. Carapace lateral margin with blunt denticles. ALE separated by less than their radius. Endites distally not excavated, ventral process narrow, triangular, dorsal process short, heavily sclerotized. Leg spination: femur I p0-0-2, r0-1-0; tibiae: I v4-4-1p; II v4-4-0; metatarsi: I v2-1p-2; II v3-0-2. Sperm pore narrow, slitlike. Embolus narrow, long, strongly arched; conductor complex, abruptly narrowed on both sides at about half its length; bulb stout.

FEMALE: Unknown.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: Colombia: Amazonas: track to Calderón , off km 22 N Leticia   , 4°02′44″S, 69°59′25″W, Nov. 6, 2004, elev. 85 m (L. Benavides, G. Giribet, R. Mesa, ICN 2221 View Materials , PBI_ OON 49893 View Materials ) 1♂ GoogleMaps   .

DISTRIBUTION: Colombia (Amazonas).

Dysderina sacha   , new species

Figures 103–113

TYPE: Male holotype taken at an elevation of 410 m in the Estación Biológica Jatun Sacha   , 1°03′57.5″S, 77°37′00.2″W, Napo, Ecuador (Dec. 2, 2009; Niarchos Expedition), deposited in QCAZ (PBI_ OON 49902 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality.

DIAGNOSIS: Males have a distinctively shaped palpal conductor (figs. 106–111); females have a relatively large genital atrium with a heavily rebordered anterior margin (figs. 112, 113). MALE (PBI_ OON 49902 View Materials , figs. 103, 106–111): Total length 2.00. Carapace lateral margin with blunt denticles. ALE separated by less than their radius. Endites distally not excavated, ventral process heavily sclerotized at base, dorsal process heavily sclerotized at tip. Leg spination: femur I p0-0-2, r0-1-0; tibiae: I v4-4-1p; II v4-4-0; metatarsi: I v2-1p-2; II v2-0-2. Sperm pore narrow, slitlike. Embolus bent at about half its length, conductor dorsally widened at about half its length; bulb stout.

FEMALE (PBI_ OON 30572 View Materials , figs. 104, 105, 112, 113): Total length 2.39. Postepigastric scutum extending to about 3/4 of abdomen length. Leg spination: femora I, II p0-0-2, r0-1-1; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-1p; metatarsi: I v2-2-2; II v3-0-2. Genital atrium relatively large, anterior and posterior margins rebordered.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: Ecuador: Napo: Estación Biológica Jatun Sacha   , 1°03′57.5″S, 77°37′00.2″W, Dec. 1–5, 2009, humid forest litter, elev. 410 m (C. Grismado, F. Labarque, Niarchos Expedition, MACN PBI_ OON 30572 View Materials ), 1♀ GoogleMaps   .

DISTRIBUTION: Ecuador (Napo).

Dysderina erwini   , new species

Figures 93, 94, 101, 102

TYPE: Female holotype taken at an elevation of 220–250 m in the Estación de Biodiversidad Tiputini , near the Parque Nacional Yasuni, 0°37′55″S, 76°08′39″W, Orellana, Ecuador (July 1, 1998; T. Erwin et al.), deposited in USNM (PBI_ OON 49550 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a patronym in honor of the collector of the type, Terry Erwin of the Smithsonian Institution.

DIAGNOSIS: Females resemble those of D. excavata   but have a much narrower genital atrium and a much narrower anterior genitalic process (figs. 101, 102).

MALE: Unknown.

FEMALE (PBI_ OON 49550 View Materials , figs. 93, 94, 101, 102): Total length 1.91. Carapace lateral margin with blunt denticles. ALE separated by their radius to diameter. Postepigastric scutum extending to about 3/4 of abdomen length. Leg spination: femora I, II p0-0-2, r0-1-1; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-1p; metatarsi: I v2-2-2; II v3-0-2. Genital atrium small, with heavily sclerotized lateral margins; anterior genitalic process only slightly widened anteriorly.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: None.

DISTRIBUTION: Ecuador (Orellana).

Dysderina baehrae   , new species

Figures 114–124

TYPES: Male holotype and female allotype from pitfall trap set at an elevation of 230 m in the Parque Nacional Yasuni , 0°40′16″S, 76°24′18″W, Orellana, Ecuador (Dec. 1–5, 2009; B. Baehr, Niarchos Expedition), deposited in QCAZ (PBI_ OON 49548 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a patronym in honor of the collector of the types, Barbara Baehr of the Queensland Museum.

DIAGNOSIS: Both sexes resemble those of D. excavata   in having the anterior sternal ridge deflected anteriorly at the midline (fig. 114), and the males of both species have medially excavated chelicerae and a long, highly sclerotized dorsal process on the endites (fig. 114). In D. baehrae   , the embolus is longer and has a more complex tip (figs. 117–122), and the female genital atrium is much larger (figs. 123, 124).

MALE (PBI_ OON 49548 View Materials , figs. 114, 117–122): Total length 2.13. Carapace lateral margin with blunt denticles. ALE separated by their radius to diameter. Endites distally not excavated, dorsal prong long, heavily sclerotized. Leg spination: femur I p0-0-2, r0-1-1; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-3-0; metatarsi: I v2-1p-2; II v2-0-2. Sperm pore narrow, slitlike. Embolus elaborately twisted below tip; conductor long, tip bent anteriorly; bulb slender.

FEMALE (PBI_ OON 49548 View Materials , figs. 115, 116, 123, 124): Total length 2.23. Postepigastric scutum extending to about 3/4 of abdomen length. Leg spination: femora I, II p0-0-2, r0-1-1; tibiae I, II v4-4-2; metatarsi: I v2-1p-2; II v3-0-2. Genital atrium large, ovoid, with rebordered anterior and posterior margins; anterior genitalic process gradually expanded toward tip.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: None.

DISTRIBUTION: Ecuador (Orellana).

Dysderina excavata   , new species

Figures 125–135

TYPES: Male holotype and female allotype from Berlese sample of humid forest litter taken at an elevation of 295 m at the Estación Científica Yasuni, Río Tiputini   , 0.67428°S, 76.39764°W, Orellana, Ecuador (Dec. 1–5, 2009; M. Ramírez, Niarchos Expedition), deposited in QCAZ (PBI_ OON 30585 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name refers to the excavated male chelicerae.

DIAGNOSIS: Both sexes resemble those of D. baehrae   in having irregular ridges connecting the sternal grooves (fig. 125), and the males of both species have medially excavated chelicerae and a long, highly sclerotized dorsal process on the endites (fig. 125). In D. excavata   , the embolus is shorter and has a differently shaped tip (figs. 128–133), and the female genital atrium is much smaller (figs. 134, 135).

MALE (PBI_ OON 30585 View Materials , figs. 125, 128–133): Total length 2.05. Carapace lateral margin with blunt denticles. ALE separated by their radius to diameter. Endites distally not excavated, dorsal prong long, very heavily sclerotized. Leg spination: femora: I p0-0-2, r0-1-1; II p0-0-2, r0-1-0; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-1p; metatarsi: I v2-1p-2; II v1p-2-2. Sperm pore narrow, slitlike. Embolus with slightly curved middle portion, bent just before tip, tip twisted; conductor abruptly narrowed just beyond base, straight for most of its length, with slightly bent tip; bulb slender.

FEMALE (PBI_ OON 30585 View Materials , figs. 126, 127, 134, 135): Total length 2.19. Postepigastric scutum extending to about 3/4 of abdomen length. Leg spination: femora I, II p0-0-2, r0-1-1; tibiae I, II v4-4-2; metatarsi: I v2-2-2; II v3-0-2. Genital atrium followed anteriorly by two elevated ridges, more posterior ridge strongly sclerotized; anterior genitalic process with narrow expansion around base, tip wide, triangular.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: Ecuador: Orellana: Estación Científica Yasuni, Río Tiputini   , 0.67428°S, 76.39764°W, Dec. 1–5, 2009, rainforest litter, elev. 295 m (M. Ramírez, Niarchos Expedition, MACN PBI_ OON 30602 View Materials ), 1♂ GoogleMaps   , same, Berlese ( MACN PBI_ OON 30576 View Materials ), 2♀   .

DISTRIBUTION: Ecuador (Orellana).

The tiputini   Group

Members of this group lack transverse ridges connecting the posterior edges of the anterior pair of sternal excavations (figs. 146, 196). The dorsal process on the tip of the male endites is neither elongated nor heavily sclerotized.

Dysderina tiputini   , new species

Figures 136–206

TYPE: Male holotype from Berlese sample of humid forest litter taken at an elevation of 295 m at the Estación Científica Yasuni, Río Tiputini   , 0.67428°S, 76.39764°W, Orellana, Ecuador (Dec. 1–5, 2009; M. Ramírez, Niarchos Expedition), deposited in QCAZ (PBI_ OON 49546 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality.

DIAGNOSIS: Males can easily be distinguished from the sympatric species D. excavata   by the relatively unmodified endites (figs. 141, 196) and the smaller palpal bulb (figs. 199–201), females by the much shorter anterior genitalic projection (figs. 205, 206).

MALE (PBI_ OON 49546 View Materials , figs. 136–165, 196, 199–204): Total length 1.84. Carapace lateral margin without denticles. ALE separated by less than their radius. Endites distally not excavated, dorsal and ventral processes small, triangular, subequal in size. Leg spination: femur I p0-0-2, r1-1-1; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-1p; metatarsi: I v2-1p-2; II v3-0-2. Sperm pore narrow, slitlike. Embolus bent at about two-thirds its length, tip bent anteriorly; conductor shorter, tapering at tip; bulb slender.

FEMALE (PBI_ OON 30580 View Materials , figs. 166–195, 197, 198, 205, 206): Total length 1.83. Postepigastric scutum extending to about 3/4 of abdomen length. Leg spination: femora: I p0-0-2, r1-1-1; II p0-0-1, r1-1-0; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-1p; metatarsi: I v2-1p-2; II v3-0-2. Genital atrium very short, wide, followed anteriorly by two transverse, sclerotized ridges; anterior genitalic process with greatly widened, semicircular base.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: Ecuador: Napo: Estación Biológica Jatun Sacha   , 1°03′57.5″S, 77°37′00.2″W, Dec. 1–5, 2009, Berlese, humid litter, elev. 410 m (C. Grismado, F. Labarque, Niarchos Expedition, MACN PBI_ OON 30571 View Materials ), 1♂ GoogleMaps   , Dec. 2, 2009 (Niarchos Expedition, AMNH PBI_ OON 49551 View Materials ), 1♀   . Orellana: Estación Científica Yasuni, Río Tiputini   , 0.67428°S, 76.39764°W, Dec. 1–5, 2009, rainforest litter, elev. 295 m (M. Ramírez, Niarchos Expedition, MACN PBI_ OON 15091 View Materials ), 1♂ (E. Gaublomme DNA sequencing voucher) GoogleMaps   , same, Berlese ( MACN PBI_ OON 30580 View Materials ), 2♀   , same, litter, elev. 230 m (B. Baehr, Niarchos Expedition, AMNH PBI_ OON 49547 View Materials ), 1♂, 1♀   .

DISTRIBUTION: Ecuador (Napo, Orellana)   .

Dysderina ayo   , new species

Figures 207–217

TYPES: Male holotype and female allotype from the Quebrada El Ayo, La Pedrera   , 1°35′S, 69°31′W, Amazonas, Colombia (May 2002; J. Pinzon), deposited in ICN (PBI_ OON 49552 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality.

DIAGNOSIS: Males resemble those of D. craigi   and D. urucu   in having an abruptly narrowed tip on the conductor, but the widened portion is much more angular (figs. 210–215); females have laterally enlarged tips of the spinneret scutum (fig. 208) and a recurved anterior margin of the small genital atrium (figs. 209, 216, 217).

MALE (PBI_ OON 49552 View Materials , figs. 207, 210–215): Total length 1.76. Carapace lateral margin with blunt denticles. ALE separated by less than their radius. Endites distally not excavated, dorsal and ventral processes small, triangular, subequal in size. Leg spination: femur I p0-0-2, r1-1-1; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-0; metatarsi: I v2-1p-2; II v3-0-2. Sperm pore narrow, slitlike. Embolus long, sinuous; conductor abruptly narrowed at tip, narrowed portion arched; bulb slender.

FEMALE (PBI_ OON 49552 View Materials , figs. 208, 209, 216, 217): Total length 1.91. Postepigastric scutum extending to about 3/4 of abdomen length. Leg spination: femora: I p0-0-2, r1-1-1; II p0-0-2, r1-1-0; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-1p; metatarsi: I v2-1p-2; II v3-0-2. Genital atrium very short, with rebordered anterior margin.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: None.

DISTRIBUTION: Colombia (Amazonas).

Dysderina matamata   , new species

Figures 218–223, 230

TYPE: Male holotype from Winkler sample of litter taken at an elevation of 150 m at Matamata, Parque Nacional   Natural Amacayacu, 3°23′S, 70°06′W, Amazonas, Colombia (Sept. 2000; A. Parente), deposited in IAVH (108110, PBI_ OON 49554 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality.

DIAGNOSIS: Males resemble those of D. tiputini   but have a longer, nearly straight conductor (figs. 218–223).

MALE (PBI_ OON 49554 View Materials , figs. 218–223, 230): Total length 1.77. Carapace lateral margin with blunt denticles. ALE separated by less than their radius. Endites distally not excavated, ventral and dorsal processes triangular, subequal in size. Leg spination: femur I p0-0-2, r1-1-1; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-0; metatarsi: I v2-1p-2; II v3-0-2. Sperm pore narrow, slitlike. Embolus long, sinuous; conductor relatively long, nearly straight, blade shaped; bulb slender.

FEMALE: Unknown.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: Colombia: Amazonas: Matamata, Parque Nacional   Natural Amacayacu , 3°23′S, 70°06′W, June 9–11, 2000, Winkler, elev. 150 m (A. Parente, IAVH 108111 View Materials , PBI_ OON 49889 View Materials ), 1♂ GoogleMaps   .

DISTRIBUTION: Colombia (Amazonas).

Dysderina craigi   , new species

Figures 224–229, 231

TYPE: Male holotype from Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia (June 19, 1965; P. Craig, J. Robb), deposited in CAS (PBI_ OON 49553 View Materials )   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a patronym in honor of one of the collectors of the type, Pat Craig.

DIAGNOSIS: Males resemble those of D. ayo   and D. urucu   in having the conductor abruptly narrowed near its tip, but can easily be recognized by the rounded tip of the conductor (figs. 224–229).

MALE (PBI_ OON 49553 View Materials , figs. 224–229, 231): Total length 1.82. Carapace lateral margin with blunt denticles. ALE separated by less than their radius. Endites distally not excavated, ventral prong triangular, tip bent dorsally, producing clawlike appearance with dorsal prong. Leg spination: femur I p0-0-2, r1-1-1; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-0; metatarsi: I v2-1p-2; II v3-0-2. Sperm pore narrow, slitlike. Embolus long, distally sinuous; conductor widened; bulb slender.

FEMALE: Unknown.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: None.

DISTRIBUTION: Colombia (Amazonas).

Dysderina urucu   , new species

Figures 232–241

TYPE: Male holotype from Base de Operações Geólogo Pedro de Moura , Porto Urucu, Coari   , 4°51′54″S, 65°20′02″W, Amazonas, Brazil (Oct. 25, 2006; S. Dias, D. Candiani, N. Lo- Man-Hung), deposited in MPEG (19210, PBI_ OON 43642 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality.

DIAGNOSIS: Males resemble those of D. ayo   but have the tip of the conductor originating more dorsally, rather than from near the middle of the conductor (figs. 236–241).

MALE (PBI_ OON 43642 View Materials , figs. 232–241): Total length 1.74. Carapace lateral margin with blunt denticles. ALE separated by less than their radius. Endites distally excavated, dorsal and ventral processes small, triangular, forming clawlike configuration. Leg spination: femur I p0-0- 2, r1-1-1; tibiae: I v4-4-2; II v4-4-0; metatarsi: I v2-1p-2; II v2-0-2. Sperm pore narrow, slitlike. Embolus long, sinuous; conductor abruptly narrowed at tip, narrowed portion slightly arched, originating on dorsal edge of conductor; bulb slender.

FEMALE: Unknown.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: Two males taken with the holotype ( MPEG 19208 View Materials , 19209 View Materials , PBI_ OON 43640 View Materials , 43641)   .

DISTRIBUTION: Brazil (Amazonas).

Tridysderina   , new genus

TYPE SPECIES: Tridysderina yasuni   , new species.

ETYMOLOGY: The generic name refers to the curious, tripartite sternal morphology of these species and the similarities to Dysderina   , and is feminine in gender.

DIAGNOSIS: Members of this genus can easily be recognized by the unique morphology of their sternum, which shows at least three regions: the continuous, transverse anterior depression, sometimes emphasized by a transverse ridge along its posterior edge, plus at least two more posterior regions delimited by transverse ridges (figs. 252, 302).

DESCRIPTION: Total length of males 1.6–2.2, of females 1.9–2.6. Carapace, sternum, mouthparts, abdominal scuta, legs orange-brown, without pattern; abdomen soft portions white, without pattern. Cephalothorax: Carapace broadly oval in dorsal view, anteriorly narrowed to 0.49 times its maximum width or less, pars cephalica strongly elevated in lateral view, anterolateral corners with strongly sclerotized, triangular extension, pars thoracica with rounded posterolateral corners, without depressions or radiating rows of pits, posterolateral edge without pits, posterior margin not bulging below posterior rim, posterolateral surface without spikes; surface of elevated portion of pars cephalica and sides appearing finely reticulate under light microscopy but actually smooth or with very low granules (at least in T. yasuni   , figs. 242, 243, 272, 273); fovea absent, lateral margin straight, rebordered, without denticles; plumose setae near posterior margin of pars thoracica absent; marginal, nonmarginal pars cephalica, pars thoracica setae light, needlelike, scattered. Clypeus margin strongly rebordered, sinuous in front view (figs. 244, 274), vertical in lateral view, high, ALE separated from edge of carapace by their radius or more, median projection present, formed by fused, small, triangular chilum; setae light, needlelike. Eyes six, well developed, ALE largest, ALE oval, PME squared, PLE oval; posterior eye row recurved from above, procurved from front; ALE separated by less than their radius, ALE-PLE separated by less than ALE radius, PME touching throughout most of their length, PLE-PME separated by less than PME radius. Sternum wider than long, not fused to carapace, surface smooth, with at least one transverse ridge (figs. 252, 282), without pits, other microsculpture absent, median concavity, hair tufts absent, with radial furrows between coxae I–II, II–III, III–IV, furrows smooth, radial furrow opposite coxae III absent, sickle-shaped structures absent, anterior margin with continuous transverse groove, posterior margin not extending posteriorly of coxae IV but with posterior hump, anterior corner excavated, lateral margin with infracoxal grooves bearing anterior and posterior openings, distance between coxae approximately equal, extensions of precoxal triangles absent, lateral margins with bridges to coxae; setae sparse, dark, needlelike, densest laterally, originating from surface. Chelicerae slightly divergent, anterior face unmodified; with one tooth on promargin (scanned only in T. yasuni   , figs. 245, 246, 275, 276), without teeth on retromargin; fangs without toothlike projections, directed medially, shape normal, without prominent basal process, tip unmodified; setae dark, needlelike, densest medially; paturon inner margin with scattered setae, distal region, posterior surface unmodified, promargin with row of flattened setae, inner margin unmodified, laminate groove absent. Labium triangular, not fused to sternum, anterior margin not indented at middle (fig. 277) or only slightly so (figs. 247, 314), same as sternum in sclerotization; with six or more setae on anterior margin, subdistal portion with unmodified setae. Endites of males distally excavated, anteriorly elaborately modified in males (fig. 247), posteriorly unmodified, same as sternum in sclerotization; serrula apparently absent in both sexes (scanned only in T. yasuni   , figs. 248, 278). Female palp without claw or spines (figs. 279, 280); tibia with three trichobothria (fig. 281), patella without prolateral row of ridges, tarsus elongate. Abdomen: Ovoid, without long posterior extension, rounded posteriorly, interscutal membrane without rows of small sclerotized platelets. Booklung covers large, ovoid, without setae, anterolateral edge unmodified; posterior spiracles connected by groove, groove continued beyond spiracles almost to lateral edge of postepigastric scutum; anterior spiracles not connected. Pedicel tube medium, ribbed, scutopedicel region unmodified, scutum extending far dorsal of pedicel, plumose hairs, matted setae on anterior ventral abdomen in pedicel area, cuticular outgrowths near pedicel all absent. Dorsal scutum strongly sclerotized, in males covering full length of abdomen, no soft tissue visible from above (smaller in females but still covering at least half of abdomen width), not fused to epigastric scutum in males, sometimes fused in females; middle surface smooth, sides smooth, anterior half without projecting denticles. Epigastric scutum strongly sclerotized, surrounding pedicel, not protruding, small lateral sclerites absent, without lateral joints in females. Postepigastric scutum strongly sclerotized, orange-brown, in males long, almost rectangular, covering nearly full length of abdomen, fused to epigastric scutum, anterior margin unmodified, with short posteriorly directed lateral apodemes; in females almost semicircular. Spinneret scutum of males reduced to thin rim (in T. yasuni   ) or absent, of females present as incomplete ring with fringe of long setae; supraanal scutum absent. Abdominal setae light, needlelike, epigastric area setae not basally thickened; dense patch of setae anterior to spinnerets absent, interscutal membrane with setae. Colulus present, tiny, with pair of setae. Anterior lateral spinnerets bisegmented, basal segment without oblique membranous strip (figs. 253, 283), posterior medians unisegmented, posterior laterals bisegmented; spigots scanned only in T. yasuni   , anterior laterals with single major ampullate gland spigot and five piriform gland spigots in both sexes (figs. 254, 284), posterior medians with one long and two short spigots in males (fig. 255), with five long and three short spigots in females (fig. 285), posterior laterals with six long spigots in males (fig. 256), three short and 12 long spigots in females (fig. 286). Legs: Femur IV not thickened, same size as femora I–III, patella plus tibia I shorter than carapace, tibia I unmodified, tibia IV specialized hairs on ventral apex, ventral scopula absent, metatarsi I, II mesoapical comb absent, metatarsi III, IV ventral scopula absent. Leg spines present on anterior femora, tibiae, metatarsi, absent on posterior legs. Tarsi without inferior claw. Superior claws (scanned only in T. yasuni   ) of males with two distal teeth on inner surface, four teeth on outer surface, most distal tooth smaller than others (figs. 258–265), of females with two, three, or four teeth on inner surface, four teeth on outer surface, most distal tooth longest on inner surface, shortest on outer surface (figs. 289–296). Trichobothrial base with rectangular opening (fig. 266). Tarsal organs with three receptors on legs I, II, two on legs III, IV, palps (figs. 267–271, 297–301). Genitalia: Male epigastric region with sperm pore small, narrow, slitlike, situated between anterior and posterior spiracles, rebordered (fig. 257); furrow without Ω-shaped insertions, without specialized setae. Male palp of normal size, not strongly sclerotized, right and left palps symmetrical, proximal segments, cymbium, bulb yellow; embolus dark, prolateral excavation absent; trochanter of normal size, unmodified; femur of normal length but dorsally expanded, two or more times as long as trochanter (figs. 249, 250), without posteriorly rounded lateral dilation, attaching to patella basally; patella shorter than femur, not enlarged, without prolateral row of ridges, setae unmodified; tibia with three trichobothria (fig. 251); cymbium ovoid in dorsal view, completely fused with bulb, no seam visible, extending beyond distal tip of bulb, plumose setae, stout setae, distal patch of setae all yellow; bulb shorter than cymbium, slender, elongated. Sclerotized embolus (distal prong) and sclerotized conductor (proximal prong) wide at base, originating from continuous rim (figs. 309, 321). Female genitalia with distinct, filled atrium (fig. 287); anterior process originating from base with pores (fig. 288).

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from Ecuador.

ICN

Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia Natural

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

IAVH

Instituto de Ivestigacion de los Recursos Biologicos Alexander von Humboldt

QCAZ

Museo de Zoologia, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador

MACN

Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

MPEG

Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Oonopidae

Genus

Dysderina

Loc

Dysderina principalis (Keyserling)

Platnick, Norman I. & Berniker, Lily 2013
2013
Loc

Dysderina principalis: Simon, 1891: 557

Platnick, N. I. & N. Duperre 2011: 2
Chickering, A. M. 1968: 25
Simon, E. 1891: 557
1891
Loc

Oonops principalis

Keyserling, E. 1881: 296
1881