Psammoecus, , Pal, 1985

Karner, Michael, 2020, Taxonomic Studies on Australian Psammoecus Latreille (Coleoptera, Silvanidae, Brontinae), European Journal of Taxonomy 723, pp. 135-158 : 144-146

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Psammoecus t-notatus Blackburn, 1903

Fig. 4 View Fig

Psammoecus t-notatus Blackburn, 1903: 154.

Psammoecus amoenus Grouvelle, 1912: 92 . Syn. nov.

Psammoecus t-notatus – Hetschko 1930: 84.


The following combination of character states distinguishes this species: body oval ( Fig. 4A View Fig ), length 2.35–2.83 mm; eyes of moderate size ( Fig. 4B View Fig ), slightly unevenly rounded with somewhat stronger curvature posteriorly; temples distinct, evenly rounded; frontal grooves short, slightly curved, reaching anterior third of eyes; antennae slender ( Fig. 4D View Fig ), antennomeres 9–10 darkened; antennomere 11 testaceous; punctation on vertex moderate ( Fig. 4B View Fig ), punctures round, slightly smaller than eye facet diameter; microsculpture on vertex absent, pubescence moderate; pronotum ( Fig. 4C View Fig ) often brown with testaceous discal area of variable size, sometimes entire pronotum testaceous; widest at anterior third, lateral pronotal margins with four distinct teeth; teeth I and II small, III and IV larger; anterior and posterior denticles present, distinct; pronotal punctation dense, punctures slightly widened anteromedially, microsculpture absent, pubescence moderate, setae directed antero-medially; elytra widest at middle ( Fig. 4A View Fig ), with transverse piceous maculae closely behind middle, posterior part of suture, elytral apex and, in most specimens, humeral area darkened, interstices slightly wider than striae, pubescence moderate, microsculpture absent; male genitalia ( Fig. 4 View Fig E–F) comparatively weakly sclerotised, median lobe slender, evenly narrowed towards apex, tip of apex blunt, tegmen with wide, very weakly sclerotised basis, paramere long, slender, club-shaped, inner margin of widened basis with numerous setae, along inner margins with few short, thin setae, apex with long seta.

Material examined


AUSTRALIA • ♀, holotype of Psammoecus t-notatus Blackburn, 1903; “ Type | H.T.” [round label with red border]; “Australia. | Blackburn Coll. | B.M.1910-236.”; “ Psammoecus | T-notatus., Blackb.”; NHMUK.

VIETNAM • ♂, holotype of Psammoecus amoenus Grouvelle, 1912 ; Annam, Phúc Son; “Annam | Phuc- Son | Nov. Dez. | H. Fruhstorfer”; “ Psammoecus | amoenus | G. Grouv” [Grouvelle’s hand]; “N.L.M. 34. | p. 92.”; “Museum Leiden | Psammoecus | amoenus | Det: Grouv.”; “ Type ” [red label]; RMNH.

Other material

AUSTRALIA • 2 specs; Queensland, Cairns ; 16°55′ S, 145°46′ E; ANIC GoogleMaps 3 specs; Queensland, Cairns, Bellenden Ker Range, 1 km south of Cable Tower; 1054 m a.s.l.; 17 Oct.–5 Nov. 1981; QLD Museum leg.; rainforest, malaise trap; ANIC 1 spec.; Queensland, Cassowary Coast Region, Cardstone ; 14 Nov. 1966; Brooks leg.; ANIC 1 spm; same locality; 15 Nov. 1966; Brooks leg.; ANIC 1 spm; same data as for preceding; MKF 1 spec.; same locality; 20 Nov. 1966; Hyde leg.; MKF 2 specs; same locality; 1 Feb. 1966; Hyde leg.; ANIC 1 spec.; same locality; 2 Feb. 1966; Hyde leg.; ANIC 1 spec.; Queensland, Shire of Douglas, Daintree, 4 mi. S. of Daintree; 29 Oct. 1966; Britton leg.; edge of rainforest on dead leaves; ANIC 2 specs; Queensland, Shire of Mareeba, Kuranda ; 16°49′ S, 145°38′ E; Dec. 1964; Brooks leg.; ANIC GoogleMaps 4 specs; same locality; Mar. 1950; Brooks leg.; ANIC GoogleMaps 1 spec.; Queensland, Shire of Mareeba, Kuranda, Black Mountain Road 10 mi. N of Kuranda; 16°46′ S, 145°40′ E; 8 Mar. 1969; Brooks leg.; ANIC GoogleMaps 1 spec.; Queensland, Tablelands Region, Ravenshoe ; 25 Dec. 1937; ANIC .

FIJI • 2 specs; Taveuni ; 10 Dec. 1923; Evans leg.; NHMUK 1 spm; same data as for preceding; MKF 2 specs; Rotuma Island, Noatau ; 12°29.9′ S, 177°2.82′ E; 26 Apr. 1971; Robinson leg.; at light; NHMUK GoogleMaps .

INDONESIA • 6 specs; Java; NHMUK 2 specs; Java; Wallace leg.; NHMUK 1 spec.; Sumatra; Doherty leg.; NHMUK .

MALAYSIA • 8 specs; Pahang, Taman Negara ; 1–13 Mar. 1984; Jessop leg.; at light; NHMUK 2 specs; same data as for preceding; MKF 5 specs; Sarawak, Mt Matang ; Dec. 1913; Bryant leg.; NHMUK 1 spm; same data as for preceding; MKF 1 spec.; Sarawak, Muara Tuang, Kampung Quop ; Feb.–Mar. 1914; Bryant leg.; NHMUK .

PAPUA NEW GUINEA • 8 specs; Madang, R. Buru, 90 m NW of Lae; 1200 ft a.s.l.; 5°13′ S, 145°48′ E; 1 Oct. 1964; Bacchus leg.; at light; NHMUK GoogleMaps 1 spec.; Morobe, Lae ; 6°44′ S, 147°0′ E; 10 Dec. 1964; Bacchus leg.; NHMUK GoogleMaps 11 specs; Morobe, Finisterre Range, Budemu ; 4000 ft a.s.l.; 5°48′ S, 146°6′ E; 15–24 Oct. 1964; Bacchus leg.; at light; NHMUK GoogleMaps 1 spm; same data as for preceding; MKF GoogleMaps 12 specs; Morobe, Finisterre Range, Damanti ; 3550 ft a.s.l.; 5°48′ S, 146°6′ E; 2–11 Oct. 1964; Bacchus leg.; at light; NHMUK GoogleMaps 1 spm; same data as for preceding; MKF GoogleMaps 1 spec.; Morobe, Herzog Mountains, Vagau ; 4000 ft a.s.l.; 4–17 Jan. 1965; Bacchus leg.; NHMUK .

THAILAND • 1 spec.; Ranong; Doherty leg.; NHMUK .

VANUATU • 1 spec.; Malakula Island ; 16°15′ S, 167°30′ E; Mar.–Apr. 1929; Cheesman leg.; NHMUK GoogleMaps 2 specs; Espiritu Santo ; 15°15′ S, 166°50′ E; Aug. 1929; Cheesman leg.; NHMUK GoogleMaps 2 specs; same locality; Aug.–Sep. 1929; Cheesman leg.; NHMUK GoogleMaps 1 spm; same data as for preceding; MKF GoogleMaps .


Specimens of P. t-notatus have been recorded from Australia (Queensland), Fiji, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Thailand and Vanuatu.


Psammoecus t-notatus is closely related to P. trimaculatus Motschulsky, 1858 and P. triguttatus Reitter, 1874 . Most specimens can easily be recognised by their distinct colouration/colour pattern. The determination of unusually coloured specimens requires examination of male genitalia. Psammoecus t-notatus differs from P. trimaculatus by the distinctly longer apical part of the parameres; it differs from P. triguttatus by the elongate, slender median lobe and the large, wide basal part of the tegmen.

Psammoecus t-notatus has a remarkably large area of distribution. As for other species of the genus, records from Malaise traps and at light suggest high mobility and a tendency to accumulate near human settlements. This, combined with an association with plant detritus and/or fungi, is likely to facilitate distribution by human trade of agricultural goods.


Netherlands, Leiden, Nationaal Natuurhistorische Museum ("Naturalis") [formerly Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie]


Australia, Australian Capital Territory, Canberra City, CSIRO, Australian National Insect Collection


Natural History Museum, London


National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis


Australian National Insect Collection













Karner, Michael 2020


Hetschko A. 1930: 84

Psammoecus amoenus

Grouvelle A. 1912: 92


Blackburn T. 1903: 154