Cybaeus consocius, Chamberlin & Ivie, 1932

Bennett, Robb, Copley, Claudia & Copley, Darren, 2021, Cybaeus (Araneae: Cybaeidae): the consocius species group of the Californian clade, Zootaxa 4965 (3), pp. 401-436: 402-403

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Cybaeus consocius


The consocius  species group

Diagnosis. The species of the consocius  group of the Californian clade are defined by a combination of the following characters: the anterior to medially located undivided ( Figs 5View FIGURES 5–9, 13View FIGURES 13–17, 30View FIGURES 30–32, 37View FIGURES 37–41, 46View FIGURES 46–51, 52View FIGURES 52–54, 64View FIGURES 64–67, 74View FIGURES 74–79) or divided atrium ( Figs 23, 26View FIGURES 23–26), the well-developed, often distinctly looped and/or somewhat membranous copulatory ducts of which the proximal sections (closest to the atrium) do not envelop or loop around the more distal sections (closest to the spermathecal heads) ( Figs 7View FIGURES 5–9, 15View FIGURES 13–17, 25View FIGURES 23–26, 39View FIGURES 37–41, 54View FIGURES 52–54, 67View FIGURES 64–67, 75View FIGURES 74–79), and the roughly quadrangular shape of the vulva ( Figs 6View FIGURES 5–9, 14View FIGURES 13–17, 24View FIGURES 23–26, 38View FIGURES 37–41, 47View FIGURES 46–51, 65View FIGURES 64–67, 75View FIGURES 74–79).

The members of the devius group are most similar to those of the consocius  group but differ in their possession of copulatory ducts in which the proximal sections partially envelop or loop around the more distal sections (e.g., Copley et al. 2009, fig. 9). The other Californian clade species groups are characterized either by transverse ridges or “wrinkles” on the epigynum (aspenicolens and septatus groups; e.g., Copley et al. 2009, figs 6, 12, 65, 95, 101; Bennett et al. 2021, figs 34–35, 38), straight, longitudinally oriented copulatory ducts and a triangular vulva (tardatus group; e.g., Copley et al. 2009, fig. 10), or reduced laterally projecting copulatory ducts and very short spermathecal stalks (adenes group; e.g., Bennett et al. 2019, figs 6, 8, 16–17).

Description. Medium- to large-sized spiders, carapace lengths averaging 2.11–3.0 mm (females), sexes subequal. Abdomen patterned, legs usually unbanded. Two or three complete pairs of ventral tibia I macrosetae; terminal pair absent, incomplete, or present: pattern 2-1p-2-1p-0(or 1p or 2).

Male: Patellar apophysis ( Figs 2View FIGURES 1–4, 34View FIGURES 33–36, 43View FIGURES 42–45, 60View FIGURES 59–63, 69View FIGURES 68–71, 72View FIGURES 72–73) anteriorly or anterolaterally directed, often species specific, length about 1/3 to as long as width of patella. Number and placement of peg setae variable, diagnostic for some species. Retrolateral tibial apophysis ( Figs 33View FIGURES 33–36, 59View FIGURES 59–63, 68View FIGURES 68–71) carinate, nearly as long as tibia. Embolus ( Figs 11View FIGURES 10–12, 28View FIGURES 27–29, 61View FIGURES 59–63, 82View FIGURES 80–83) relatively short, somewhat thickened, flattened and ribbon-like in one species ( Figs 70–71View FIGURES 68–71). Tegular apophysis with distal arm short, relatively broad but not enlarged or lengthened; proximal arm prolaterally directed, variously developed, species specific ( Figs 3View FIGURES 1–4, 11View FIGURES 10–12, 18View FIGURES 18–19, 35View FIGURES 33–36, 44View FIGURES 42–45, 61View FIGURES 59–63, 70View FIGURES 68–71).

Female: Atrium ( Figs 5View FIGURES 5–9, 16View FIGURES 13–17, 30View FIGURES 30–32, 37View FIGURES 37–41, 46View FIGURES 46–51, 64View FIGURES 64–67, 77View FIGURES 74–79) usually undivided, variously shaped, anteriorly to medially located on epigynum; distinctly divided in one species ( Figs 23, 26View FIGURES 23–26). Copulatory ducts ( Figs 6–7View FIGURES 5–9, 14–15View FIGURES 13–17, 25View FIGURES 23–26, 32View FIGURES 30–32, 39View FIGURES 37–41, 50View FIGURES 46–51, 75View FIGURES 74–79) well developed, lightly sclerotized; often broadly attached to atrium but with inconspicuous, somewhat membranous margins. Spermathecal heads small, dorsal lobes ( Figs 7View FIGURES 5–9, 25View FIGURES 23–26, 67View FIGURES 64–67, 32View FIGURES 30–32, 54View FIGURES 52–54, 79View FIGURES 74–79). Spermathecal stalks usually very short, slender, undifferentiated, contiguous or separate in region of Bennett’s glands ( Figs 7View FIGURES 5–9, 54View FIGURES 52–54, 66– 67View FIGURES 64–67); relatively long, slender, and sinuous in two species ( Figs 39, 41View FIGURES 37–41). Bennett’s glands close to junction of stalks with rounded bases. Fertilization ducts exiting bases near to junction with stalks.

Composition and distribution. Nine species: Cybaeus consocius Chamberlin & Ivie  , C. hesper Chamberlin & Ivie  , C. hummeli Bennett  spec. nov., C. opulentus  spec. nov., C. pan Bennett  spec. nov., C. penedentatus Bennett  , C. simplex Roth  , C. ubicki Bennett  spec. nov., and C. vulpinus Bennett. Eight  of these species have restricted distributions in California U.S.A. in the north and central Sierra Nevada Mountains from Butte and Plumas Counties south to Tuolumne County and along the coast from southern Mendocino County south to Monterey County; one species ( C. simplex  ) is relatively broadly distributed in western Oregon U.S.A.