Pseudocanthon xanthurus ( Blanchard, 1847 )

Nazaré-Silva, Everton E. & Silva, Fernando A. B., 2021, A taxonomic revision of the South American species of Pseudocanthon Bates, 1887 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Deltochilini), Zootaxa 5027 (1), pp. 61-86: 67-75

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5027.1.3

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/038A87A7-FFFB-FFA1-71F5-FF6CB82E1CD2

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scientific name

Pseudocanthon xanthurus ( Blanchard, 1847 )
status

 

Pseudocanthon xanthurus ( Blanchard, 1847)  

( Figs. 1E View FIGURE 1 , 2B, 2F View FIGURE 2 , 3B–C View FIGURE 3 , 4B View FIGURE 4 , 5B–C View FIGURE 5 , 6B–C View FIGURE 6 , 7A View FIGURE 7 , 8 View FIGURE 8 , 9 View FIGURE 9 ) urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:AD91B620-1E60-4091-886B-34D9D56EE278

Canthon xanthurum Blanchard, 1847: 166   (original description); Blackwelder 1944: 202 (checklist and distribution).

Canthon xanthurus: Harold 1868: 140   (checklist); Harold 1869: 995 (catalogue and distribution); Bruch 1911: 185 (catalogue and distribution); Gillet 1911: 34 (catalogue and distribution); Arrow 1913: 456 (taxonomic remarks); Schmidt 1922: 64, 82 (description and distribution); Balthasar 1939: 189–190 (description and distribution).

Canthon (Pseudocanthon) xanthurus: Krajcik 2006: 32   (checklist); Krajcik 2012: 64 (checklist).

Pseudocanthon xanthurum: Martínez 1947: 268   (catalogue, distribution, and taxonomic remarks); Halffter 1961: 232–233 (taxonomic remarks); Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 194 (checklist); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (checklist).

Pseudocanthon xanthurus: Pereira & Martínez 1956: 109   (taxonomic remarks); Martínez 1959: 57 (catalogue and distribution); Pereira & Martínez 1960: 37–38 (taxonomic remarks); Vulcano & Pereira 1964: 592 (catalogue); Vulcano & Pereira 1967: 551 (identification key); Halffter & Martínez 1977: 60 (checklist); Medina et al. 2001: 137 (checklist); Hamel-Leige et al. 2006: 14 (checklist); Medina & Pulido 2009: 59 (checklist); Carvajal et al. 2011: 119 (distribution); Schoolmeesters 2020 (catalogue); Vaz-de-Mello 2020 (checklist).

Canthon felix Arrow, 1913: 456   (original description and taxonomic remarks); Boucomont 1928: 1 (checklist); Balthasar 1939: 224 (description and distribution); Blackwelder 1944: 199 (checklist and distribution); Pereira & Martínez 1956: 109 (taxonomic remarks); Pereira & Martínez 1960: 37–38 (synonymy of Canthon felix   with Pseudocanthon xanthurus   ); Halffter 1961: 232–233 (cited as junior synonym of Pseudocanthon xanthurus   ); Bacchus 1978: 102 (lectotype designation of C. felix   ); Krajcik 2006: 32 (cited as junior synonym of Pseudocanthon xanthurus   ); Ratcliffe et al. 2015: 196 (checklist).

Diagnosis. Pseudocanthon xanthurus   is similar to P. perplexus   in having inconspicuous microsculpture at central portion of pronotum ( Fig. 2B View FIGURE 2 ). However, P. xanthurus   can be distinguished from P. perplexus   by the following characters: surface of clypeus, lateral edges of pronotum, humeral angle, lateral and apex of elytra with orange spots ( Fig. 3B–C View FIGURE 3 ); internal edge of protibia substraight ( Fig. 2F View FIGURE 2 ); apex of parameres rounded, curved outward ( Fig. 5B–C View FIGURE 5 ); frontolateral peripheral (FLP) endophallite elongate, elliptical shaped ( Fig. 6B View FIGURE 6 ); and accessory endophallite (AE) absent ( Fig. 6B View FIGURE 6 ). In contrast, in P. perplexus   dorsal surface of body almost completely black or metallic blue, orange portion restricted to clypeal surface ( Fig. 3A View FIGURE 3 ); internal edge of protibia strongly arched ( Fig. 2E View FIGURE 2 ); apex of parameres curved inward, with small cylindrical projection at apex of ventral edge ( Fig. 5A View FIGURE 5 ); FLP elongate, bifurcate at inferior portion ( Fig. 6A View FIGURE 6 ); and AE present ( Fig. 6A View FIGURE 6 ).

Type material. Canthon xanthurus Blanchard   lectotype ♂ (here designated; MNHN): “ 5664 ” // “TYPE” // “MUSEUM PARIS / PROVINCE DE / CORRIENTES / D’ORBIGNY 1834” // “TYPE” // “ Canthon   / xanthurus   / Blanch ” [unknown handwriting; Blanchard’s?] // “ LECTOTYPE ♂ / Canthon   / xanthurus   / Blanchard / des. E.E. Nazaré-Silva & F.A.B. Silva, 2021”   . Paralectotypes: Unknown.

Canthon felix Arrow   Lectotype ♂ (designated by Bacchus 1978: 102; BMNH): “ Santar / em ” // “LECTO / TYPE” // “ Limbatus / Lacordre ” // “ Canthon   / felix, Arrow   / type ” [Arrow’s handwriting] // “ Canthon   ♂ / felix Arrow   / M.E. Bacchus det 197 5 / LECTOTYPE ”   . Paralectotypes ♀ ( MNHN): “ A. Fry ” // “ Pernamo. ” // “ Pseudocanthon   / felix   / (Arrow) / GHyAM det 76 ” [Halffter’s handwriting] // “Fry Coll. / 1905-100.” // “TYPE / co ” // “ Canthon   / felix, Arrow   / co-type ” [Arrow’s handwriting] // “ PARALECTOTYPE ♀ / Canthon   / felix   / Arrow / des. E.E. Nazaré- Silva & F.A.B. Silva, 2021”   .

Non-type material examined. 277♀ and 163♂. Intraspecific patterns listed by us in morphological variation section are indicated as follows: pattern 1 or 2 for body colour; pattern A or B for male genitalia. NO DATA: 2 unsexed specimens ( CERPE; pattern 1). FRENCH GUIANA: CAYENNE: Kourou , [05°09’40.07’’S; 52°38’57.6’’W] GoogleMaps   1♀ ( CMNC; pattern 1); Montagne des Chevaux , [04°44’56’’N; 52°26’28’’W], 75 m, 04.II.2013 GoogleMaps   , Seag   1♀ 1♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1); Paracou field station, [05°02’N; 52°00’W], 55 m, X.2003 GoogleMaps   , F. Feer— 3♀ 5♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1, one ♂ pattern A). SURINAME: PARAMARIBO: Zanderij , [05°53’N; 55°05’W], 17–18.IV.2010 GoogleMaps   , A. Hielkema— 1♀ ( CEMT; pattern 1). VENEZUELA: BOLÍVAR: 10 km northwest of Corocito [rainforest in Caura River], [07°32’12.27’’N; 65°00’23.23’’W], 26 m, 18.VI–03.VIII.1987 GoogleMaps   , J. Peck & S. Peck— 2♀ ( CMNC; pattern 1); 15 km northwest of Corocito , [07°32’12.27’’N; 65°00’23.23’’W], 26 m, 18.VI.1987 GoogleMaps   , J. Peck & S. Peck— 2♀ 2♂ ( CMNC; pattern 2, one ♂ pattern B); 25 km southwest of Puerto Ordaz , [08°06’21.74’’N; 62°35’49.62’’W], 260 m, 21.VI.1987 GoogleMaps   , J. Peck & S. Peck— 1♀ ( CMNC; pattern 2); 20 km east of El Palmar , [08°00’33.16’’N; 62°05’29.64’’W], 380 m, 18.VI.1996 GoogleMaps   , H. Howden & A. Howden— 1♂ ( CMNC; pattern 1); Caicara del Orinoco, 15 km east of Caicara del Orinoco , [07°35’52.63’’N; 66°00’38.47’’W], 43 m, 12.VI.1996 GoogleMaps   , H. Howden & A. Howden— 2♀ 1♂ ( CMNC; pattern 2, one ♂ pattern A); Caroní, 35 km southwest of Puerto Ordaz , [08°06’34.97’’N; 62°29’04.76’’W], 388 m, 13.VII–02.VIII.1987 GoogleMaps   , J. Peck & S. Peck— 8♀ 7♂ ( CMNC; both body colour patterns are represented, and two ♂ pattern B); Heres, 20 km southwest of Bolívar , [07°59’27.13’’N; 63°42’14.13’’W], 79 m, 19.VI.1987 GoogleMaps   , J. Peck & S. Peck— 2♀ ( CMNC; both body colour patterns are represented); Parupá , [05°41’28.21’’N; 61°34’20.64’’W], 1500 m, 27–30.VI.1987 GoogleMaps   , J. Peck & S. Peck— 1♀ ( CMNC; pattern 2); Yaracuy, Aroa , [10°00’00’’N; 68°00’00’’W], 459 m, 19.VII.2009 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, Asmussen— 1♀ ( CEMT; pattern 1). COLOMBIA: CASANARE: [05°45’32.14’’N; 72°10’20.62’’W], 184 m, I.2004 GoogleMaps   , J. Noriega— 1♀ 2♂ ( CEMT; pattern 2, one ♂ pattern B); VICHADA: Cumaribo, Santa Rita, Parque Nacional Natural El Tuparro , [05°21’03’’N; 67°52’15’’W], 135 m, 03–05.II.2004 GoogleMaps   , I. Quintero & E. González— 1♀ ( CEMT; pattern 2); VAUPÉS: Mitú, Querari Pelotão , [01°05’N; 69°51’W], 07–23.IV.1993 GoogleMaps   , C. Motta— 2♂ ( INPA; pattern 1); AMAZONAS: Leticia , [04°16’54.39’’N; 69°56’09.32’’W], 76 m, 23.II–02.III.1974 GoogleMaps   , Howden & Nealis— 2♀ ( CMNC; pattern 1). BRAZIL: No locality, 20.V.1967   , no collector—1 unsexed specimen ( DZUP, pattern 1); AMAPÁ: Porto Baton, [no coordinates], 139 m, 05.VIII.1983   , J. Lacerda— 1♂ ( DZUP; pattern 1, A); RORAIMA: Boa Vista, Serra da Moça , [02°16’13.82’’N; 60°40’28.51’’W], 105 m, VII.1997 GoogleMaps   , F. Vaz-de-Mello— 2♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1, A); Cantá, Lavrado , [02°47’N; 60°39’W], 70 m, IX.1996 GoogleMaps   , Ribeiro & Vaz-de-Mello— 1♀ 1♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1, A); RIO GRANDE DO NORTE: Natal , [05°46’45.32’’S; 35°12’03.3’’W], 31 m, V.1951 GoogleMaps   1♀ ( DZUP; pattern 2); Parnamarim , [05°54’41.6’’S; 35°16’16.74’’W], 56 m, IV.1950 GoogleMaps   , M.Alvarenga— 2♂ ( DZUP; pattern 2, B); CEARÁ: Maranguape, Santuário Nossa Senhora de Penha [shrubs], [03°52’29’’S; 38°40’48’’W], 96 m, 09.IV.2008 GoogleMaps   , Gillet   1♀ 1♂ ( CEMT; ♂ with pattern 1, B and ♀ with pattern 2); Ubajara, Parque Nacional de Ubajara , [03°50’19.68’’S; 40°53’53.25’’W], 797 m, 14.II.2013 GoogleMaps   ,P.Grossi&F.Vaz-de-Mello— 1♂ ( CERPE;pattern2); Quixeramobim ,[05°29’54.23’’S; 39°19’14.25’’W], 212 m, 1926, M. Rocha GoogleMaps   1♀ ( MZSP; pattern 2); PIAUÍ: Canto de Buruti , [08°07’56’’S; 43°00’23’’W], 366 m, 05.IV.2008 GoogleMaps   , Gillet   1♀ ( CEMT; pattern 2); Piracuruca, Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades , [04°06’02.71’’S; 41°42’44.63’’W], 184 m, 12.II.2013 GoogleMaps   , P. Grossi & F. Vaz-de-Mello— 1♀ ( CERPE; pattern 2); Piracuruca, Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades , [04°06’02.71’’S; 41°42’44.63’’W], 184 m, 07.III.2013 GoogleMaps   , P. Grossi & F. Vaz-de-Mello— 1♀ ( CERPE; pattern 2); Teresina , [05°02’40.87’’S; 42°45’58.44’’W], 85 m, VIII.1952 GoogleMaps   , Oliveira   2♀ 2♂ ( DZUP; pattern 2, two ♂ pattern B); Teresina , [05°02’40.87’’S; 42°45’58.44’’W], 85 m, I.1953 GoogleMaps   , Oliveira   3♀ ( CMNC; two ♀ pattern 2 and one ♀ pattern 1); Teresina , [05°02’40.87’’S; 42°45’58.44’’W], 85 m, I.1953 GoogleMaps   , Oliveira   4♀ 2♂ ( MZSP; two ♂ pattern 2, A, two ♀ pattern 2, and two ♀ pattern 1); MARANHÃO: Chapadinha , [04°51’50’’S; 43°20’51’’W], 17.III.2012 GoogleMaps   , C. Silva— 1♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1, B); Chapadinha, Fazenda Unha de Gato , [03°41’42.3’’S; 43°11’48.1’’W], 2016, pitfall, R. Silva & G. Machado GoogleMaps   1♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1, A); Itapecuru Mirim [pasture], [03°23’S; 44°32’W], 31.VIII.2010 GoogleMaps   , R. Matavelli— 3♀ 2♂ ( MZUFPA; pattern 2, two ♂ pattern B); Loreto, Pedrinhas , [06°57’18.95’’S; 45°09’27.58’’W], Mangrove, 05.X.1987 GoogleMaps   , light trap, E. Bergmann— 1♀ ( CEMT; pattern 2); Ilha de São Luís , [02°35’11’’S; 44°13’32’’W], 54 m, 04.VI.2001 GoogleMaps   , L. Costa Júnior— 1♂ ( CEMT; pattern 2); Ilha de São Luís , [02°35’11’’S; 44°13’32’’W], 54 m, 08.VI.2001 GoogleMaps   , L. Costa Júnior— 1♀ ( CEMT; pattern 1); Ilha de São Luís , [02°35’11’’S; 44°13’32’’W], 54 m, 12.VI.2001 GoogleMaps   , L. Costa Júnior— 1♀ ( MZUFPA; pattern 2); Santa Quitéria do Maranhão, Fazenda Rodiador , [03°24’50’’S; 42°40’46’’W], 47 m, 18.V.2008 GoogleMaps   , Gillet   1♀ ( CEMT; pattern 2); Santa Quitéria do Maranhão, Fazenda Rodiador , [03°24’50’’S; 42°40’46’’W], 47 m, 23.II.2008 GoogleMaps   , Gillet   1♀ ( CEMT; pattern 1); PARÁ: Belém, Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia , [01°27’22’’S; 48°26’15’’W], 04–13.V.2019 GoogleMaps   , M. Silva— 7♀ 5♂ ( MZUFPA; pattern 1, one ♂ pattern A); Jacareacanga , [06°13’25.88’’S; 57°45’38.73’’W], 190 m, XII.1968 GoogleMaps   , M. Alvarenga— 2♀ ( DZUP; pattern 1); Jacareacanga , [06°13’25.88’’S; 57°45’38.73’’W], 190 m, XII.1969 GoogleMaps   , F. Barbosa— 1♀ ( DZUP; pattern 1); Monte Dourado, Jari [eucalyptus area], [00°52’04.14’’S; 52°32’05.98’’W], 28.IV.2009 GoogleMaps   , Schiffler   3♀ ( MZUFPA; pattern 1); Monte Dourado, Jari [eucalyptus area], [00°52’04.14’’S; 52°32’05.98’’W], 01.V.2009 GoogleMaps   , Schiffler   3♀ ( MZUFPA; pattern 1); Monte Dourado, Jari [eucalyptus area], [00°52’04.14’’S; 52°32’05.98’’W], 02.V.2009 GoogleMaps   , Schiffler   1♀ ( MZUFPA; pattern 1); Novo Progresso, Fazenda Florentino [Amazon rainforest], [07°06’54’’S; 55°24’23’’W], 207 m, I.2011 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, Pelissari— 5♀ 3♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1, two ♂ pattern A); Paragominas , [2.9372°S; 47.2102°W], II.2011 GoogleMaps   , R. Solar— 64♀ 34♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1, five ♂ pattern A); Paragominas, Canindé Rio Gurupi , [02°34’00’’S; 46°31’00’’W], 65 m, 27.II.1966 GoogleMaps   , Malkin   1♀ ( MZSP; pattern 1); Santarém , [02°30’15.35’’S; 54°57’16.71’’W], 23 m, VII–VIII.2003 GoogleMaps   , R. Matavelli— 3♂ ( CEMT; two ♂ pattern 2, B and one ♂ pattern 1); AMAZONAS: Benjamin Constant , [04°31’13’’S; 69°57’18’’W], III.2008 GoogleMaps   , V. Korasaki— 1♀ ( MZUFPA; pattern 2); Benjamin Constant, Comunidade Nova Aliança , [04°21’12’’S; 69°36’16’’W], 20.III.2008 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, V. Korasaki— 3♀ 2♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1, one ♂ pattern A); Benjamin Constant, Comunidade Nova Aliança , [04°22’33.57’’S; 70°01’48.59’’W], 71 m, II.2004 GoogleMaps   , P. Silva— 2♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1); Manaus, Fazenda Dimona , [02°25’S; 59°50’W], 23–26.VI.2000 GoogleMaps   , I. Quintero— 23♀ 16♂ ( INPA; pattern 1); Manaus, Fazenda Dimona , [02°25’S; 59°50’W], 05– 08.VII.2000 GoogleMaps   , I. Quintero— 14♀ 6♂ ( INPA; pattern 1); Manaus, Fazenda Esteio , [02°35’26.58’’S; 60°01’36.73’’W], 61 m, no date or collector GoogleMaps   1♂ ( INPA; pattern 1); Manaus, Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke , [02°55’56’’S; 59°58’22’’W], 28.IV–03.V.2013 GoogleMaps   , F. Vaz-de-Mello— 1♀ 2♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1, one ♂ pattern A); Nhamundá , [02°13’36.68’’S; 57°11’15.48’’W], 47 m, 1959, Capelleto GoogleMaps   1♂ ( DZUP; pattern 1, B); Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, Tapuruquara, Rio Negro , [00°22’47.59’’S; 64°59’46.68’’W], 45 m, 01.XII.1962 GoogleMaps   , J. Bechyne— 1♀ ( MZSP; pattern 1); São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Uapés , [00°07’05.33’’S; 67°04’19.03’’W], 69 m, 28.III.1964 GoogleMaps   , J. Bechyne & B. Bechyne— 1♂ ( CMNC; pattern 1); PARAÍBA: Coremas , [07°01’03.75’’S; 37°56’48.42’’W], 216 m, VI.1957 GoogleMaps   1♀ ( MZSP; pattern 2); PERNAMBUCO: Araçoiaba, Campo de Instrução Marechal Newton Cavalcanti [open habitat], [07°49’53.06’’S; 35°06’13.31’’W], 126 m, 22.I.2010 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, F. Costa— 1♀ 1♂ ( CEUPE; pattern 1, ♂ pattern A); Caruaru, Brejo Novo , [08°21’00’’S; 35°58’59.88’’W], 599 m, 18.I.2004 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, no collector— 1♂ ( CEUPE; pattern 2); Igarassu, Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin [Atlantic rainforest], [07°49’42.76’’S; 34°52’26.82’’W], 25.V.2007 GoogleMaps   , pitfall, M. Costa— 1♀ ( CEMT; pattern 2); Igarassu, Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin [Atlantic rainforest], [07°48’37’’S; 34°57’25’’W], 25.V.2007 GoogleMaps   , pitfall, Costa— 2♂ ( CEUPE; pattern 2, B); Igarassu, Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin [Atlantic rainforest], [07°48’37’’S; 34°57’25’’W], 10.VI.2007 GoogleMaps   , pitfall, Costa— 1♀ ( CEUPE; pattern 2); Igarassu, Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin [Atlantic rainforest], [07°48’37’’S; 34°57’25’’W], 31.I.2006 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, Costa— 1♀ ( CEUPE; pattern 2); Igarassu, Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin [Atlantic rainforest], [07°48’37’’S; 34°57’25’’W], 30.IX.2006 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with rotten meat, Costa— 1♀ 1♂ ( CEUPE; ♂ pattern 2, B and ♀ pattern 1); Igarassu, Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin [Atlantic rainforest], [07°48’37’’S; 34°57’25’’W], 30.III.2006 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, Silva— 1♀ ( CEUPE; pattern 1); Igarassu, Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin [Atlantic rainforest], [07°48’37’’S; 34°57’25’’W], 02.VI.2006 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with rotten meat, Silva— 2♀ ( CEUPE; pattern 1); Igarassu, Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin [Atlantic rainforest], [07°48’37’’S; 34°57’25’’W], 29.XII.2006 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with rotten meat, Silva— 1♀ ( CEUPE; pattern 2); Recife , [08°03’08.07’’S; 34°55’42.99’’W], 30 m, V.1949 GoogleMaps   , no collector— 3♀ ( MZSP; pattern 2); Recife , [08°03’08.07’’S; 34°55’42.99’’W], 30m, M.Alvarenga GoogleMaps   2♀ ( DZUP;pattern2); ACRE: Rio Branco ,[09°58’31.36’’S; 67°49’29.63’’W], 156 m, 29.X.1954 GoogleMaps   , M. Alvarenga— 1♂ ( MZSP; pattern 1, A); BAHIA: Cruz das Almas , [12°40’24.8’’S; 39°06’06.7’’W], I.2005 GoogleMaps   , A. Brito & G. Ribeiro— 3♀ 2♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1, one ♂ pattern A); Porto Seguro [pasture], [16°23’35’’S; 39°09’45’’W], 74 m, 15.V.2012 GoogleMaps   , L. Audino— 1♀ ( CEMT; pattern 1); Porto Seguro [pasture], [16°23’59’’S; 39°07’34’’W], 71 m, 16.V.2012 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, L. Audino— 2♀ 2♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1, one ♂ pattern A); Porto Seguro [pasture], [16°23’49’’S; 39°08’21’’W], 16.V.2012 GoogleMaps   , L. Audino— 2♀ 5♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1, one ♂ pattern A); Porto Seguro, Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Estação Veracel , [16°23’15.71’’S; 39°10’11.04’’W], XI.2004 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, J. Louzada— 1♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1); MATO GROSSO: Alta Floresta , [09°54’27’’S; 56°03’18’’W], III.2008 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, E. Berenguer— 20♀ 6♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1, four ♂ pattern A); Alta Floresta , [09°54’24’’S; 56°02’39’’W], III.2008 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, E. Berenguer— 2♀ 4♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1, two ♂ pattern A); Alta Floresta , [09°51’06’’S; 55°59’04’’W], IV.2008 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, E. Berenguer— 4♀ 1♂ ( CEMT, pattern 1); Alta Floresta , [09°50’22’’S; 56°00’21’’W], IV.2008 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, E. Berenguer— 2♀ 1♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1); Alta Floresta , [09°46’55’’S; 56°02’13’’W], IV.2008 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, E. Berenguer— 1♀ ( CEMT; pattern 1); Alta Floresta , [09°51’06’’S; 55°59’04’’W], V.2008 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, E. Berenguer— 2♀ 1♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1, male pattern A); Cotriguaçu, Fazenda São Nicolau , [09°49’43’’S; 58°15’56’’W], 10.XII.2009 GoogleMaps   , F. Vaz-de-Mello— 1♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1); Cotriguaçu, Fazenda São Nicolau [fig plantation], [09°49’32’’S; 58°15’46’’W], 220 m, 10.XII.2009 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, F. Vaz-de-Mello— 1♀ ( CEMT; pattern 1); Cotriguaçu, Fazenda São Nicolau , [09°49’52’’S; 58°15’17’’W], X.2009 GoogleMaps   , pitfall, F. Vaz-de-Mello— 5♀ ( CEMT; pattern 1); Cotriguaçu, Fazenda São Nicolau , [09°51’38’’S; 58°12’53’’W], X.2009 GoogleMaps   , pitfall, F. Vaz-de-Mello— 1♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1); Cotriguaçu, Fazenda São Nicolau , [09°49’32’’S; 58°15’46’’W], 09.XI.2010 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, M. Gigliotti— 1♀ ( CEMT; pattern 1); Cuiabá, Fazenda Santhidi , [15°36’03.1’’S; 56°05’48.56’’W], 190 m, 08.I.2010 GoogleMaps   , L. Silva— 1♀ 2♂ ( CEMT; pattern 2, one ♂ pattern B); Poconé [Pantanal], [17°50.73’S; 57°24.17’W], 15.XI.2011 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, J. Silva— 2♀ ( CEMT; pattern 1); Sinop, Embrapa , [11°51’S; 55°35’W], 370 m, III–XII.2016 GoogleMaps   , pitfall, L. Lopes & R. Pita— 1♀ ( CERPE; pattern 2); Tangará da Serra, Sítio Clemente , [14°39’46’’S; 57°49’35’’W], 368 m, 12–14.XII.2012 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, R. Silva— 1♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1); RONDÔNIA: Porto Velho, Rio Madeira , [08°45’40.3’’S; 63°54’01.58’’W], 76 m, no date and collector GoogleMaps   1♀ ( INPA; pattern 1); MINAS GERAIS: Cordisburgo, Fazenda Pontinha , [19°07’31.09’’S; 44°19’13.63’’W], XII.1993 GoogleMaps   , F. Vaz-de-Mello— 2♀ ( CEMT; pattern 1); Cordisburgo, Fazenda Pontinha , [19°07’31.09’’S; 44°19’13.63’’W], I.1994 GoogleMaps   , F. Vaz-de-Mello— 1♀ 1♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1, ♂ pattern B); Curvelo, Fazenda do Roberto Lubernau [pasture], [18°47’43’’S; 44°38’51’’W], 561 m, 26.I.2012 GoogleMaps   , R. Macedo— 3♀ 1♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1, ♂ pattern A); Lavras , [21°14’54.56’’S; 45°00’04.95’’W], 926 m, I.1999 GoogleMaps   , J. Louzada— 1♀ ( CEMT; pattern 1); Pompéu, Fazenda do Pedro , [19°09’17’’S; 44°52’23’’W], 458 m, 22.I.2012 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, R. Macedo— 1♀ 1♂ ( CEMT; pattern 1); Visconde do Rio Branco , [21°00’49.65’’S; 42°50’15.4’’W], I.1998 GoogleMaps   , T. Cavalcanti— 2♀ ( CEMT; pattern 1); DISTRITO FEDERAL: Brasília , [15°49’36.09’’S; 47°55’18.55’’W], 1100 m, XI.1999 GoogleMaps   , at light, N. Degallier— 1♀ 1♂ ( CMNC; pattern 1, ♂ pattern A); GOIÁS: Goiatuba , [18°00’46.03’’S; 49°21’59.79’’W], 803 m, II.1947 GoogleMaps   , no collector— 1♀ ( CMNC; pattern 1); same data but, XI.1943 GoogleMaps   , no collector— 1♀ ( MZSP; pattern 1); Mineiros, Parque Nacional das Emas , [17°56’29’’S; 52°58’40’’W], 15.III.2011 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, M. Souza— 1♀ ( CEMT; pattern 1); Mineiros, Parque Nacional das Emas , [18°04’06’’S; 52°56’09’’W], 15.III.2011 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, M. Souza— 1♂ ( CEMT; pattern 2, B); Mineiros, Parque Nacional das Emas , [18°00’29’’S; 52°58’56’’W], 15.III.2011 GoogleMaps   , pitfall with human feces, M. Souza— 1♀ ( CEMT; pattern 1); RIO DE JANEIRO: Guapimirim, II.1944   , illegible collector—1 unsexed specimen ( MNRJ); Itaguaí , [22°51’47.49’’S; 43°46’40.47’’W], 26 m, I.1991 GoogleMaps   , C. Godinho— 1♀ ( CEMT; pattern 1); Rio de Janeiro , Deodoro, 20.II.1946   , W. Zikán —1 unsexed specimen ( MNRJ); Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Governador , 16.XI.1955   , M. Alvarenga —1 unsexed specimen ( MNRJ); Rio de Janeiro , Jacarepaguá, 02.III.1952   , O. Rego —1 unsexed specimen ( MNRJ); Seropédica , Estrada Rio-São Paulo, km 47, 03.III.1948   , W. Zikán —1 unsexed specimen ( MNRJ); Seropédica, Estrada Rio-São Paulo, km 47, XII.1948   , W. Zikán —2 unsexed specimens ( MNRJ); SÃO PAULO: Bertioga, Itaguaré , [23°47’32.7’’S; 45°49’32.23’’W] GoogleMaps   1♀ ( CMNC; pattern 1); Bragança Paulista , [22°57’11.41’’S; 46°32’32.37’’W], 849 m, D. Vaglio GoogleMaps   1♀ ( MZSP; pattern 1); Intanhaém , [24°10’54.48’’S; 46°47’06.12’’W], 7 m, II.1966 GoogleMaps   , U. Martins— 1♀ ( MZSP; pattern 1); Itú, Fazenda Pau D’Alho , [23°15’50.4’’S; 47°17’58.82’’W], 601 m, 05.XI.1960 GoogleMaps   , U. Martins— 1♂ ( MZSP; pattern 1, A); MATO GROSSO DO SUL: Selvíria, Fazenda Experimental da Universidade Estadual Paulista [pasture], [20°20’51.89’’S; 51°24’51.88’’W], 03.XI.1994 GoogleMaps   ,light trap, C.Flechtmann— 1♀ ( CEMT; pattern 1); PARANÁ: Ponta Grossa , [25°05’57.93’’S; 50°09’29.96’’W], 953 m, III.1945 GoogleMaps   1♀ ( DZUP; pattern 1); Wenceslau Braz , [23°52’17.07’’S; 49°48’08.85’’W], 832 m, I.1941 GoogleMaps   , J. Leprevest— 1♀ ( MZSP; pattern 1); SANTA CATARINA: Anchieta , [26°34’S; 53°22’W], 08.XII.2014 GoogleMaps   , pitfall, V. Alves— 1♀ ( CEMT; pattern 1); Seara, Nova Teutonia , [27°11’S; 52°23’W], 300–500 m, 06.I.1946 GoogleMaps   , F. Plaumann— 1♀ ( CMNC; pattern 1); Seara, Nova Teutonia , [27°11’S; 52°23’W], 300–500 m, IX.1957 GoogleMaps   , F. Plaumann— 1♂ ( MZSP; pattern 1); Seara, Nova Teutonia , [27°03’00’’S; 52°24’00’’W], 864 m, XII.1971 GoogleMaps   , F. Plaumann— 2♂ ( CMNC; pattern 1, A); Seara, Nova Teutonia , [27°03’00’’S; 52°24’00’’W], 864 m, I.1975 GoogleMaps   , F. Plaumann— 1♀ ( CMNC; pattern 1). BOLIVIA: SANTA CRUZ: Buena Vista, 3,7 km southeast of Buena Vista, Hotel Flora and Fauna [transitional tropical forest], [17°29.949’S; 63°33.152’W], 405 m, 05–15.XI.2001 GoogleMaps   , M. Thomas & B. Dozier— 2♀ 2♂ ( CMNC; pattern 1, ♂ pattern A); COCHABAMBA: Chapare, S. F. Chipiriri , [16°58’07’’S; 65°23’41’’W], 400 m, XI.1959 GoogleMaps   , no collector— 1♂ ( CMNC; pattern 1, A). PARAGUAY: CORDILLERA: Piribebuy , [25°27’53.37’’S; 57°02’31.73’’W], 255 m, XI.1949 GoogleMaps   , no collector— 1♂ ( CMNC; pattern 1, A); GUAIRÁ: Villarica , [25°46’33.82’’S; 56°26’58.53’’W], 183 m, IV.1942 GoogleMaps   , no collector— 1♂ ( MZSP; pattern 1). ARGENTINA: FORMOSA: Parque Nacional Río Pilcomayo , [25°08’43.11’’S; 58°11’11.78’’W], 76 m, 17.XII.1990 GoogleMaps   , J. Peck & S. Peck— 1♀ ( CMNC; pattern 1); MISIONES: Puerto Iguazú , [25°50’53.71’’S; 54°20’48.18’’W], 294 m, X.1927 GoogleMaps   , no collector— 1♂ ( CMNC; pattern 1, A)   .

Distribution. Known from Venezuela (Bolívar, Yaracuy), Suriname (Paramaribo), French Guiana (Cayenne), Colombia (Amazonas, Casanare, Vichada), Brazil (Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, Distrito Federal, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraíba, Paraná, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondônia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo), Bolivia (Chapare, Santa Cruz), Paraguay (Cordillera, Guairá) and Argentina (Formosa, Misiones) ( Fig. 7A View FIGURE 7 ). According to literature data, this species was also cited from Peru by Ratcliffe et al. (2015). However, since the specific locality was not mentioned we have included a “?” in distribution map ( Fig. 7A View FIGURE 7 ). Areas of endemism [South America]: Brazilian subregion: South Brazilian dominion: Rondônia province. Boreal Brazilian dominion: Guianan Lowlands, Imerí, Napo, Pará, and Roraima provinces. South Brazilian dominion: Yungas province. Chacoan subregion: Chacoan dominion: Caatinga, Cerrado, and Chaco provinces. Parana dominion: Atlantic and Parana provinces (see Morrone 2014: fig. 12).

Notes about the lectotype of Canthon xanthurus Blanchard, 1847   . Analyzing the original description ( Blanchard 1847), no holotype was originally fixed, and we could not find any explicit mention that C. xanthurus   was described based on a single specimen. Following Recommendation 73F of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature ( International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999), it is, therefore, assumed that the type series was based on more than one individual. Fernando Vaz-de-Mello found only a single syntype of C. xanthurus   in the MNHN during his studies of Scarabaeinae   type specimens housed in European museums (see Vaz-de-Mello & Cupello [2018] for more details). It is possible to recognize this specimen as part of the type series because, as indicated by its labels, it was collected by Alcide d’Orbigny in Corrientes, Argentina, which is in agreement with information on the collector and type locality from the original description ( Blanchard 1847). Furthermore, the lectotype matches Blanchard’s succinct description.

Notes about the synonymy of Canthon felix Arrow, 1913   with Canthon xanthurus Blanchard, 1847   . Canthon felix   was described by Arrow (1913) based on specimens from Pernambuco, Ceará (Baturité and Maranguape), Pará (Santarém), and Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil. Bacchus (1978) found eight syntypes (4 males and 4 females) in the BMNH and designated the male from Santarém as the lectotype. The paralectotypes from Para, Santarém, Pernambuco, and Baturité were found; the others (Rio de Janeiro and Maranguape) were deemed lost. Decades later, Fernando Vaz-de-Mello found two paralectotypes of C. felix   , the lectotype male from Santarém, Pará (BMNH), and a paralectotype female from Pernambuco (MNHN). We examined these two specimens from photographs, as well as the lectotype of C. xanthurus   from Argentina and non-type material from different localities. The lectotype and paralectotype of C. felix   have orange spots on almost the entire lateral edge of the body, mainly at elytra, larger density of pronotum and elytra punctures compared to C. xanthurus   . The lectotype of C. xanthurus   has orange spots only at base and apex of elytra, smaller density of pronotum and elytra punctures compared to C. felix   . Arrow (1913) also explicitly stated that C. felix   was described based on those differences above mentioned in comparison to the type of C. xanthurus   (on dorsal orange spots as well as on the pronotal and elytral punctation). However, these morphological patterns co-occur in specimens from the same locality throughout the distribution range of P. xanthurus   . Also, we verified these different patterns in specimens collected near the type localities of each species name, which are least 1,600 km apart. Thus, we consider this variation as an intraspecific component, and we maintain here the synonym of C. felix   with C. xanthurus   proposed by Pereira & Martínez (1960).

Morphological variation. Pseudocanthon xanthurus   exhibits considerable discrete intraspecific variation in body colour pattern and some structural components of male genitalia. Some specimens have orange spots on almost the entire lateral edge of the body, mainly in elytra ( Fig. 3C View FIGURE 3 ). Other specimens have orange spots only at the base and apex of elytra ( Fig. 3B View FIGURE 3 ). The aedeagus, in ventral view, has the apex of the parameres subparallel ( Fig. 5C View FIGURE 5 ) or laterally projected ( Fig. 5B View FIGURE 5 ). The frontolateral peripheral (FLP) endophallite can also present variation in width and degree of curvature. It can be narrow and straight, or wider and curved ( Fig. 6B–C View FIGURE 6 ).

These patterns of variation are found throughout the range of the species, some populations being polymorphic ( Figs. 8–9 View FIGURE 8 View FIGURE 9 ). Regarding the body colour patterns, specimens with pattern 1 have orange spots only at base and apex of elytra ( Fig. 3B View FIGURE 3 ), and have been recorded in Argentina (Formosa, Misiones), Bolivia (Chapare, Santa Cruz), Brazil (Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Distrito Federal, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo), Colombia (Amazonas), French Guiana (Cayenne, Kourou), Paraguay (Cordillera, Guairá), Suriname (Paramaribo), and Venezuela (Bolívar, Yaracuy) ( Fig. 8A View FIGURE 8 ). Pattern 2, in turn, includes specimens with orange spots on almost the entire lateral edge of body, mainly in elytra ( Fig. 3C View FIGURE 3 ); these have been found in Brazil (Amazonas, Ceará, Goiás, Maranhão, Pará, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte), Colombia (Casanare, Vichada), and Venezuela (Bolívar) ( Fig. 8A View FIGURE 8 ). The distribution of the two body colour patterns overlaps in several localities in Brazil (Amazonas, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Pernambuco, and Piauí) and Venezuela (Bolívar), being those populations polymorphic ( Fig. 8A View FIGURE 8 ).

Regarding the parameres and the frontolateral peripheral endophallite, there are two general patterns. Pattern A consists of specimens having parameres apically with lateral projection ( Fig. 5B View FIGURE 5 ) and narrow and straight frontolateral peripheral endophallite ( Fig. 6B View FIGURE 6 ) and has been found in Argentina (Misiones), Bolivia (Chapare, Santa Cruz), Brazil (Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Distrito Federal, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Pernambuco, Piauí, Roraima, Santa Catarina), French Guiana (Cayenne), Paraguay (Cordillera, Guairá), and Venezuela (Bolívar) ( Fig. 8B View FIGURE 8 ). Pattern B, in turn, includes specimens having parameres apically subparallel ( Fig. 5C View FIGURE 5 ) and with frontolateral peripheral endophallite wider and curved ( Fig. 6C View FIGURE 6 ); these have been found in Brazil (Amazonas, Ceará, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte), Colombia (Casanare), and Venezuela (Bolívar) ( Fig. 8B View FIGURE 8 ). The distribution range of the two patterns also overlaps in several localities in Brazil (Amazonas, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Pernambuco, Piauí) and Venezuela (Bolívar), being also those populations polymorphic ( Fig. 8B View FIGURE 8 )   .

We have not noticied any strict association between patterns of body colour and male genital morphology. In general, specimens with orange spots only at the base and apex of elytra (pattern 1; Fig. 3B View FIGURE 3 ) usually have aedeagus of pattern A ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 ). However, in Maranguape (Ceará), Chapadinha (Maranhão), and Cordisburgo (Minas Gerais), some specimens have genitalia of pattern B ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 ). Specimens with orange spots on almost the entire lateral edge of the body (pattern 2; Fig. 3C View FIGURE 3 ), on the other hand, usually present aedeagus of pattern B ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 ). However, in Teresina (Piauí) and Caicara del Orinoco ( Venezuela), specimens have aedeagus of pattern A ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 ).

The P. xanthurus   species concept herein recognized is a hypothesis based on the previously cited morphological and geographical evidence. Intraspecific variation in body colour patterns is common and was also recorded in many species of Deltochilini ( Silva et al. 2015; Valois et al. 2015; Silva & Valois 2019). Furthermore, the morphological variations found by us between genital patterns A and B in P. xanthurus   ( Figs. 5B–C View FIGURE 5 , 6B–C View FIGURE 6 ) are weak if they were compared with the differences in aedeagus and endophallites between the recognized species of Pseudocanthon   ( Figs. 5–6 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 ).

Alternatively, we are aware that each genital morph may represent a separate species lineage, both sympatric, and that each of these lineages can be polychromic. Some explanations for this pattern of shared polymorphism between sister species lineages can be the following: 1—incomplete lineage sorting, also called deep coalescence, with both descendant species inherited a polymorphism already present in the ancestral species; 2—parallelism, in which both descendant species inherited the same genetic “propensity” (in terms of genetic channelling, or biased variation) to express the character; 3—horizontal transfer (including hybridization), in which genes have somehow broken the confines of the close species lineages and moved horizontally through jumps between them ( Maddison 1997; Avise 2000). All those genetic populational mechanisms mentioned above can generate those morphological patterns observed by us. However, as the present study was only based on morphological and geographic evidence, this is not part of the scope of our work, being practically impossible to test here these scenarios and confront them with our assumption. We state that a phylogeographical approach can be useful to test our species assumption. Future studies can corroborate if the morphological variation mentioned here reflects some phylogeographic structure or resulted from ecological responses to different environmental conditions along distributional range of this supposed species. Thus, we chose to describe at this time these patterns only as an intraspecific variation of P. xanthurus   .

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia

DZUP

Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Scarabaeidae

Genus

Pseudocanthon

Loc

Pseudocanthon xanthurus ( Blanchard, 1847 )

Nazaré-Silva, Everton E. & Silva, Fernando A. B. 2021
2021
Loc

Canthon (Pseudocanthon) xanthurus:

Krajcik, M. 2012: 64
Krajcik, M. 2006: 32
2006
Loc

Pseudocanthon xanthurus: Pereira & Martínez 1956: 109

Carvajal, V. & Villamarin, S. & Ortega, A. 2011: 119
Medina, C. & Pulido, L. 2009: 59
Medina, C. & Lopera-Toro, A. & Vitolo, A. & Gill, B. 2001: 137
Halffter, G. & Martinez, A. 1977: 60
Vulcano, M. & Pereira, F. 1967: 551
Vulcano, M. & Pereira, F. 1964: 592
Pereira, F. & Martinez, A. 1960: 37
Martinez, A. 1959: 57
Pereira, F. & Martinez, A. 1956: 109
1956
Loc

Pseudocanthon xanthurum: Martínez 1947: 268

Ratcliffe, B. & Jameson, M. & Figueroa, L. & Cave, R. & Paulsen, M. & Cano, E. & Beza-Beza, C. & Jimenez-Ferbans, L. & Reyes-Castillo, P. 2015: 196
Vaz-de-Mello, F. 2000: 194
Halffter, G. 1961: 232
Martinez, A. 1947: 268
1947
Loc

Canthon felix Arrow, 1913: 456

Ratcliffe, B. & Jameson, M. & Figueroa, L. & Cave, R. & Paulsen, M. & Cano, E. & Beza-Beza, C. & Jimenez-Ferbans, L. & Reyes-Castillo, P. 2015: 196
Krajcik, M. 2006: 32
Bacchus, M. E. 1978: 102
Halffter, G. 1961: 232
Pereira, F. & Martinez, A. 1960: 37
Pereira, F. & Martinez, A. 1956: 109
Blackwelder, R. 1944: 199
Balthasar, V. 1939: 224
Boucomont, A. 1928: 1
Arrow, G. 1913: 456
1913
Loc

Canthon xanthurus: Harold 1868: 140

Balthasar, V. 1939: 189
Schmidt, A. 1922: 64
Arrow, G. 1913: 456
Bruch, C. 1911: 185
Gillet, J. J. E. 1911: 34
Harold, E. 1869: 995
Harold, E. 1868: 140
1868
Loc

Canthon xanthurum

Blackwelder, R. 1944: 202
Blanchard, E. 1847: 166
1847