Metabus, AND

Álvarez-Padilla, Fernando, 2007, Systematics of the spider genus Metabus O. P. - Cambridge, 1899 (Araneoidea: Tetragnathidae) with additions to the tetragnathid fauna of Chile and comments on the phylogeny of Tetragnathidae, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 151 (2), pp. 285-335: 313-320

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2007.00304.x

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/038A3406-BF1E-FF03-FD90-FF79FA72F8B0

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Metabus
status

 

SYSTEMATICS OF METABUS AND   TETRAGNATHID SPIDERS 313

(holotype of Meta patagiata MNHN   ) FAP0284. Región VII del Maule, Maule, Cauquenes W of Maule, 350 m, 4.x.1983, 1 male ( AMNH) FAP0261 male illustrated and measured; 400 m, 24–27.i.1981, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0251; Tregualemu , 24.i.1976, G. Moreno leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0260; Talca , Bramadora , 600 m, 21–22.i.1993, L. E. Peña   leg. 6 females and 2 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0249. Región VIII del Bio Bio , Concepción , Nonquen Estero , 11.xii.1977, T. Cekalovic leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0259; Ñuble , Las Trancas , iii–iv.1979, L. E. Peña   leg. 2 females and 5 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0250. Región IX de la Araucaria, Malleco , Curacautín , 16 km N of, 800 m, 15.ii.1992, N. I. Platnick, P. A. Goloboff & M. J. Ramírez leg. 1 male ( AMNH) FAP0263; Nahuelbuta , sendero Piedra del Aguila , 37°49′45″S, 73°0′30″W, 1450 m, 4–9.i.2001, J. Miller, F. Álvarez, J. A. Coddington & G. Hormiga leg. 6 females ( USNM) FAP0243 largest female measured epigynum cleared illustrated. Región X de los Lagos, Chiloe, Huequetrumao Is. de Chiloe , 27.xii.1981, L. E. Peña   leg. 2 females ( AMNH) FAP0255; Lago Coluco, 26.i.1981, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0256; Puente Murror, Ancud, 16.xii.1982, L. E. Peña   leg. 6 males, 1 female and 7 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0257; Llanquihue, Alerce Andino, Sector Sargazo, 41°30′30″S, 72°37′0″W, 350 m, 20–27.xii.2000, J. Miller, F. Álvarez, J. A. Coddington & G. Hormiga leg. 3 females and 3 immatures ( USNM) FAP0245; Osorno, Pucatrihue coast, 10–24.ii.1985, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female and 6 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0253; 1–10.ii.1980, L. E. Peña   leg. 2 females ( AMNH) FAP0254; Puyehue, Aguas Calientes, 40°44′0″S, 72°18′45″W, 450 m, 12.xii.2000 − 2.i.2001, G. Hormiga leg. 2 females ( USNM) FAP0244; Puyehue, Anticura, 40°40′0″S, 72°10′30″W, 350 m, 13.xii.2000 − 2.i.2001, J. Miller, F. Álvarez, J. A. Coddington & G. Hormiga leg. 2 males ( USNM) FAP0240 one female specimen used for SEM; 1 female and 2 immatures ( USNM) FAP0241 smallest female measured epigynum illustrated; 3 females and 2 immatures ( USNM) FAP0242; Palena, Chaiten, 25–27 km N of, 40 m, 16.i.1986, N. I. Platnick, P. A. Goloboff & R. T. Schuh leg. 2 females and 1 immature ( AMNH) FAP0262; Valdivia, Purolon, 10.i.1985, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0248; Valdivia, 25.xii.1979, E. Krahmer leg. 2 females ( AMNH) FAP0247; Valdivia, 30 km S of, 13.i.1951, Ross & Michelbacher leg. 1 female ( CAS) FAP0246. Región XI del Aisen, Aisen, Río Aisen Valley, i.1897. P. Dusen leg. 1 male (holotype of Meta echinata NRS   ) FAP0275 GoogleMaps   .

ALLENDE LONGIPES ( NICOLET, 1849)   COMB. NOV.

( FIGS 6B, C View Figure 6 , 9F–H View Figure 9 , 11B View Figure 11 , 18 View Figure 18 )

Epeira longipes Nicolet, 1849: 491   (type presumably deposited at MNHN. Species identifications made with Dr Levi’s illustrations of the type material).

Meta aurora Simon, 1901: 19   (female holotype MNHN, examined). New synonymy.

Meta chilensis Tullgren, 1902: 23   pl. 1 f. 7 (male holotype in NSR, examined). New synonymy.

Meta cordillera Tullgren, 1902: 23   pl. 2 f. 3 (female lectotype in NSR, examined). New synonymy.

Meta torta Tullgren, 1902: 21   pl. 2 f. 2 (female holotype in NSR, examined). New synonymy.

Meta longipes ( Nicolet, 1849)   : Simon, 1900: 51.

Metabus longipes ( Tullgren, 1902)   : Archer, 1963: 17.

Metabus chilensis ( Tullgren, 1902)   : Archer, 1963: 17.

Metabus cordillera ( Tullgren, 1902)   : Archer, 1963: 17.

Metabus tortus ( Tullgren, 1902)   : Archer, 1963: 17.

Diagnosis: A. longipes   differs from other Allende species   by the following combination of characters: female metatarsus I and II mesal surface with stout macrosetae ( Fig. 18F View Figure 18 ); epigynum apical invaginations exposed and delineated by narrow ridges ( Fig. 18H View Figure 18 ); cymbial median process globular-shaped ( Fig. 18N View Figure 18 ); and shape of the conductor tip ( Fig. 18Q View Figure 18 ).

Description: Female from Cautín, Chacamo, Chile (FAP0090). Habitus as in Figure 18A, C–E View Figure 18 . Total length 8.8. Cephalothorax 3.7 long, 2.8 wide, 1.1 high. Sternum 1.6 long, 1.5 wide. Chelicerae orange, darker than the cephalothorax ( Fig. 18B View Figure 18 ). Abdomen oval, 5.8 long, 4.0 wide, 4.2 high, venter with a median white rectangular area and two white spots around the spinnerets. AME diameter 0.16. ALE 0.14. PME 0.16. PLE 0.14. Clypeus height 1.3 × AME diameter. AME separation 1.1 × AME diameter. AME–ALE separation 2.3 × AME diameter. PME separation 1.1 × PME diameter. PME–PLE separation 2.6 × PME diameter. Leg I length 17.5, leg II 13.0, leg III 7.4, leg IV 10.8, pedipalp 4.06. Spermathecae almost spherical, epigynum as in Figure 18G–K View Figure 18 .

Male from Nahuelbuta, Chile ( FAP0080). Habitus as in Figure 18L View Figure 18 . Total length 5.3. Cephalothorax 2.5 long, 1.9 wide, 0.9 high. Sternum 1.2 long, 1.1 wide. Chelicerae same colour as the cephalothorax ( Fig. 18M View Figure 18 ). Abdomen oval 3.1 long, 2.0 wide, 1.9 high. AME diameter 0.11. ALE 0.09. PME 0.11. PLE 0.09. Clypeus height 1.3 × AME diameter. AME separation 1.3 × AME diameter. AME – ALE separation 2.1 × AME diameter. PME separation 1.3 × PME diameter. PME – PLE separation 2.2 × PME diameter. Leg I length 17.1, leg II 11.9, leg III 5.9, leg IV 8.6, pedipalp 4.6. Pedipalp tibia 3.7 times longer than wide. Embolic apophysis long, pedipalp as in Figure 18N–Q View Figure 18   .

Variation: Four different variations of dorsal patterns were identified ( Fig. 18A, C, D View Figure 18 ). These differences correspond to three different species described by Tullgren (1902) and synonymized here under A. longipes   . These species are synonymized because the diagnostic pedipalp and epigynal characters presented no variation among dorsal patterns. Furthermore, a handful of specimens were found with intermediate abdominal patterns, suggesting that this could be a case of polymorphism for A. longipes   ; however, the locality data provided was insufficient to test if these abdominal variations were segregated at a population level. The only exceptions are the number of denticles on the cymbial basal process projection (which varies from three to five, even within individuals) and the epigynal median plate distal constriction width. Female total length 5.6–8.8, cephalothorax length 2.5–3.7. Male total length 4.6–6.3, cephalothorax length 2.3-3.2.

Distribution: A. longipes   is found in Chile and Argentina ( Fig. 11B View Figure 11 ). Its geographical range covers the following latitudes 25°47′0″S to 53°40′0″S, and altitudes from 30 to 1450 m.

Material examined (N = 232): ARGENTINA: Neuquen, Pucara, 1 male (CAS) FAP0040. CHILE: Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Santiago, C. Joseph leg. 2 females (AMNH) FAP0200. Región V de Valparaiso, Valparaiso, Cerro Molle, C. Porter leg. 1 female. (holotype of Meta aurora MNHN   ) FAP0282. Región VII del Maule, Curico, Las Tablas, ii.1985, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female (AMNH) FAP0071. Región VIII del Bio Bio, Guallali, Lago El Barco, 1200 m, 21–28.ii.1981, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male (AMNH) FAP0077 largest male measured; Ñuble, Atacalco, Chillan area, 17.iii.1983, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female (AMNH) FAP0083; Las Cabras, 26- 28.xii.1986, L. Umaña leg. 1 female and 1 immature (AMNH) FAP0049; Las Trancas, 18.iii.1983, L. E. Peña   leg. 2 females (AMNH) FAP0062; Las Trancas, El Recinto, 1100 m, ii.1987, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male (AMNH) FAP0073; Los Lleques, 5–20.xii.1985, L. Umaña leg. 4 females (AMNH) FAP0055. Región IX de la Araucaria, Cautín, Chacamo, 600–700 m, 16– 24.ii.1984, L. E. Peña   leg. 2 males and 2 females (AMNH) FAP0088; 17–23.ii.1981, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female (AMNH) FAP0090 abdominal morpho 1 ( Fig. 18A, L View Figure 18 ) largest female measured and illustrated; Toltan, 27.ii.1979, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male and 1 female (AMNH) FAP0072; Villarrica, 27–28.ii.1979, L. E. Peña   leg. 32 males, 17 females and 4 immatures. (AMNH) FAP0065 smallest female measured, one male and one female specimens used for SEM; L. E. Peña   leg. 3 males and 3 females (AMNH) FAP0067; Malleco, Angol, Nahuelbuta, 14–24.ii.1977, G. Moreno leg. 3 females (AMNH) FAP0050; Contulmo Natur., 350 m, 11.xii.1984 − 13.ii.1985, S. & W. Peck leg. 1 male (AMNH) FAP0058; Malalcahuello, 9–15.xii.1985, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male and 2 immatures (AMNH) FAP0087; Nahuelbuta Cord., 1300−1400 m, 6–12.i.1982, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male (AMNH) FAP0089; Nahuelbuta, 1300 m, 6–12.i.1982, L. E. Peña   leg. 7 males and 9 immatures (AMNH) FAP0047; 1120 m, 13.ii.1992, N. I. Platnick, P. A. Goloboff & M. J. Ramírez leg. 3 males (AMNH) FAP0048; 1300 m, 1–6.ii.1979, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male, 3 females and 3 immatures (AMNH) FAP0069; L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male and 4 females (AMNH) FAP0075; L. E. Peña   leg. 5 males and 1 female (AMNH) FAP0080 male measured and illustrated; Nahuelbuta, sendero Piedra del Aguila, 37°49′30″S, 73°2′15″W, 1450 m, 8.i.2001, J. Miller, F. Álvarez, J. A. Coddington & G. Hormiga leg. 2 males (USNM) FAP0039; Tolhuaca, 15–23.iii.1986, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female (AMNH) FAP0085. Región X de los Lagos, Chiloe Is., Cerros del Cucao, Cord de Piuche, 1.iii.1981, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male and 5 females (AMNH) FAP0079; Continental, Río Ventisquero, Lago Velcho, 5–9.xii.1985, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male and 4 immatures (AMNH) FAP0086; Llanquehue, Los Muermos, 41°24′0″S, 73°29′0″W, 13.xi.1966, E. I. Schlinger & M. Irwin leg. 1 female (CAS) FAP0043; Calbuco, 21– 28.ii.1967, A. F. Archer leg. 2 males and 2 immatures (AMNH) FAP0056; 3 males and 1 immature (AMNH) FAP0264 smallest male measured; Lago Chapo, 7- 10.ii.1985, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male (AMNH) FAP0068; Osorno, La Pelada Chica, 1–2.iii.1987, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female (AMNH) FAP0070; La Picada, El Refugio, 41°4′0″S, 72°26′0″W, 6.ii.1967, E. I. Schlinger leg. 1 male (AMNH) FAP0053; La Unión, 600 m, 25– 28.iii.1987, L. E. Peña   leg. 4 females (AMNH) FAP0076; 900 m, 1–2.iii.1987, L. E. Peña   leg. 5 females and 1 immature (AMNH) FAP0066; Puyehue NP, 40°46′30″S, 72°12′0″W, 700 m, 12.xii.2000 − 2.i.2001, J. Miller, F. Álvarez, J. A. Coddington & G. Hormiga leg. 1 male (USNM) FAP0038; 24.i.1951, Ross & Michelbacher leg. 1 male (CAS) FAP0041; 26.i.1951, Ross & Michelbacher leg. 1 female and 4 immatures (CAS) FAP0042; Puyehue, Aguas Calientes, 40°44′0″S, 72°18′45″W, 450 m, 12.xii.2000 − 2.i.2001, G. Hormiga leg. 2 males and 1 immature (USNM) FAP0035; 13.xii.2000 − 1.i.2001, G. Hormiga leg. 1 male (USNM) FAP0036; 1 female (USNM) FAP0037; 40°44′0″S, 72°18′0″W, 500 m, 16.i.1995, N. I. Platnick, K. Catley & D. Silva leg. 6 females (AMNH) FAP0046; 600 m, 18.xii.1984 − 8.i.1985, S. & J. Peck leg. 1 female (AMNH) FAP0054; 1 female (AMNH) FAP0059; 425 m, 31.i.1985, N. I. Platnick & O. Francke leg. 2 males and 1 female (AMNH) FAP0060; 500 m, 2–5.i.1982, L. E. Peña   leg. 2 males and 1 immature (AMNH) FAP0081; 600 m, 12–20.ii.1979, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male and 4 females (AMNH) FAP0082; 480 m, 17–18.ii.1992, N. I. Platnick, P. A. Goloboff & M. J. Ramírez leg. 1 female (AMNH) FAP0197 female morpho 3 illustrated ( Fig. 18C View Figure 18 ); Puyehue, Anticura, 40°40′0″S, 72°10′30″W, 350 m, 13.xii.2000 − 2.i.2001, J. Miller, F. Álvarez, J. A. Coddington & G. Hormiga leg. 2 males and 1 female (USNM) FAP0033; Puyehue, Los Mallines, 40°46′0″S, 72°17′0″W, 700 m, 12.xii.2000 − 2.i.2001, J. Miller, F. Álvarez, J. A. Coddington & G. Hormiga leg. 1 male (USNM) FAP0034; Palena, Chaiten, 40 m, 17.i.1986, N. I. Platnick, P. A. Goloboff & R. T. Schuh leg. 1 female (AMNH) FAP0209; Chaiten, 70 km S of, 500 m, 16.i.1986, N. I. Platnick, P. A. Goloboff & R. T. Schuh leg. 1 female (AMNH) FAP0196; Valdivia, Las Lajas, 9– 13.i.1990, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male, 3 females and 3 immatures (AMNH) FAP0064; Las Trancas, W La Unión, 500 m, 6–10.ii.1988, L. E. Peña   leg. 2 females (AMNH) FAP0084; Neltume, ii.1987, L. E. Peña   leg. 3 females (AMNH) FAP0045 female morpho 2 illustrated ( Fig. 18E View Figure 18 ); Santo Domingo, Valdivia, 1.xi.1976, E. Krahmer leg. 1 female (AMNH) FAP0051. Región XI del Aisen, Aisen, Cisnes Medio, 200 m, 30.xii.1984 − 28.i.1985, S. & J. Peck leg. 1 female (AMNH) FAP0057; Cocharne, 1–3.ii.1990, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male and 2 females (AMNH) FAP0074; Cocharne, Confl. Backer & Nef rivers, 180 m, 5–6.ii.1990, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male (AMNH) FAP0078; Cocharne, Río Backer, 180 m, 30.i.1990, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female (AMNH) FAP0063. Quelat, PN nr. Pto. Cisnes, 500 m, 6.ii.1985, N. I. Platnick & O. Francke leg. 2 females (AMNH) FAP0198 female morpho 4 illustrated ( Fig. 18D View Figure 18 ); Río Aisen, Valley, i. 1897, P. Dusen leg. 1 male (holotype of Meta torta NRS   ) FAP0274; 1 female (holotype Meta chilensis NRS   ) FAP0276; 3 females (paralectotypes Meta cordillera NRS   ) FAP0277; 1 female (lectotype Meta cordillera   designated by Levi NRS) FAP0278; 2 females (NRS) FAP0279. Región XII de Magallanes, Magallanes, Chorrilla de la Piedra, 3.ii.1990, T. Cekalovic leg. 1 female (AMNH) FAP0052; Tierra del Fuego, Cameron, 30 m, 2.xii.1966, E. I. Schlinger & M. Irwin leg. 2 males (CAS) FAP0044.

ALLENDE NIGROHUMERALIS   (F. O. P.– CAMBRIDGE, 1889) COMB. NOV.

( FIGS 6D, E View Figure 6 , 9I–J View Figure 9 , 11B View Figure 11 , 19 View Figure 19 )

Meta nigrohumeralis   F. O. P.- Cambridge, 1899: 18 pl. 2 f. 4–5 (female holotype in BMNH, examined). New synonymy.

Meta porteri Simon, 1900: 51   (female holotype in MNHN, examined). New synonymy.

Metabus nigrohumeralis   (F. O. P.- Cambridge, 1889): Archer (1963): 17.

Metabus porteri ( Simon, 1900)   : Archer, 1963: 17.

Diagnosis: A. nigrohumeralis   differs from other Allende species   by the following combination of characters: two anterior dark patches on the abdomen ( Fig. 19A View Figure 19 ); epigynum apical invaginations delineated by thick ridges ( Fig. 19C View Figure 19 ); cymbial median process curved apically ( Fig. 19L View Figure 19 ), cymbial basal process projection covered with small denticles ( Fig. 19P View Figure 19 ); and the shape of the conductor tip ( Fig. 19N View Figure 19 ).

Description: Female from Valparaiso, Cerro Las Vizcachas, Chile (FAP0142). Habitus as in Figure 19A View Figure 19 . Total length 10.4. Cephalothorax 4.4 long, 3.3 wide, 1.3 high. Sternum 1.9 long, 1.8 wide. Chelicerae anterior surface covered with dark dots ( Fig. 19B View Figure 19 ). Abdomen oval, 6.5 long, 5.2 wide, 4.9 high, venter with a median white rectangular area delineated by two thin dark lines. AME diameter 0.19. ALE 0.18. PME 0.19. PLE 0.18. Clypeus height 1.5 × AME diameter. AME separation 1.1 × AME diameter. AME–ALE separation 2.8 × AME diameter. PME separation 1.0 × PME diameter. PME–PLE separation 3.3 × PME diameter. Legs light brown, femur I dark brown. Leg I length 25.7, leg II 19.1, leg III 9.8, leg IV 16.7, pedipalp 5.4. Spermathecae spherical, epigynum as in Figure 19C–G View Figure 19 .

Male from Valparaiso, Cerro Las Vizcachas, Chile (FAP0142). Habitus as in Figure 19H View Figure 19 . Total length 7.3. Cephalothorax 3.7 long, 2.9 wide, 1.1 high. Sternum 1.7 long, 1.5 wide. Chelicerae pattern as in Figure 19I View Figure 19 . Abdomen oval, pattern as in female 4.5 long, 2.8 wide, 2.4 high. AME diameter 0.16. ALE 0.14. PME 0.16. PLE 0.14. Clypeus height 1.6 × AME diameter. AME separation 1.0 × AME diameter. AME–ALE separation 2.3 × AME diameter. PME separation 1.0 × PME diameter. PME–PLE separation 2.5 × PME diameter. Femur I dark brown. Leg I length 28.6, leg II 19.6, leg III 9.6, leg IV 13.1, pedipalp 5.9. Pedipalp tibia 3.5 times longer than wide. Embolic apophysis long, pedipalp morphology as in Figure 19J–P View Figure 19 .

Variation: Female total length 7.6–13.3, cephalothorax length 3.0–5.9. The epigynal median plate distal constriction varies in width. Male total length 5.4–8.9, cephalothorax length 2.6–4.3. The number of denticles on the cymbial basal process projection also varies; nevertheless, the margin is always completely covered by them.

Distribution: A. nigrohumeralis   is found in Chile and Argentina ( Fig. 11B View Figure 11 ). Its geographical range covers the following latitudes 24°18′0″S to 36°56′0″S, and altitudes from 40 to 1300 m.

Material examined (N = 335): ARGENTINA: Chubut, Epuyén, 17.x.1966   , A. Kovacs leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0194 smallest female measured. Río Negro, El Bolson, 41°58′0″S, 71°31′0″W, 23.x.1961 GoogleMaps   , A. Kovacs leg. 1 male ( AMNH) FAP0189; 13.iii.1961, 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0190; 1.ii.1961, 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0191; 3 females ( AMNH) FAP0192; 21.ii.1963, 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0193; Ñorquinco , 20.vi.1966   , A. Kovacs leg. 1 male ( AMNH) FAP0195   . CHILE: Chile, 2 females and 1 immature ( MNHN) FAP0290; 25 females and 2 males ( MNHN) FAP0291; 1 male ( MNHN) FAP0292. Juan Fernández Is., Cumberland Bay , 11-12.iii.1962   . B. Malkin leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0178; 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0179; 7 females and 2 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0180; Galpon, Valle Villagra, Mas a tierra, 23-24.iv.1962   , B. Malkin leg. 6 females and 7 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0183; Juan Fernández , 8.xii.1926   , W. L. Schmith leg. 1 male, 2 females and 1 immature ( USNM) FAP0206; Ghe, 1 female (holotype of Meta nigrohumeralis BMNH   ) FAP0270; Juan Fernández, Caracoles , viii.1943   , Rosa leg. 1 male ( CAS) FAP0112; La Piña , 33°40′6″S, 78°48′0±W, 280– 400 m, 31.xii.2002   , S. Lew, K. Will & S. Ocare leg. 1 male and 1 female ( EME) FAP0208; Plazoleto de Yunque, Mas a tierra, 23–24.iv.1962   , B. Malkin leg. 3 females and 2 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0182; San Juan Bautista , 33°38′9″S. 78°49′54″W, 28.xii.2002 GoogleMaps   , S. Lew, K. Will & W. Ocare leg. 7 females ( EME) FAP0207. Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Aculeo , El Paragual, 5–8.xii.1983   , L. Irarrazaval leg. 1 female and 2 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0164; Melpilla, La Viluma , SE Melpilla, 350 m, 15.xii.1987, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0203; San Manuel, 13– 14.v.1980, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0133; 6–8.xii.1980, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male and 2 females ( AMNH) FAP0135; Santiago , Cuesta La Dormida , 800–1300 m, 13–18.xi.1982   , Peña leg. 2 males, 2 females and 2 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0149; El Golf , 9.iv.1961   , A. F. Archer leg. 3 females ( AMNH) FAP0185; 3 females and 2 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0267 largest female measured, one male specimen used for SEM; Quilicura, vs. 1979, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0140; L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0205; Los Lirios, 1 female ( MNHN) FAP0288; Mnt. Bell , 914 m, 17.xii.1950   , Ross & Michelbacher leg. 1 female ( CAS) FAP0117; Mnt. Bell , 914 m, 17.xii.1950   , Ross & Michelbacher leg. 1 male ( CAS) FAP0119. Región IV del Coquimbo, Choapa, Los Vilos Km 26 Rt 5, 40 m, 31°50′0″S, 71°31′0″W, 13.xii.1993, N. I. Platnick, K. Catley, M. J. Ramírez & T GoogleMaps   . Allen leg. 1 male ( AMNH) FAP0175; Coquimbo, Fray Jorge NP, 11.xii.1950   , Ross & Michelbacher leg. 1 female ( CAS) FAP0120; Pichidangui , 32°8′0″S, 71°32′0″W, 12.viii.1996 GoogleMaps   , E. I. Schlinger leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0199; Quilican , 16 km E la Serena, 2.x.1961   , R. Wagnerknetch leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0265; Los Vilos, 12.x.1986, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male, 1 female and 1 immature ( AMNH) FAP0141; Ovaile , 13.viii.1950   , Ross & Michelbacher leg. 1 female ( CAS) FAP0115. Region V de Valparaiso   , Aconcagua, C. Porter leg. 1 female ( MNHN) FAP0289; Cachagua, 14.xii.1980, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male, 4 females and 1 immature ( AMNH) FAP0129; Las Palmas, 1 female (holotype of Meta porteri MNHN   ) FAP0283; Petorca, 8.x.1986, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male 4 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0128; Concon , 16.viii.1950   , Ross & Michelbacher leg. 1 male ( CAS) FAP0114; Valparaiso, Cerro Las Vizcachas, 1800−2200 m, 1–12.xii.1982, L. E. Peña   leg. 2 males and 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0142 male and female illustrated and measured; Cordoba , Santiago Coast , 15–20.ii.1979, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0201; Cuesta El Melón , 10-12.x.1986, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male, 3 females and 15 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0145; 15.xii.1985, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female and 3 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0147; Quintero , 12.xii.1980, L. E. Peña   leg. 3 males ( AMNH) FAP0132; Valparaiso Central Coast , 31.x.1982, 1 male ( AMNH) FAP0173; 1 male ( AMNH) FAP0187; Viña del Mar , vi.1979   , A. Tobar leg. 2 females ( AMNH) FAP0168; xii.1978   , A. Tobar leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0169; i–ii.1978   , A. Tobar leg. 3 females ( AMNH) FAP0202. Región VII del Maule, Cauquenes, Reserva Nacional Los Ruiles , NW of Cauquenes, 35°50.028′S, 72°30.613′W, 146 m, 13.xi.2003 GoogleMaps   , L. Prendini, C. I. Mattoni & J. A. Ochoa leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0394; 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0395; Curico, Las Tablas, ii.1985, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0148; L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female and 2 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0150; Linares , Bullileo , Parral , 5–8.xii.1990, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male 2 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0127; Maule, Cayurranquil , 400 m, 24–27.i.1981, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male ( AMNH) FAP0155; El Parrón , 30.i.1981, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0136; Tregualemu , 4–5.xi.1993, L. E. Peña   leg. 3 males and 5 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0126; Talca , Bramadora , 600 m, 21–22.i.1993, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0210 cleared epigynum illustrated; Gil de Vilches NP, 35°36′0″S, 71°4′0″W, 1200 m, 14.i.1995 GoogleMaps   , N. I. Platnick, K. Catley & D. Silva leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0174. Región VIII del Bio Bio, Bio-Bio, El Manzano, 15.xii.1985, L. E. Peña   leg. 2 males, 3 females and 2 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0124; 5 males, 4 females and 6 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0146 smallest male measured; 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0204; Carampangue , 4.3 km E Las Corrientes, campsite 5 km W, 37°15.547′S, 73°11.508′W, 116 m 13.xi.2003 GoogleMaps   , L. Prendini, C. I. Mattoni & J. A. Ochoa leg. 2 females ( AMNH) FAP0396; 8.xii.1992, T   . Cekalovic leg. 1 male 5 immatures ( AMNH)   ; Concepción, Chiguayante, 23.xi.1975, T   . Cekalovic leg. 2 females ( AMNH) FAP0061; Escuadrón , 24.iii.1989, T   . Cekalovic leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0157; Escuadrón, Laguna la Posada , 17.i.1976, T   . Cekalovic leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0165; Estación Cosmito , 17.iv.1977   , G. Muñoz leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0186; Nonquen Estero , 23.i.1987, T   . Cekalovic leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0166; 3.ii.1985, T   . Cekalovic leg. 2 females ( AMNH) FAP0181; 11.xii.1977, T   . Cekalovic leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0211; Nonquen Valle , 6.xii.1981, T   . Cekalovic leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0162; Penco , 22.xii.1979, T   . Cekalovic leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0158; Periquillo , 21.xii.1996, T   . Cekalovic leg. 1 male and 1 immature ( AMNH) FAP0163; Sector Escuadrón , 27.xii.1987, T   . Cekalovic leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0156; Tome , 8.x.1983, T   . Cekalovic leg. 1 female and 8 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0159; 1.i.1992, T   . Cekalovic leg. 2 females ( AMNH) FAP0160; Ñuble, Chillan , 31.xii.1975   , G. Moreno leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0176; Coloquecura, 8–9.xi.1993, L. E. Peña   leg. 2 males ( AMNH) FAP0125 one female specimen used for SEM; Las Cabras, 26–28.xii.1986   , L. Umaña leg. 1 male ( AMNH) FAP0171; Las Trancas, iii–iv.1979, L. E. Peña   leg. 3 females and 14 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0143; Los Lleques , 5-20.xii.1985   , L. Umaña leg. 4 males ( AMNH) FAP0170; Pinto 4 km E road to, 4.i.1976   , G. Moreno leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0177; W. Ralco, Santa Barbara, 400 m, 22–23.xi.1994, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0154. Región IX de la Araucaria, Cautín, Chacamo, 600–700 m, 17– 23.ii.1981, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male and 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0144; Pucón , 15.xi. 2.xii.1989   , S. A. Marshall leg. 1 male ( AMNH) FAP0184 largest male measured; Villarrica, 27–28.ii.1979, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0131; 12.xii.1961   , A. F. Archer leg. 1 female and 2 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0266; Malleco, Curacautín , W Selva Oscura, 27.i.1985, L. E. Peña   leg. ( AMNH)   1 female FAP0152; Malleco, xi.1979, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0153; Nahuelbuta, Pehuenco , 37°49′45″S, 73°0′30″W, 1100 m, 4–9.i.2001 GoogleMaps   , J. Miller, F. Álvarez, J. A. Coddington & G. Hormiga leg. 3 females ( USNM) FAP0269   ; J. Miller, F. Alvarez, J. A. Coddington & G. Hormiga leg. 1 female ( USNM) FAP0108. Región X de los Lagos, Chiloe, Lago Coluco, 26.i.1981, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0139; Puntra , 21–23.xii.1981, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0137; Pio Pio , 10– 12.iii.1987, L. E. Peña   leg. 2 females ( AMNH) FAP0151; Llanquihue , Petrohue , 41°8′0″S, 72°25′0″W, 2700 m, 15.xi.1966 GoogleMaps   , E. I. Schlinger & M. Irwin leg. 1 female ( CAS) FAP0118; Pt. Montt , 20.iii.1991, T   . Cekalovic leg. 2 females ( AMNH) FAP0161; 17.iii.1991, T   . Cekalovic leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0167; Osorno, La Picada, El Refugio , 41°4′0″S, 72°26′0″W, 6.ii.6197 GoogleMaps   , E. I. Schlinger leg. 1 female ( CAS) FAP0113; Puyehue NP, 600 m, 12–22.ii.1979, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0134; Puyehue, Aguas Calientes , 40°44′0″S, 72°18′45″W, 450 m, 12.xii.2000 − 2.i.2001 GoogleMaps   , G. Hormiga leg. 3 females ( USNM) FAP0110; xii.1981, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0138; 425 m, 31.i.1985   , N. I. Platnick & O. Francke leg. 2 females ( AMNH) FAP0172; Puyehue, Anticura , 40°40′0″S, 72°10′30″W, 350 m, 13.xii.2000 − 2.i.2001 GoogleMaps   , J. Miller, F. Álvarez, J. A. Coddington & G. Hormiga leg. 1 female ( USNM) FAP0109; 2 females ( USNM) FAP0111; Pt. Montt, Lepihue , 21.i.1951   , Ross & Michelbacher leg. 1 female ( CAS) FAP0121; Valdivia, Neltume , 2. 39°48′0″S, 71°57′0″W, 23.xi.1988 GoogleMaps   , V. & B. Roth leg. 1 female ( CAS) FAP0122; Purolon, 10.i.1985, L. E. Peña   leg. 1 male, 5 females and 3 immatures ( AMNH) FAP0130; Río Bueno , 15.i.1951   , Ross & Michelbacher leg. 1 female ( CAS) FAP0116   ; Ross & Michelbacher leg. 1 female ( CAS) FAP0123; Valdivia , 25.xii.1979   , E. Krahmer leg. 1 female ( AMNH) FAP0188   .

MOLLEMETA   GEN. NOV.

( FIGS 7A–E View Figure 7 , 8A–E View Figure 8 , 9K–O View Figure 9 , 10C View Figure 10 , 11D View Figure 11 , 20 View Figure 20 )

Type species: Landana edwardsi Simon, 1904   .

Etymology: The genus name is derived from the Mapuche word for tree (Molle) and thus Mollemeta   means ‘The Meta   that builds orb webs on trees.’ Mollemeta   is a name feminine in gender.

Diagnosis: Mollemeta   can be distinguished from other tetragnathids by the following combination of characters: epigynum with a spherical small scape, genital openings situated in deep curved groves ( Fig. 8A, B View Figure 8 ); tegulum reduced to a narrow ring ( Fig. 20G View Figure 20 ); membranous conductor, embolus without basal apophyses ( Fig. 20J View Figure 20 ).

Description: Female from Llanquihue, P. N. Alerce Andino, Chile (FAP0332). Habitus as in Figure 20A View Figure 20 . Total length 9.2. Cephalothorax 3.8 long, 2.9 wide, 1.2 high. Sternum 1.8 long, 1.5 wide. Chelicerae with a large boss. Abdomen oval 6.14 long, 5.27 wide, 4.46 high, venter with two parallel lines of white guanine patches. AME diameter 0.21. ALE 0.2. PME 0.22. PLE 0.19. Clypeus height 0.9 × AME diameter. AME separation 0.9 × AME diameter. AME–ALE separation 0.4 × AME diameter. PME separation 1.0 × PME diameter. PME–PLE separation 1.0 × PME diameter. Spinnerets ( Fig. 9K–M View Figure 9 ). ALS with several piriform spigots. PMS with three aciniform spigots between the cylindrical spigot and the minor ampullate, nubbin present. PLS with a field of c. 20 aciniform spigots, aggregate spigots embracing the flagelliform and cylindrical spigots peripheral. Leg I length 17.6, leg II 13.8, leg III 9.4, leg IV 11.3, pedipalp 4.3. Epigynum as in Figure 20B–E View Figure 20 . Copulatory ducts curved and almost as thick as the spermathecae ( Fig. 8C View Figure 8 ). Fertilization ducts short and well sclerotized ( Fig. 8D View Figure 8 ). Spermathecae well sclerotized, accessory gland openings arranged in clusters ( Fig. 8E View Figure 8 ).

Male from Aguas Calientes, Puyehue, Chile (FAP0328). Habitus as in female. Total length 8.2. Cephalothorax 4.3 long, 3.1 wide, 1.3 high. Sternum 3.9 long, 3.2 wide. Abdomen oval longer than wide, venter as in female. 4.4 long, 3.1 wide, 2.6 high. Epiandrous fusules on a plate and concentrated in clusters ( Fig. 9O View Figure 9 ). PLS and PMS cylindrical and aggregate spigots reduced to nubbins ( Fig. 9N View Figure 9 ). AME diameter 0.19. ALE 0.22. PME 0.22. PLE 0.2. Clypeus height 1.3 × AME diameter. AME separation 1.3 × AME diameter. AME–ALE separation 0.8 × AME diameter. PME separation 1.0 × PME diameter. PME–PLE separation 1.1 × PME diameter. Leg I length 32.6, leg II

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Tetragnathidae

Loc

Metabus

Álvarez-Padilla, Fernando 2007
2007
Loc

Metabus longipes ( Tullgren, 1902 )

Archer AF 1963: 17
1963
Loc

Metabus chilensis ( Tullgren, 1902 )

Archer AF 1963: 17
1963
Loc

Metabus cordillera ( Tullgren, 1902 )

Archer AF 1963: 17
1963
Loc

Metabus tortus ( Tullgren, 1902 )

Archer AF 1963: 17
1963
Loc

Metabus nigrohumeralis

Archer AF 1963: 17
1963
Loc

Metabus porteri ( Simon, 1900 )

Archer AF 1963: 17
1963
Loc

Meta chilensis

Tullgren A 1902: 23
1902
Loc

Meta cordillera

Tullgren A 1902: 23
1902
Loc

Meta torta

Tullgren A 1902: 21
1902
Loc

Meta aurora

Simon E 1901: 19
1901
Loc

Meta longipes ( Nicolet, 1849 )

Simon E 1900: 51
1900
Loc

Meta porteri

Simon E 1900: 51
1900
Loc

Meta nigrohumeralis

Cambridge OP 1899: 18
1899
Loc

Epeira longipes

Nicolet AC 1849: 491
1849