Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk.

Miller, James S., 2005, A synopsis of the genus Cynoglossum L. (Boraginaceae) in Madagascar and the Comoro Islands, Adansonia (3) 27 (1), pp. 113-127: 119-121

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5186495

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/0389B90C-5609-4366-C253-FCBAFC8EF908

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk.
status

 

3. Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk.  

Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 41 (1775). — Type: Forsskal s.n.,

Yemen, Hadie (holo-, C).

Annual or biennial herb, the taproot 1-8 mm in diam.; stems erect, to c. 1 m tall, with sparse to moderate, appressed to spreading pubescence. Basal leaves in an evident rosette or smaller plants apparently immediately erect and lacking a basal rosette; basal leaf blades elliptic, 3.5-10(-18) cm long, 1.5-5.5 cm wide, the apex acute, the base cuneate, the margin entire, the adaxial surface strigillose to strigose, the abaxial surface sparsely to densely strigillose, more prominently so on the midrib, the venation brochidodromous, the midrib impressed on the adaxial surface, the tertiary venation mostly obscure; petioles 7-30 (-70) mm long, stiff pubescent; cauline leaf blades elliptic to lanceolate or oblanceolate, 1.5- 9.5 cm long, 0.3-3.5 cm wide, the apex acute or less commonly obtuse, the base cuneate, the margin entire, indument and venation similar to the basal leaves, sessile or on petioles to 4 cm long, sparsely to moderately stiff pubescent.

Inflorescences terminal, once to several times dichotomously branched cymes, the branches strigillose; flowers on pedicels 1-7 mm long, bisexual; sepals narrowly ovate, 1.2-1.6 mm long, 0.4-0.7 mm wide, the apex acute to obtuse, strigillose; corolla blue, campanulate, the tube c. 1 mm long, with 5 saccate, granular faucal appendages, the lobes widely ovate, c. 1 mm long, 1 mm wide; anthers borne just beneath the faucal appendages, c. 0.5 mm long, sessile or nearly so; ovary less than 1 mm tall, style c. 0.5 mm long, stigma capitate.

Fruits 4.5-5.5 mm broad; nutlets ovoid, 2- 3 mm broad, margin with a prominent, raised glochidiate wing, the dorsal surface evenly glochidiate.

Cynoglossum lanceolatum   is extremely variable. The plants range in size from 20 cm tall with stems arising from sparse basal rosettes that appear to have flowered in their first year, to more robust biennials more than 1 m tall, with more or less every imaginable intermediate represented among the available specimens. Despite this vegetative variability, all the specimens assigned to C. lanceolatum   have nutlets that are consistenly evenly glochidate, range in size from 1.5-3.0 mm, and have a small to prominent raised marginal crest.

DISTRIBUTION. — Cynoglossum lanceolatum   is a wide-ranging species that is common throughout parts of Africa and Asia. In Madagascar, C. lanceolatum   is widespread and sometimes locally abundant in disturbed, open habitats, primarily in upland areas ( Fig. 4 View FIG ), where it occurs from (400-) 800-1800 m in elevation. Three populations have been recorded from along the east coast (although their label data are questionable and it is not clear whether the species really occurs in these areas).

CONSERVATION STATUS. — Provisional IUCN Red List Category: Least Concern (LC). Cynoglossum lanceolatum   is a widespread species in many warm parts of the Old World, and is weedy and common in many parts of Madagascar, where it seems to persist well in disturbed habitats.

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — MADAGASCAR: Académie Malgache s.n., Prov. Antananarivo, Tananarive , 18°55’S, 47°32’E, fl., fr., Sep. 1905 ( P!); Alleizette s.n GoogleMaps   .,

Prov. Antananarivo, Tananarive , 18°55’S, 47°32’E, fl., fr., Nov. 1901 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Alleizette s.n., Prov. Antananarivo , environs de Manjakandriana, 18°56’S, 47°49 E, fl., fr., Sep. 1905 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Baron 64, s. loc., fl., fr., s. date ( P!); Baron 774, Central Madagascar, fl., fr., s. date ( K!, P!)   ; Baron 1756, Central Madagascar, fl., Oct. 1882 ( K!)   ; Baron 2057, Central Madagascar, fl., Oct. 1882 ( K!)   ; Baron 3555, s. loc., fl., s. date ( P!); Baron 3588, Central Madagascar, fl., fr., s. date ( K!, P!)   ; Baron 3655, Central Madagascar, fl., fr., s. date ( BM!, K!)   ; Baron 3747, Central Madagascar, fl., fr., s. date ( K!, P!)   ; Baron 5088, NW Madagascar, fl., fr., s. date ( K!)   ; Baron 6343, s. loc., fl., fr., s. date ( K!); Baron 6694, s. loc., fl., fr., s. date ( K!, P!); Baron 7034, s. loc., fl., fr., s. date ( K!); Benoist 59, Prov. Antananarivo, Tsimbazaza , 18°55’S, 47°32’E, fl., fr., 7 Aug. 1950 ( P!; TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Benoist 1489, Prov. Toamasina, Périnet , 18°56’S, 48°26’E, fl., 9 Nov. 1951 ( P!, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Birkinshaw & Rabenantoandro 1204, Prov. Mahajanga, Ambanintelo, 4 km NE of Mangindrano , disturbed forest adjacent to stream, 1200 m, 14°13’31”S, 48°57’43”E, fl., fr., 18 Feb. 2003 ( MO!, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Birkinshaw et al. 1302, Prov. Mahajanga, Tsaratanana Massif, limit of forest, 6 km N of Mangindrano , mid-elevation evergreen humid forest, 1477 m, 14°12’11”S, 48°57”12” E, fl., fr., 25 Feb. 2003 ( MO!, P, TAN)   ; Boissieu s.n., s. loc., fl., fr., s. date ( P!); Campenon s.n., s. loc., fl., fr., s. date ( P!); Catat 73, Prov. Antananarivo, environs de Tananarive , 18°55’S, 47°32’E, fl., fr., 13 Apr. 1889 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Catat 81, Prov. Antananarivo, environs de Tananarive , 18°55’S, 47°32’E, fl., Apr. 1889 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Catat 372, Andraraty, fl., fr., s. date ( P!); Catat 1207, Prov. Fianarantsoa, Mananjary , 21°14’S, 48°21’E, fl., fr., 12 May 1889 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Chapelier s.n., s. loc., fl., fr., s. date ( P!); Cowan s.n., fl., fr., 1880 ( BM!, P!); Croat 28554, Prov. Antananarivo, along route #2 to Tamatave from Tananarive between Ahimangakely and Carion, in valley of Ampasimbe River , 800 m, 18°55’S, 47°43’E, fl., fr., 16 Jan. 1975 ( MO!) GoogleMaps   ; Croat 28630, Prov. Antananarivo, Tananarive , Parc Tsimbazaza, 1200 m, 18°55’S, 47°31’E, fr., 17 Jan. 1975 ( MO!) GoogleMaps   ; Croat 30283, Prov. Fianarantsoa, on and around inselbergs near PK 475 W of Ambalavao , 950-1050 m, 21°50’S, 46°56’E, fl., fr., 1 Feb. 1975 ( MO!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary s.n., Ambatobevandaza , fl., fr., 7 Jan. 1917 ( P!)   ; Decary s.n., Ambohimananbola , fl., fr., 22 Feb. 1917 ( P!)   ; Decary 1941, Prov. Mahajanga, Ankaizana, 1700 m, 14°30’S, 48°55’E, fl., fr., 19 Apr. 1923 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 1799, Prov. Mahajanga, Ankaizana, 1200 m, 14°30’S, 48°55’E, fl., fr., 12 Apr. 1923 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 5350, Prov. Fianarantsoa, base est du pic d’Ivohibe, 800 m, 22°32’S, 46°59’E, fl., fr., 19 Sep. 1926 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 6928, Prov. Toamasina, S de Moramanga, 18°57’S, 48°14’E, fl., fr., 8 Feb. 1930 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 7149, Prov. Toamasina, S de Moramanga, 18°57’S, 48°14’E, fl., 17 Feb. 1930 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 14268, Prov. Fianarantsoa, vallée du Sakaleona, 20°35’S, 48°05’E, fl., fr., 13 June 1939 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 17125, Prov. Antananarivo, Tampoketsa d’Ankozobe , 18°01’S, 47°09’E, fl., fr., 2 Jan. 1942 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 17414, Prov. Fianarantsoa, Ambatofinandrahana , bois de Tapia, 20°33’S, 46°48’E, fl., 3 Feb. 1942 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 17776, Prov. Toamasina, Sandrangato au S de Moramanga, 19°07’S, 48°15’E, fl., fr., 7 Mar. 1962 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 17927, Prov. Toamasina, environs de Moramanga , 18°57’S, 48°14’E, fl., fr., 7 Jul. 1942 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 18333, Prov. Toamasina, S de Moramanga, 18°57’S, 48°14’E, fl., fr., 3 Sep. 1942 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Dequaire 27901, s. loc., fl., fr., s. date ( P!); Dorr 2872, Prov. Antananarivo, Parc de Tsimbazaza , 1300 m, 18°55’S, 47°31’E, fl., fr., 7 Mar. 1984 ( K!, MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Dorr & Barnett 3167, Prov. Antananarivo, Parc de Tsimbazaza , 1300 m, 18°55’S, 47°31’E, fl., 22 Oct. 1984 ( K!, MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Du Petit-Thouars s.n., s. loc., fl., fr., s. date ( P!); Forsyth Major 28, Ivohimanitra , fl., fr., Nov. 1894 ( BM!, G, K!)   ; Forsyth Major 350, Prov. Fianarantsoa, Ambohimitombo forest , 1350-1440 m, 20°43’S, 47°26’E, fl., fr., 27 Nov. 1894 ( K!) GoogleMaps   ; Forsyth Major 596, Prov. Fianarantsoa, Ambohimitombo forest , 1350-1440 m, 20°43’S, 47°26’E, fl., fr., 27 Nov. 1894 ( K!) GoogleMaps   ; Hildebrandt 3644a, Prov. Antananarivo, Andrangoloaka , 19°02’S, 47°55’E, fl., fr., Nov. 1880 ( BM!, K!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Hildebrandt 3645, Prov. Antananarivo, Andrangoloaka , 19°02’S, 47°55’E, fl., Nov. 1880 ( BM!, G, K!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Hilsenberg & Bojer s.n., Prov. Antananarivo, prope Tananarive , fl., fr., s. date ( BM!)   ; Hodgkin & Stanfield s.n., Central Plateau , fl., fr., s. date ( K!)   ; Homolle 1275, s. loc., fl., s. date ( P!); Humbert   6510, Prov. Toliara, haute vallée du Mandrare, 600-900 m, 24°40’S, 46°05’E, fl., fr., 8- 15 Nov. 1928 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Humbert   6674 bis, Prov. Toliara, haute vallée du Mandrare, 900 m, 24°40’S, 46°05’E, fl., fr., 8-15 Nov. 1928 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Humbert   12023, Prov. Toliara, massif du Kalambatritra, Mont Beanjavidy, 1500-1600 m, 23°22’S, 46°20’E, fl., fr., Nov. 1933 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Humbert   13248, Prov. Toliara, vallée de la Manambolo, rive droite, bassin du Mandrare, aux environs d’Isomono, confluent de la Sakamalio, Mont Morahariva, 1000-1400 m, 24°32’S, 46°38’E, fl., fr., Dec. 1933 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Humbert   17631, Prov. Toamasina, massif de l’Andrangovalo au SE du Lac Alaotra, Réserve Naturelle Zahamena, 1000 m, 17°40’S, 48°45’E, fl., fr., Oct. 1937 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Humbert   18674, Prov. Anstsiranana, bassin supérieur du Sambirano, bords vaseux de petits lacs, 1700 m, 13°55’S, 48°38’E, fl., fr., Nov.-Dec. 1937 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Humbert   19762, Prov. Toliara, forêt d’Analavelona, bassin du Fiherenana, forêt tropophile sur basalte, 1000-1200 m, 22°38’S, 44°12’E, fl., fr., 15-19 Dec. 1946 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Humbert   20875, Prov. Antananarivo, Mont Angavokely près Carion , Imerina, savoka sur argiles latériques et granite 1200- 1400 m, 18°55’S, 47°44’E, fl., fr., 27 Apr. 1947 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Humbert   24464, Prov. Antsiranana, massif de l’Anjanaharibe, pentes et sommet nord, à l’Ouest d’Andapa, haute Andramonta, bassin de la Lokoho, 500-700 m, 14°43’S, 49°28’E, fl., fr., 10 Dec. 1950 - 3 Jan. 1951 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Humbert   24951, Prov. Antsiranana, montagnes au nord de Mangihdrano, haute Maevarano, jusqu’aux sommets d’Ambohimirahavavy, partage des eaux Mahavavy-Androranga, 1800 m, 13°46’S, 48°05’E, fl., fr., 19 Jan.-12 Feb. 1951 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Humbert   25089, Prov. Antsiranana, montagnes au N de Mangindrano , haute Maevarano, jusqu’aux sommets d’Ambohimarahavavy, partage des eaux Mahavavy-Androranga, 1800 m, 13°46’S, 48°05’E, fl., fr., 19 Jan.-12 Feb. 1951 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Humbert   28463, Prov. Fianarantsoa, Station Forestière Andrambovato à l’Est de Fianarantsoa, 800-1000 m, 21°31’S, 47°25’E, fl., fr., 24-25 Jan. 1955 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Humblot 606, s. loc., fl., s. date ( K!, MO!, P!); Leandri 777, Prov. Mahajanga, Tsingy de Bemaraha , 18°41’S, 44°45’E, fl., fr., 31 Jan. 1933 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Leandri 823, Prov. Mahajanga, Tsingy de Bemaraha , 18°41’S, 44°45’E, fl., fr., Feb.-Apr. 1933 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Leandri 2537, Prov. Antananarivo, Station Forestière Angavokely, 1700- 1800 m, 18°55’S, 47°46’E, fl., fr., 14 Jan. 1960 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Leandri 2809, Prov. Mahajanga, forêt à feuilles caduques sur calcaires de l’Antsingy, vers Bevart, E d’Antsalova, 400-600 m, 18°35’S, 44°47’E, fl., fr., 29 Jan. 1960 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Leandri 3101, Prov. Antananarivo, environs d’Andramasina, 30 km SSE de Tananarive , 1400-1500 m, 19°12’S, 47°36’E, fl., fr., Feb.-Mar. 1960 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Leeuwenberg, Andrianantoanina & Rapanarivo 14311, Prov. Antsiranana, Montagne d’Ambre, near Station des Roussettes , 1000 m, 12°31’S, 49°10’E, fl., fr., 23 Jan. 1994 ( K!, MO!, P!, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Le Myre de Vilers s.n., s. loc., fl., fr., 1887 ( P!)   ; Miller 3633, Prov. Antsiranana, forest reserve at Montagne d’Ambre, 1050 m, 12°32’S, 49°10’E, fl., fr., 21 Oct. 1988 ( K!, MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Miller 3756, Prov. Toamasina, along the road between Moramanga and Tamatave , 4 km S of the turnoff to Andasibe, cloud forest on ridges 1 km S of the road, 1000 m, 18°58’S, 48°25’E, fl., fr., 19 Dec. 1988 ( K!, MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Miller & Miller 3810, Prov. Antananarivo, Parc Tsimbazaza, 1200 m, 18°55’S, 47°31’E, fl., fr., 26 Jan. 1989 ( MO!, P!, TAN!) GoogleMaps   ; Peltier & Peltier 1075, Prov. Toamasina, Lac Alaotra , vallée de la Menaloha, 17°42’S, 48°28’E, fl., fr., 11 Sep. 1959 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Peltier & Peltier 1742, Prov. Antananarivo, Station Forestière Angavokely , 18°55’S, 47°46’E, fl., fr., 14 Jan. 1960 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Peltier & Peltier 1917, Prov. Antananarivo, Station Forestière Nanokely , 19°36’S, 47°03’E, fl., fr., 26 Feb. 1960 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Perrier de la Bâthie 1493, Prov. Fianarantsoa, Mandrano , 21°09’S, 47°04’E, fl., fr., Nov. 1902 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Perrier de la Bâthie 9083, Prov. Antsiranana, Montagne d’Ambre , 12°37’S, 49°10’E, fl., fr., Sep. 1909 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Perrier de la Bâthie 9085, Prov. Fianarantsoa, Ranohira, 600 m, 22°33’S, 45°25’E, fl., fr., Jul. 1910 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Perrier de la Bâthie 9086, Prov. Toamasina, forêt d’Andasibe, 1400 m, 18°56’S, 48°25’E, fl., Nov. 1911 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Perrier de la Bâthie 9088, Bassin du Matilana , fl., fr., Oct. 1911 ( P!)   ; Perrier de la Bâthie 14404, Prov. Fianarantsoa, Massif d’Andringitra, 1800 m, 22°14’S, 46°56’E, fl., fr., 28 Oct. 1922 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Perrier de la Bâthie 18314, Prov. Antananarivo, Tananarive , 18°55’S, 47°32’E, fl., Oct. 1922 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Perrier de la Bâthie 18333, Prov. Antananarivo, Ambatolaona , 18°56’S, 47°54’E, fl., fr., Dec. 1927 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Pervillé 698, Prov. Antsiranana, Île Nossi Be , 13°18’S, 48°16’E, fl., fr., 19 Mar. 1841 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Prudhomme 61, Prov. Antananarivo, Tananarive et les environs, 18°55’S, 47°32’E, fl., fr., 4 Apr. 1897 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Rakotovao, Razafindrabe, Zjhra & Hutcheon 135, Prov. Fianarantsoa, Ivohibe, Ambarongy, Réserve Naturelle Intégrale d’Andringitra, près du campement n° 1, au N de la fleuve d’Iatara, 720 m, 22°13’20”S, 47°01’29’ E, fl., fr., 12 Oct. 1994 ( P!)   ; Réserve Naturelles: RN 1574, Prov. Toamasina, Réserve Naturelle Zahamena , Nonokambo , 17°45’S, 48°45’E, fl., fr., 11 Nov. 1948 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Réserve Naturelles: RN 8493, Prov. Fianarantsoa, Réserve Naturelle d’Andringitra , 22°14’S, 46°56’E, fl., fr., 28 Oct. 1956 ( P!, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Réserve Naturelles: RN 8496, Prov. Fianarantsoa, Réserve Naturelle d’Andringitra , 22°14’S, 46°56’E, fl., fr., 28 Oct. 1922 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Réserve Naturelles: RN 11290, Prov. Toamasina, Réserve Naturelle Zahamena , 17°39’S, 48°50’E, fl., fr., 16 Jul. 1960 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Rotereau s.n., Prov. Toamasina, Analakely , 17°41’S, 49°31’E, fl., fr., 1906 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Scott-Elliot 2071, Prov. Fianarantsoa, open grassy country, Fianarantsoa, fl., fr., s. date ( K!); Service Forestier: SF 687 -R-174 (Rakotovao), Prov. Fianarantsoa, Antanifotsy , 22°06’S, 46°54’E, fl., fr., 6 Dec. ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Seyrig 492, Prov. Toliara, Ampandrandava, 1000-1200 m, dans les endroits détruits de la forêt de Belambo, 24°05’S, 45°42’E, fl., fr., Jan. 1943 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Viguier & Humbert   453, Prov. Toamasina, Andovoranto , dist. d’Anivorano , terrains vagues à Brickaville , 18°50’S, 49°04’E, fl., fr., 3 Oct. 1912 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Viguier & Humbert   966, Prov. Toamasina, Andovoranto, dist. Moramanga , forêt d’Analamazoatra, près du col d’Amboasary, 950 m, 18°56’S, 48°26’E, fl., fr., 23 Oct. 1912 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Viguier & Humbert   1367, Prov. Antananarivo, Vakinankaratra, dist. de Betafo, près du sommet du pic de Vohimalaza, 1650 m, 19°51’S, 46°51’E, fl., fr., 18 Nov. 1912 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Viguier & Humbert   1783bis, Prov. Antananarivo, dist. d’Ambatolampy , 19°23’S, 47°25’E, fl., fr., 1912 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Waterlot s.n., Prov. Antananarivo, Tananarive , 18°55’S, 47°32’E, fl., fr., May 1915 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Waterlot s.n., Prov. Antananarivo, Tananarive , 18°55’S, 47°32’E, fl., fr., Jan. 1916 ( P!) GoogleMaps   .

COMORES: Benson 257, Anjouan, M’Remani , 800 m, fl., fr., 10 Oct. 1958 ( BM!)   ; Boivin s.n., Grande Comore, fl., fr., s. date ( P!)   ; Boivin 3231, Mayotte , 12°45’S, 45°07’E, fl., fr., s. date ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; D’Arcy 17570, Anjouan, top of ridge N of saddle between Koki and Chandra, NE part of island, fl., 10 Aug. 1987 ( MO!)   ; Floret 943, Grande Comore, centre Sud à bords du village de Kourani , 800 m, 11°48’S, 43°12’E, fl., fr., 1975 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Humblot 97, Comoro Islands , fl., fr., s. date ( BM!, K!, MO!)   ; Humblot 1197, Comoro Islands , fl., fr., s. date ( P!)   ; Meller s.n., Johanna Island , fl., fr., Apr. 1861 ( K!)   .

P

Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants

K

Royal Botanic Gardens

BM

Bristol Museum

TAN

Parc de Tsimbazaza

NE

University of New England

MO

Missouri Botanical Garden

N

Nanjing University

E

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

W

Naturhistorisches Museum Wien

S

Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History

G

Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève