Dragmacidon reticulatum ( Ridley & Dendy, 1886 )

Zea, Sven & Pulido, Alejandra, 2016, Taxonomy of the Caribbean sponge Dragmacidon reticulatum (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (Porifera, Demospongiae, Axinellida), with the description of a new species, Zootaxa 4114 (4), pp. 393-408 : 395-397

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4114.4.2

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:175AB3FD-05D6-424A-B418-AB50CC5F3649

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6078860

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/0388B179-1666-E661-FF76-FED6FD8503C4

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Dragmacidon reticulatum ( Ridley & Dendy, 1886 )
status

 

Dragmacidon reticulatum ( Ridley & Dendy, 1886)

Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 A, 2 A, 3 A, 4; plate 1 figs. A–D, Tables 1–2 View TABLE 1 View TABLE 2

Axinella reticulata Ridley & Dendy, 1886: 481 (holotype BMNH. 1887.5. 2.11, Brazil); Ridley & Dendy, 1887: 184, pl. 38, figs. 4, 4A.

[Non: Axinella reticulata ; Wells & Wells in Wells et al. 1960 (Cape Hatteras, USA) (= Axinella polycapella de Laubenfels, 1953 , fide Alvarez et al. 1998).]

Pseudaxinella reticulata ; Alvarez et al. 1998: 15 (in part; only specimens USNM 32847 from Bermudas and USNM 42787 from the Gulf of Mexico; the rest are Dragmacidon alvarezae n. sp.).

[Non: Pseudaxinella reticulata ; Castellanos et al. 2003: 1166, Table 1 View TABLE 1 (Santa Marta, Colombia; sterol phylogeny) (= Dragmacidon alvarezae n. sp.).]

Dragmacidon reticulata ; Alvarez & Hooper 2002: 734, fig. 9 A (genus transfer).

[Non: Dragmacidon reticulata ; Mora-Cristancho et al. 2007: 170, Table 1 View TABLE 1 (Santa Marta, Colombia, antifouling properties); Díaz 2007: 47; Díaz & Zea 2008: 34 (Guajira, Colombia) (= Dragmacidon alvarezae n. sp.).]

Dragmacidon reticulatum ; Zea et al. 2014 ( Bahamas; Santa Marta, Colombia).

[Non: Dragmacidon reticulatum ; Zea et al. 2009 ( Bahamas); Rützler et al. 2014: 70 (Carrie Bow Cay, Belize) (= Dragmacidon alvarezae n. sp.).]

Axinella rosacea Verrill, 1907: 341 , pl. 35 d fig. 12 ( Bermuda, neotype examined, BMNH 1948.8. 6.37, designated by de Laubenfels, 1950: 89).

Pseudaxinella rosacea ; de Laubenfels 1950: 89, fig. 40 ( Bermuda, neotype of A. rosacea Verrill 1907 and additional material).

[Non: Pseudaxinella rosacea ; de Laubenfels 1949: 17 {= Ptilocaulis walpersi (Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1864) ; fide Alvarez et al. 1998}.]

Ectyoplasia ferox explicata Wiedenmayer, 1977: 159 ( Bermuda, junior synonym of Axinella rosacea Verrill, 1907 , as its holotype was based on the same specimen BMNH 1948.8. 6.37, designated as neotype by de Laubenfels 1950: 89; synonymy suggested by Alvarez et al. 1998 and confirmed herein).

Pseudaxinella explicata ; Rützler 1986: 121, fig. 32 (sponges 3), pl. 4 fig. 1 ( Bermuda; also fide Alvarez et al. 1998); Alvarez & Crisp, 1994: 119 (citation only, fide Alvarez et al. 1998); Castellanos et al. 2003: 1166, Table 1 View TABLE 1 (Santa Marta, Colombia; phylogeny based on sterols).

Dragmacidon explicatum ; Zea et al. 2009 ( Bahamas).

[Non: Pseudaxinella lunaecharta ; Wiedenmayer 1977: 155, pl. 31 figs. 7–10; pl. 32 figs. 1–3, fig. 156 (synonymy suggested by Alvarez et al. 1998; most specimens seem to belong Dragmacidon alvarezae n. sp.).]

[Non: Dragmacidon lunaecharta ( Ridley & Dendy, 1886) {as Axinella (?) (a valid species from the eastern Atlantic, fide Alvarez et al. 1998)}.]

Material examined. Brazil, Holotype: BMNH 1887.5. 2.11, Off Salvador, Bahia State, 14–40 m, coll. H.M.S. Challenger. Bermuda: BMNH 1948.8. 6.37, neotype of Axinella rosacea Verrill, 1907 and holotype of Ectyoplasia ferox explicata Wiedenmayer, 1977 , coll. M.W. de Laubenfels, 30 June 1937, Harrington Sound; USNM 32847 (fragment INV-POR 1260), Walsingham Pond (32 ° 20 ’ 47.31 ” N, 64 ° 42´34.16 ” W), 0.5–2 m, coll. J.H. Ciardellina, August 1983. Bahamas (coll. Sven Zea): voucher PBH 04, Eluthera, Egg Island (25 ° 29 ’ 45.5 ” N, 76 ° 543 ’ 20.8 ” W), 24 m, 27 July 2000; voucher 190 (tissue slide, 10 m, 19 June 2004), voucher 285 (12 m, 27 June 2007), Stirrup Cays, N Berry Islands (25 ° 49 ’ 39.2 ” N, 77 ° 53 ’ 497.9 ” W); voucher 216 (tissue slide); San Salvador (24 °01.139’ N, 74 ° 32.687 ’ W), 27 m, 22 June 2004. Florida east coast: voucher PFL 8, Florida Keys, Long Key, 3 m, coll. Sven Zea, 19 February 1994. Continental coast of Colombia, Santa Marta: INV-POR 526 (21 m, coll. Sven Zea, 2 September 1997, voucher for Castellanos et al. 2003, as Pseudaxinella explicata ), INV-POR 880 (24 m, coll. Sven Zea & Marisol Santos-Acevedo, 18 November 2003, identified as Dragmacidon explicata ), INV-POR 1257 (12–15 m, coll. Sven Zea, 9 July 1993), Bahía de Santa Marta, Morro, SW side (11 ° 14 ’ 57.77 ” N, 74 ° 13 ’ 48.66 ” W); INV- POR 1258, Bahía de Chengue, NE side (11 ° 19 ’ 47.10 ” N, 74 ° 7 ’ 43.82 ” W), 25 m, coll. Sven Zea, 25 November 1998.

Description. Shape, color and consistency. Thickly encrusting to massive, amorphous, 5–10 cm in diameter and up to 5 cm thick, generally with rounded or conical lobes; oscules 2–5 mm in diameter, even or on top of lobes. At Santa Marta, continental coast of Colombia, it is always encrusting, up to 1 cm in thickness. Surface rugose, with microconulose hispid projections, 1–2 mm high, separated, or joined by low crests forming a slightly prismatic pattern. Live color intense red to bright orange; interior orange; cream when preserved. Consistency toughly compressible, can be broken with some force. Abundant mucus is exuded upon handling.

Skeleton. Reticulation of ascending and diverging plumose spicule tracts, 225–500 µm thick, 375–1000 µm apart, interconnected every 500–1750 µm by thinner, 75–500 µm tracts, or by sheets of confusedly arranged spicules, up to 1,500 µm wide. Ascending columns project over the surface forming the hispid projections. Spicules ( Table 1 View TABLE 1 ): (1) Styles, slightly curved, with smooth heads and pointed ends, 250–540 µm by 7.5–22.5 µm, a few robust. (2) Oxeas, slightly curved, usually slightly asymmetric, with pointed or blunt ends, 219–520 µm by 7,5– 20 µm. Specimen measurements are given in Table 1 View TABLE 1 .

Distribution. Bermuda, Bahamas, Florida Gulf coast, Florida Keys, Continental coast of Colombia (Santa Marta), Brazil (Bahia).

Ecology. It inhabits shallow to deep reefs, usually in sites exposed to light, but also in overhanging and cryptic substrata. Depth range 0.5– 40 m.

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

PBH

Peterborough City Museum

POR

Universit� degli Studi di Napoli Federico II

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Porifera

Class

Demospongiae

Order

Halichondrida

Family

Axinellidae

Genus

Dragmacidon

Loc

Dragmacidon reticulatum ( Ridley & Dendy, 1886 )

Zea, Sven & Pulido, Alejandra 2016
2016
Loc

Dragmacidon reticulata

Alvarez 2002: 734
2002
Loc

Alvarez 1998: 15
1998
Loc

Ectyoplasia ferox explicata

Wiedenmayer 1977: 159
Laubenfels 1950: 89
1977
Loc

Laubenfels 1950: 89
1950
Loc

Axinella rosacea

Laubenfels 1950: 89
Verrill 1907: 341
1907
Loc

Axinella reticulata

Ridley 1887: 184
Ridley 1886: 481
1886