Parodon suborbitalis Valenciennes, 1850

Londoño-Burbano, Alejandro, Román-Valencia, César & Taphorn, Donald C., 2011, Taxonomic review of Colombian Parodon (Characiformes: Parodontidae), with descriptions of three new species, Neotropical Ichthyology 9 (4), pp. 709-730 : 725-727

publication ID 10.1590/S1679-62252011000400003

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Parodon suborbitalis Valenciennes, 1850


Parodon suborbitalis Valenciennes, 1850 Figs. 10-11 View Fig View Fig

Parodon suborbitale Valenciennes , in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1850: 51 (type locality: Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela, 9°55’N 71°35’W; Lectotype: MNHN 0000-1807, 97.0 mm SL, by present designation). Schultz, 1944: 289 (diagnosis in key; description; lateral view illustration; morphometric data tables, distribution). Géry, 1959: 485 (illustration of premaxillary teeth). Wiley & Collette, 1970: 166 (presence of nuptial tubercles). Géry, 1977: 203; 208 (key; distribution; photo of live fish that is actually P. apolinari ).

Parodon suborbitalis .- Steindachner, 1879: 21 (synonym with P. nasus ). Berg, 1897: 280 (recognition of P. suborbitalis as valid species, not synonym of P. nasus ). Eigenmann & Allen, 1942:285 (brief description). Fowler, 1945a:107 (brief description). Pavanelli, 2003: 48 (synonymy, distribution, location of type material, maximum size, common names).

Diagnosis. Parodon suborbitalis differs from all congeners in having the dorsal portion of body light colored with a series of transverse brown bars that do not unite with dorsal projections of lateral stripe (vs. dorsal part of body dark, without bars that unite with dorsal projections of lateral stripe); caudal-fin base covered with scales for less than one third length (vs. one third or more of caudal fin covered with scales); middle caudal-fin rays pigmented for only one half or less of their length (vs. middle caudal-fin rays dark to tips). It is further distinguished by the number branched pectoral rays (14-17) from P. alfonsoi (12-14), P. atratoensis (12-13), P. caliensis (12-13), P. magdalenensis (11-14) and P. pongoensis (11-14); and can be differentiated from P. bifasciatus by the higher number of cusps in premaxillary teeth (15-17 vs. 7-12). It differs from P. nasus by the presence of spots on the sides of body above the lateral stripe (vs. no spots on the body above the lateral stripe); from P. guyanensis by the number of teeth on the premaxilla (4 vs. 5); and from P. pongoensis and P. moreirai by the presence of a lateral stripe with projections above and below (vs. absence of projections in such a stripe); the number of scales in the lateral line (35-38 vs. 40-42 in P. moreirai ), and normal sized teeth in the maxilla (vs. teeth minute or absent). It can be distinguished from P. carrikeri by the dark coloration along the body including most of the head (vs. ground and general color of body light in P. suborbitalis ).

Description. Morphometric and meristic data given in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Body stout. Dorsal profile of head straight from tip of snout to tip of supraoccipital. Dorsal trunk profile convex from tip of supraoccipital to dorsal-fin origin, then straight to caudal fin. Ventral profile of head straight to pectoralfin insertions. Branchial membranes united to each other but free from isthmus, isthmus at vertical at two scales posterior to end of supraoccipital. Eyes lateral; nares at level of eye, with membrane of skin, but not projecting nor dividing them into separate orifices. Mouth ventral, upper lip absent.Ventral profile of trunk rounded from pectoral-fin insertions to anal-fin origin, then straight to caudal fin. Caudal peduncle compressed.

Premaxillary hemiseries with four multicuspid teeth arranged in straight line, each with inferior margin straight and divided into 15-17 small cusps; teeth fitting into space in lower jaw. Maxilla with one or two multicuspid teeth, smaller than those of premaxilla, and half covered by surrounding soft tissue. Lower jaw with two or three unicuspid, outwardly curved lateral teeth, not observed when mouth closed.

Pectoral fin short ( Table 1), not reaching pelvic-fin insertions; located at vertical through tip of supraoccipital, truncate and with sixth branched ray longest. Pelvic fin not reaching genital pore (sometimes surpassing it by one scale in individuals over 50 mm SL but not reaching anal-fin origin). Pelvic fin at vertical through middle of dorsal-fin base. Dorsal fin truncate, first three rays (two simple and first branched) longest. Dorsal fin at vertical through midpoint between pectoral and pelvic-fin insertions, or closer to latter.Anal fin at vertical through two or three scales anterior to adipose-fin origin. Adipose fin not reaching caudal fin, located at vertical through posterior margin of anal-fin base. Caudal fin with two lobes of equal length (in individuals smaller than 50 mm SL); in adults, upper caudal-fin lobe longer than lower. Base of caudal fin covered with scales for less than one third of its length.

Lateral line complete with 37-39 pored scales, but usually not extending onto scaled portion of caudal fin. Predorsal and ventral scales regularly distributed. Axillary scale present, one to two normal scales in length.

Color in alcohol. Dorsal surface of snout and head dark brown with light yellow spots; yellow below level of middle of eye. Dorsum of body of same color as lateral stripe, dark brown, and crossed by 7-8 transverse bars that begin two scales posterior to tip of supraoccipital and extend to base of caudal fin; bars delimited on both sides of body by two lighter brown narrow stripes (less than one scale in width), that extend posteriorly from supraoccipital to caudal fin without uniting with stripe from opposite side.

Base color of body light brown; lateral stripe with 11-16 elongate (sometimes rounded) spots extending both dorsal and ventrally to give zigzag appearance. This pattern more conspicuous in juveniles. Spots not united with transverse bars of dorsum. Three or four long wide spots between lateral and dorsal stripes, longer and wider than those above lateral stripe. Lateral stripe extending for only half length of middle caudal-fin rays.

Pectoral fin with small light brown spot on distal portion of first four rays in adults; pelvic, anal, and adipose fins hyaline. Dorsal fin with small chromatophores scattered over most of fin but not forming bars or spots. Caudal fin with middle rays brown, remaining rays with dispersed chromatophores, not forming spots or bars, more visible in juveniles. Venter lighter than rest of body, no spots nor chromatophores present.

Sexual dimorphism. No males examined had nuptial tubercles, but these structures were reported for this species by Wiley & Collette (1970).

Distribution. Lake Maracaibo basin ( Fig. 2 View Fig ).

Comments. Valenciennes (in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1850) gave no catalog numbers and did not indicate the location of the type specimens he used to describe P. suborbitalis . Most of his description was centered on the position of the mouth, the premaxillary teeth and its absence for half the length of the lower jaw. He did not describe pigmentation pattern or whether the lateral stripe had projections of any kind. The specimens he used were located in the MNHN of Paris, France (see material examined), and we obtained photos and radiographs of them. However, pigmentation pattern could not be determined because of the age-faded condition of those 200 year-old specimens (collected in 1807). The specimens deposited at the MNHN are syntypes according to Romain Causse (pers. comm.). For this reason, the material examined from the Lake Maracaibo basin is maintained as P. suborbitalis principally on the basis of the collection site. No other species from the Lake Maracaibo basin have ever been reported in sympatry with P. suborbitalis .

In light of this, we designate as lectotype of P. suborbitalis , in accordance with Article 74, and the corresponding recommendations and paragraphs of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999), the specimen MNHN 0000- 1807, 97.0 mm SL (see material examined).

Parodon suborbitalis was presumed to be widely distributed in northern South America and was reported by Eigenmann (1922); Miles (1943; 1947); Dahl (1971); Mojica et al. (2002); Maldonado et al. (2005); Ortega-Lara et al. (2006); and Villa-Navarro et al. (2006) from the Magdalena and Cauca River drainages. However, this is not the case and as we have shown here (see comments on P. magdalenensis ), in spite of the relationship between the Magdalena River and the Lake Maracaibo fish faunas ( Mago-Leccia, 1970; Kellogg, 1984), several distinct species with more restricted distributions exist in this region. Parodon suborbitalis is endemic to the Maracaibo Lake basin ( Colombia and Venezuela).

Material examined. Venezuela. MNHN 0000-1807, lectotype, 97.0 mm SL and MNHN B-2995, 2 paralectotypes, 96.0- 100.1 mm SL, Lake Maracaibo Basin , 9°55’N, 71°35’W GoogleMaps . UF 21795 , 1, 104.6 mm SL, Zulia, Lake Maracaibo basin, stream about 10 km N of Mene Grande. UF 30756 , 2 , 70.2-92.1 mm SL, Táchira, La Fría and La Honda, Lake Maracaibo basin, río Orope at bridge between La Fría & La Honda at km marker 817 . UF 25445 , 1 , 74.3 mm SL, Lake Maracaibo basin ,

A. Londoño-Burbano, C. Román-Valencia & D. C. Taphorn 727 Zulia, Libertad, creek above La Misión de Los Ángeles. INHS 34885 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 48.3 mm SL, Lake Maracaibo basin, Zulia, Machiques , río Negro and tributaries, 16 km W 10°02’N, 72°40’W GoogleMaps . INHS 60367 View Materials , 5 View Materials + 1 c&s, 44.0- 57.8 mm SL, Lake Maracaibo basin, Trujillo, La Victoria, Mimbos Creek ( río Caus drainage) 2 km from La Victoria, 9°19’N, 70°50’W GoogleMaps . INHS 60567 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 46.0 mm SL, Zulia, Tucoco, Lake Maracaibo basin, río Yasa ( río Palmar drainage) 5 km S of Machiques on road to Tucoco . INHS 28813 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 41.3-44.1 mm SL, Trujillo, SanAntonio, Lake Maracaibo basin, río Monay ( río Motatan drainage) at bridge on highway to San Antonio 9°39’N, 70°25’W GoogleMaps . UMMZ 145393 View Materials , 1 View Materials of 2, 108.4 mm SL, San Rafael de Poco , Maracaibo drainage, 1931. Colombia . IAvH 9754 , 6 , 57.4-107.7 mm SL, Norte de Santander, Lake Maracaibo basin, río Catatumbo drainage, Mijagual creek , 7°40’N, 73°24’W, 423 masl GoogleMaps . IAvH 9755 , 1 , 86.1 mm SL, Norte de Santander, Lake Maracaibo basin, río Catatumbo drainage, La Maravilla Creek , 441 masl . IAvH 9756 , 1 , 85.3 mm SL, Norte de Santander, Lake Maracaibo basin, río Catatumbo drainage, Burbura Creek , 570 masl . IAvH 9757 , 1 , 54.1 mm SL, Norte de Santander, Lake Maracaibo basin, río Catatumbo drainage,before El Diviso, 410 masl . IAvH 9769 , 29 , 77.9 -131.0 mm SL, Norte de Santander, Lake Maracaibo basin, río Catatumbo drainage, Caño Seco , 8°34’N, 73°10’W, 355 masl GoogleMaps .


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle














Parodon suborbitalis Valenciennes, 1850

Londoño-Burbano, Alejandro, Román-Valencia, César & Taphorn, Donald C. 2011

P. apolinari

Myers 1930

Parodon suborbitale

Valenciennes 1850

Parodon suborbitalis

Valenciennes 1850

P. suborbitalis

Valenciennes 1850