Blepharoneura hirsuta Bates

Norrbom, Allen L. & Condon, Marty, 2010, Revision of the femoralis group of Blepharoneura Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae) 2374, Zootaxa 2374 (1), pp. 1-139: 71-73

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.2374.1.1


persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Blepharoneura hirsuta Bates


Blepharoneura hirsuta Bates  

Figs. 35–37 View FIGURES 26–35 View FIGURES 36–45 , 86 View FIGURES 84–89 , 92 View FIGURES 90–93 , 123 View FIGURES 119–125 , 153–154 View FIGURES 146–155

Blepharoneura hirsuta Bates 1933: 48   ; Aczél 1950: 196 [in catalog]; Lima & Leite 1952: 309; Foote 1967: 18 [in catalog]; Norrbom et al. 1999: 106 [in catalog].

Blepharoneura amazonensis   Lima & Leite 1952: 308; Foote 1967: 18 [in catalog]; Norrbom et al. 1999: 105 [in catalog]. New synonymy.

Diagnosis. This species is among the Blepharoneura species   with the apical part of the wing obliquely banded, without marginal hyaline marks in cell r2+3. It differs from the other obliquely banded species by the following combination of characters: vertex with brown spot or band surrounding medial vertical seta; scutum without vittae or with 3 vittae or anterior spots, including unpaired medial one; anepisternum without brown markings; pterostigma without subapical hyaline spot; cell m with distal hyaline mark extended to or almost to vein R4+5; and subapical hyaline band extended anteriorly at least to vein R2+3 and/or cell r1 with aligned posterior spot. The aculeus is similar to that of B. bidigitata   (which is dissimilar in external characters), with the digitate lateral lobe and acute sublateral lobe well separated from the medial and submedial lobes by a broad straight area.

Description. Head ( Fig. 86 View FIGURES 84–89 ): Dark brown area on ocellar tubercle usually extended to or beyond postocellar seta. Medial vertical seta in small ovoid dark brown spot mostly posteromesal to seta or in narrow band extended to opposite seta and usually connected to area on ocellar tubercle. Occipital suture narrowly dark orange to brown.

Thorax ( Fig. 92 View FIGURES 90–93 ): Scutum nonmicrotrichose except posterior to dorsocentral seta and laterally; sometimes (2 of 6 specimens) entirely orange, in 3 specimens with unpaired presutural medial red brown vitta, in 1 specimen extended to posterior brown mark, and presutural pair of short red brown vittae aligned with medial corner of postpronotal lobe but not reaching it or transverse suture; posterior margin in 2 specimens with small triangular medial brown spot between acrostichal setae, in 2 others with 5–lobed dark brown mark. Scutellum entirely yellow (4 specimens, 2 teneral) or with pair of faint brown submedial spots (1 specimen) or with pair of transverse red brown marks (1 Rio de Janeiro ♂, USNMENT00213794) on disk; side occasionally (1 Rio de Janeiro ♂, USNMENT00213794) with 2 pairs of faint diffuse red brown spots, 1 bordering basal seta, 1 on ventral margin ventral to medial seta. Subscutellum, mediotergite and pleuron entirely yellow. Basalare entirely yellow. Dorsocentral seta aligned slightly posterior to postalar seta or sometimes closer to level of intra-alar seta.

Legs: Entirely yellow.

Wing ( Fig. 35–37 View FIGURES 26–35 View FIGURES 36–45 ): Length 5.75–6.95 mm, width 3.05–3.56 mm, ratio 1.89–2.01. Crossvein r-m at 0.51– 0.57 distance from bm-cu to dm-cu. Cell c with 2 subrectangular or usually ovoid hyaline spots or (3 of 4 wings of Venezuelan specimens, B. amazonensis   holotype) with 1 somewhat goggles-shaped or elongate area, hyaline area(s) reaching subcosta but not reaching costa except in Rio de Janeiro specimens, sometimes only half as wide as cell; brown area except along distal margin of cell paler than area of cell r1 posterior to pterostigma, medial part variable in size compared to hyaline spots. Pterostigma without subapical hyaline spot. Cells r1 and r2+3 basally (proximal to apex of R1) without hyaline spots. Radial cells medially with tapering basal marginal hyaline mark [#5] in cell r1 and aligned spot in r2+3 [#8] forming acute triangular to nipple-shaped mark, extended at least one third across r2+3; cell r4+5 with (4 of 6 specimens) or without small hyaline spot [#14] aligned with or slightly proximal or distal to level of r1 mark, extended less than one third across cell, and with medial hyaline spot [#15] near anterior end of dm-cu usually absent, but small in holotype and moderate sized in Rio de Janeiro specimens. Distally cell r1 without hyaline spots [#6] (1 specimen) or usually with only posterior hyaline spot or extension of band from r2+3. Cell r2+3 without marginal hyaline marks. Cell r4+5 with hyaline band from posteroapical margin, extending parallel to costa to vein R2+3 or slightly into r1 (if fused with subapical r1 spot), as broad as to much broader than marginal brown area. Cell m with 2 elongate marginal hyaline marks, proximal mark [fused #26A, #26 and #27] extending to or almost to vein M, sometimes (Venezuelan ♂, Amazonas ♀) narrowly connected to distal mark along vein M in r4+5, distal mark [#29] extending to or almost to vein R4+5. Cell br usually with subbasal hyaline spot [#12] (absent only in Guatopo, Venezuela ♀). Cell bm usually without circular subbasal hyaline spot [#19] (present only in Guyanan ♀), but with medial or subapical hyaline spot [#20]. Posteromedial part of wing with 2 elongate hyaline marks; proximal one [aligned and connected #13, #21, #22, #32, #34, #39] extending from cell br subapically, across cells dm and cu1 subbasally (except in B. amazonensis   holotype extending anteriorly only to middle of dm), and across apex of vein A1+Cu2; distal band [fused #24, #33, #36; also #25 or novel spot in Guatopo specimens] extending from middle of cell dm, or in Guatopo, Venezuela specimens from vein M, to posterior wing margin, sometimes connected or almost connected posteriorly in cell dm or ( B. amazonensis   holotype) anteriorly in cell cu1; cell cu1 with subapical marginal or submarginal hyaline spot [#37] usually small to moderate sized, not reaching vein Cu1, occasionally absent. Cell dm without isolated subapical hyaline spot [#25] (possibly fused to distal band in Guatopo specimens)   .

Abdomen ( Fig. 123 View FIGURES 119–125 ): All tergites with pair of broad dark brown submedial vittae, mark on syntergite 1+2 sometimes isolated as spot (faint or absent in amazonensis   holotype), marks on other tergites sometimes (Rio de Janeiro specimens, amazonensis   holotype) U-shaped, with large medial yellow area, or fragmented into 2– 3 spots; vittae with even margins, not extending to lateral margins of tergites and separated medially by broad, tapering, straight margined yellow area; tergites 3–5 usually with narrow brown mark on at least posterior half of lateral margin.

Female terminalia: Oviscape entirely dark brown; length 0.98–1.08 mm. Aculeus ( Fig. 153–154 View FIGURES 146–155 ) 0.86– 0.92 mm long, 1.95–2.19 times as long as wide, with acute scales dorsally and ventrally on membrane medially; tip flared outward basolaterally, short (lobed part 0.17–0.21 times as long as wide), with small, convex or very weakly trilobed medial lobe and 3 pairs of lobes, lateral lobe large and digitiform, with minute serrations apically, sublateral lobe large and acute, submedial lobe very small, separated from sublateral lobe by broad transverse area (width of submedial and medial lobes together 0.24–0.25 distance between apices of sublateral lobes). Spermathecae subspherical, with straight to slightly convoluted, slender sclerotized neck and large cylindrical basal apodeme.

Male terminalia: Medial surstylus with prensisetae separated by several times width of medial prensiseta, medial prensiseta on moderately long lobe, lateral prensiseta small, about half as wide as medial prensiseta.

Distribution. Lowland areas of Venezuela (Miranda, Yaracuy), Guyana, and Brazil (Amazonas, Rio de Janeiro).

Type data. B. hirsuta   : Holotype ♀ ( AMNH), VENEZUELA: Yaracuy: Aroa, [no date or collector], Bates slide No. 298, [examined]. B. amazonensis     : Holotype ♂ (Instituto Ozwaldo Cruz, no. 5531, slide preparations 4771–2), BRAZIL: Amazonas: Rio Negro , São Gabriel [São Gabriel da Cachoeira], 3 Nov 1927, J. F. Zikan [not examined]   .

Other specimens examined. BRAZIL: Amazonas: Manaus , 1113 R.L.E., 3°06'48S 60°01'31W, 28 Nov 1985, B. Klein, 1♂ ( INPA USNMENT00054198 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, " Dist. Federal ", Jun 1938, Serviço Febre Amarela M. E. S. Bras., 2♀ ( USNM USNMENT00054199 View Materials , USNMENT00213794 View Materials )   . GUYANA: Essequibo R., Moraballi Creek , at light, 3 Sep 1929, Oxford University Expedition, 1♀ ( BMNH USNMENT00213793)   . VENEZUELA: Miranda: Parque Nacional Guatopo, La Guzmanera, Fila La Raya , emerged 14 Feb 1980 reared ex stem of Gurania acuminata   coll. 20 Jan 1980, M. A. Condon, 1♂ ( IZAM USNMENT00213795)   ; same locality, reared ex stem of Gurania acuminata, M. A. Condon   , 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00213792 View Materials )   .

Remarks. We were unable to examine the holotype of B. amazonensis   Lima & Leite. The original description is brief, but excellent photos of the wing and abdomen were provided. Except for having the more proximal hyaline band on the posteromedial part of the wing shorter (the absence of a subapical hyaline spot or mark in cell br is particularly unusual), the holotype falls within the range of variation of the examined specimens. We therefore consider this name a synonym of B. hirsuta   , a possibility considered by Lima & Leite (1952).

Biology. Two specimens were bred from larvae that mined shoots of Gurania acuminata Cogn.   ( Fig. 209 View FIGURES 204–209 ) in the forest understory in Guatopo National Park, Venezuela (very humid premontane forest at approx. 600 m). Each larva tunneled through more than a meter of actively growing young shoots of the plant near ground level ( Condon & Norrbom 1999).


American Museum of Natural History


Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Blepharoneura hirsuta Bates

Norrbom, Allen L. & Condon, Marty 2010

Blepharoneura amazonensis

Foote, R. H. 1967: 18
Lima, A. M. da & Costa & Leite, I. da & Costa 1952: 308

Blepharoneura hirsuta

Foote, R. H. 1967: 18
Lima, A. M. da & Costa & Leite, I. da & Costa 1952: 309
Aczel, M. L. 1950: 196
Bates, M. 1933: 48