Utetheisa galapagensis ( Wallengren, 1860 )

Roque-Albelo, Lazaro & Landry, Bernard, 2009, Two new species of Utetheisa Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Arctiinae) from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, ZooKeys 21 (2), pp. 55-72 : 59-67

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.3897/zookeys.21.201

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0B417B36-BB5D-481C-A2CD-E8FFACEA10DD

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3791165

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/038587D7-8530-3248-AAF1-09D09928FAC8

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Utetheisa galapagensis ( Wallengren, 1860 )
status

 

Utetheisa galapagensis ( Wallengren, 1860)

Figs 1, 2, 5, 9, 12

Euchelia galapagenis [sic] Wallengren, 1860: 161. Unused original spelling.

Euchelia gallopagensis [sic] Wallengren, 1861: 370, 389. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Utetheisa galapagensis (Wallengren) ; Justified emendation: Hampson, 1901: xvi, 488, pl. 50 fig. 12; Forbes, 1917: 340; Seitz, 1919 –1925: 301, pl. 38; Schaus, 1923: 23; Forbes, 1941: 101, fig. 3; Linsley and Usinger, 1966: 158 (with original genus misspelled as Euchalia); Parkin et al., 1972: 103; Hayes, 1975: 161, figs 22, 23; Linsley, 1977: 29; Silberglied, 1978: 275; Hickin, 1979: 176; McMullen, 1993: 99; Roque-Albelo et al., 2002: 153; Perry and de Vries, 2003: 152; Garrett et al., 2008: 2–6; Roque-Albelo et al., 2009: 207 View Cited Treatment et seq.

Note on above citations. Most of these citations, except that of Wallengren (1860, 1861), and probably that of Seitz (1919 –1925) given the illustration provided, actually refer to U. connerorum , described below.

Material examined. Holotype ♀: 1- ‘Ins. | Gallop.’ [printed black on white paper]; 2- ‘12’ [printed on lavender paper]; 3- ‘ Euchelia | gallopagensis | Wallengr’ [handwritten in faded black ink on white paper]; 4- ‘BL 1655 ♀ ’ [handwritten in black ink on green paper]. Deposited in NHRS.

Other specimens. 2 ♁, 11 ♀: 2 ♁ (dissected, slides BL 1666, LR 192 ), 4 ♀, ‘ECU. GALAPAGOS. San Cristóbal | Sendero las tijeretas | Arid Zone 17m altitude | S 00 53´29.9 W 089 36´34.8 | 10 IV 2008 UVL | L. Roque’ ( IC-CDRS) GoogleMaps ; 1 ♀ (dissected, slide LR 191 ), ‘ECU. GALAPAGOS. San Cristóbal | Cerro Colorado | Arid Zone 123 m altitude | S 00 54´53.5 W 089 26´06.4 | 8 IV 2008 UVL | L. Roque’ ( IC-CDRS) GoogleMaps ; 6 ♀ in CAS as follows: 1 ♀, 1- ‘ Chatham I. | GalapagosIs. | II-1-[19]06’, 2- Coll. by | F. X. Williams’, 3-‘ Utetheisa | galapagensis | Wallengren | det. A.H. Hayes 1973 ’; 1 ♀, same data except date (II-9-[19]06) ; 1 ♀ (dissected, slide BL 1665 ), same data except date (II-9-[19]06) and additional label ‘ Sappho | Cove’ ; 1 ♀ (dissected, slide BL 1661 ), same data except date (II-22-[19]06) ; 1 ♀, same data except date (X-14-[19]05) ; 1 ♀, same data except date (X-15-[19]05) .

Note on type. The specimen is in rough condition (Fig. 1). Th e legs and antennae are all broken and the right hindwing is broken off and in a gelatin capsule on the pin. Th e dissected genitalia are in good condition (Fig. 12).

Diagnosis. As opposed to most of the other Galapagos Utetheisa species, except U. perryi Hayes , U. galapagensis usually has complex, though variable forewing markings in the form of more or less complete postbasal, median, postmedian, and subapical lines. The ground colour in this species is greyish brown, with darker brown markings whereas the ground colour of U. perryi is often a warmer buff brown. Th e male antenna of U. galapagensis has pectination of medium length, as in U. devriesi , while that of U. perryi has strong pectination similar to that of U. connerorum (Fig. 7). Th e male genitalia of U. perryi differ most markedly from those of U. galapagensis by the much shorter and broader cucullus (see Hayes, 1975: fig. 171). Regarding the shape of the cucullus U. galapagensis mostly resembles U. connerorum , but the male genitalia of U. galapagensis differ in having less strongly developed coremata, a more swollen uncus, and the vesica has the dorsodistal narrower extension shorter, curved back only to the row of sclerotized bumps, and it has 4 small spine-like cornuti on the right side at the level of the row of sclerotized bumps whereas U. connerorum has 0–3 spines in the two specimens examined. Th e female genitalia are distinguished from those of U. perryi (See Roque-Albelo et al. 2009: fig. 14–2, I) by the apically wider and blunt extensions of sternum VII with a broader gap in between and a much more strongly developed section between the compressed sclerotized part of the ductus bursae and the membranous corpus bursae; they are similar to those of U. connerorum but differ especially by the apically rounded, longer and narrower lateral extensions, by the narrower U-shaped gap between them, with the anterior end (bottom) often slightly wider, and by the less strongly developed anterior section of the ductus bursae.

Redescription: MALE (n=2) (Figs 5, 9). Head smooth scaled, with thinner scales on lower part of frons converging medially, with ocelli, mostly greyish brown, with few scattered white scales on vertex and occiput, and white to pale beige along eye margin; frons very lightly rounded, without protuberances; eye about 3/10 width of whole head in frontal view. Labial palpus small, projected slightly forward and upward; basal segment mostly white; second segment laterally pale greyish brown with white at base and apex; apical segment darker greyish brown, with or without few paler scales apically. Antenna (Fig. 5) bipectinate; scape mostly greyish brown dorsally, white to pale beige and greyish brown ventrally; flagellum greyish brown with 1–2 beige scales laterally on basal flagellomeres; some flagellomeres with one thin seta sticking out of scale cover laterally or medially (or both) and about as long as one flagellomere, flagellomeres ventrally covered with short hyaline cilia; longest pectinations slightly longer (by 1/5 of length) than width of corresponding flagellomere, each flagellomere distally adorned with thick, curved seta about 1/5 shorter than longest pectination, most pectinations except lateral ones on basal flagellomeres also adorned dorsally with shorter, curved seta.

Thorax: Patagia greyish brown with few pale beige scales laterally, with pale beige or white all around each patagia; tegulae concolorous with patagia, with more or less intense white scaling in middle and toward base, with white or pale beige thin and hair-like scales laterally and mediodistally; mesothorax mostly concolorous with tegulae, white to pale beige laterally and toward apex; metathorax white with medium-length hair-like scaling laterally and short scales in middle. Foreleg greyish brown with white ventrally on coxa and femur, and beige ventrally on tibia and tarsomeres except last. Midleg as foreleg except coxa mostly white with little pale greyish brown ventrally. Hindleg mostly white to pale beige from coxa to femur, with some pale greyish brown scaling; tarsomeres greyish brown, speckled with pale beige. Forewing length: 13–15 mm; background colour pale (almost silver) greyish brown, usually with darker greyish brown pattern of postbasal outwardly curved line often fading toward costa, thicker slanted line from middle of dorsum to shortly before middle of costa, postmedian line starting perpendicular from 2/3 dorsum then outwardly curved and becoming series of spots from CuA2 until reaching costa at 3/5, and outwardly slanted subapical thick line from dorsum changing into series of spots at CuA1 and slightly curving back toward costa; often with additional spots at base on costa, apex of discal cell, on outer margin especially in cubital sector, and on costa before apex; also some specimens mostly greyish brown between median and postmedian lines on dorsal half, and one specimen mostly greyish brown before postmedian line except along dorsum, only spotted at bases of lines, and with thicker and more complete subapical line and more prominent marginal spots; fringe with first row of scales white, second row mostly white but greyish brown at location of marginal spots; underside greyish brown with indication of upperside lines, with darker, wide outer margin band. Hindwing greyish brown, often with darker marginal band and small bar at apex of discal cell, with fringe often appearing contrastingly white, but usually greyish brown in medial sector; underside as upperside.

Abdomen: Greyish brown. Genitalia (n=2) ( Fig. 9 View Figure 9 ). Uncus of rather narrow girth at base, moderately long, with sparse, short setation on most of length except distally, swollen from before middle to before apex, with curved, sharply pointed, downturned apex. Cucullus with median section produced dorsally, rounded, with margin wrinkled, slightly narrowing into broadly rounded apex. Corema moderate in size, not reaching apex of cucullus, with numerous long spatulated androconial scales on narrow base, and fewer, short-stalked, bulbous ones on distal 2/3. Ampulla short, thumb-like, with mostly short setation especially at apex. Phallus straight, cylindrical, with slightly angled, short and bulbous coecum penis, with lateral walls partly unsclerotized, ventral and dorsal sclerotized areas adorned with scobination on distal 1/3 dorsally and distal end ventrally, left lateral wall distally with narrow sclerotized and scobinated band ending in short spined crest; coecum penis without ventral incline, not enlarged, slightly bent to left; vesica with row of about 13 sclerotized rounded bumps dorsally on left side before middle, with 4 small spine-like cornuti on right side at level of row of sclerotized bumps, with dorsodistal narrower extension rather short, curved back to row of sclerotized bumps.

FEMALE (n=11) (Figs 1, 2, 12). Similar to male in most respects, but antennal flagellomeres biserrate, dorsally covered with grey-brown scales, some flagellomeres with seta sticking out dorsally, ventrally with short hyaline cilia, with thick seta at distal end of each serration about 1/4 longer than corresponding flagellomere, also with one lateral seta on each serration about half as long as distal seta. Forewing length: 12–15 mm (holotype: 14 mm). Frenulum with 2 acanthae. Genitalia (n=3) (Fig. 12). Papillae anales short, squarrish in lateral view, with apical margin straight or only slightly rounded, rather well sclerotized, with short setation along apical margin and as thick cluster at base dorsally, with long setae sparsely distributed on most of surface. Apophyses of moderate length and thickness; anteriores about 2/3 length of posteriores, latter approximately reaching edge of ostium in extension. Segment VIII narrow, sternum desclerotized medially. Apex of sternum VII forming pair of posterior extensions of medium length, apically wide and blunt, separated by broad U with lateral margins straight for most of length, enlarging only apically; ventral margin of U normally scaled; with descaled, scobinated surface on dorsal side of lateral extensions. Antrum wide, about 1/2 as wide as tergum VIII, thickly sclerotized, scobinated. Ductus bursae with posterior section dorsoventrally compressed, rather short, about as wide as antrum, thickly sclerotized, scobinated, posteriorly curved at right angle dorsally then curved at right angle anteriorly; anterior section enlarged laterally and dorsoventrally, less thickly sclerotized, slightly shorter than posterior section, with few sclerotized ridges, with spinulose zones on left and right sides. Appendix bursae dextrally curved, narrowing before connecting with ductus seminalis. Corpus bursae circular, membranous, with pattern of small hexagons, about ½ as long as ductus bursae; signa a pair of small, short-spined, limpet-shaped low internal projections.

Biology. Th e species was reared on Tournefortia pubescens Hook. f. ( Boraginaceae ) under laboratory conditions. Th is plant, along with the other two species of Tournefortia present on San Cristobal is probably the host in the field.

Distribution. Currently known only from the Galapagos island of San Cristobal; presumed to be endemic to the archipelago.

Remarks. The original spelling of the name of this species is ‘ galapagenis ’ ( Wallengren, 1860), which would appear to be a misspelling for ‘ galapagensis ’. The next appearance of the name, also by Wallengren (1861), was published as ‘ gallopagensis ’ without demonstration of intentional name change, hence it is here considered an incorrect subsequent spelling. Following these, all authors have used ‘ galapagensis ’, here considered a justified emendation and adopted as the valid name.

The species was appparently described from a unique female specimen, although the number of females is not specifically mentioned. Th e NHRS holds this type only.

Forbes (1941) cites U. galapagensis as having been reported by Hampson (1920: pl. 68), but this appears to be an error as M. Honey (pers. comm.) checked this publication and couldn’t corroborate Forbes’ citation.

In a preliminary analysis of 688 base pairs of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI) by Michelle DaCosta U. galapagensis placed as sister to U. connerorum collected on Santa Cruz, suggesting a close relationship between the two species. Genetic distances (corrected) between these species ranged from 1.06% to 2.26%.

Inside the corpus bursae of one dissected female (slide BL 1665) there were five spermatophores.

Utetheisa connerorum Roque-Albelo & B. Landry , sp. n. urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:8967EB22-5E72-47BD-A471-CFE24AD7AA6F

Figs 4, 7, 11, 14

Utetheisa galapagensis (misidentifications): Schaus, 1923: 23; Forbes, 1941: 101, 106, fig. 3; Linsley and Usinger, 1966: 158 (with original genus misspelled as Euchalia); Parkin et al., 1972: 103; Hayes, 1975: 161, figs 22, 23; Linsley, 1977: 29; Silberglied, 1978: 275; Hickin, 1979: 176; McMullen, 1993: 99; Roque-Albelo et al., 2002: 153; Perry and de Vries, 2003: 152; Garrett et al., 2008: 2–6; Roque-Albelo et al., 2009: 207 View Cited Treatment et seq.

Material examined. Holotype ♁: 1- ‘ECU[ ADOR]., GALAPAGOS | Isabela, V [olcan]. Darwin | 630 m elev[ation]., 17.v.1992 | M[ercury] V [apour]L[amp], leg. B. Landry’ [printed black on white card stock]; 2- ‘ HOLOTYPE | Utetheisa | connerorum | Roque-Albelo & | Landry [handwritten in black ink on red card stock]. Deposited in MHNG. Paratypes: 41 ♁, 36 ♀, from Ecuador, Galapagos Islands. Baltra: 2 ♁, 3 ♀ (one dissected, slide [ AMNH] MD 296), South Seymour, 23.IV.1923 (W. Beebe expedition). Fernandina: 2 ♀, Arid zone, Altitud [sic] 850 m, S 00 35453 W 091 58912, 10.II.2005 U[ltra] V [iolet]L[ight] (L. Roque, B. Landry). Floreana: 1 ♀ (dissected, slide MHNG ENTO 5770), close to Loberia, G[lobal]P[ositioning]S[ystem]: elev[ation]. 6 m, S 01° 17.102’ W 090° 29.460’, 11.IV.2004, uvl (P. Schmitz); 3 ♁ (one dissected, slide MHNG ENTO 5085), 9 ♀ (one dissected, slide MHNG ENTO 5086), Punta Cormoran, 21.IV.1992, M[ercury] V [apour]L[amp] (B. Landry); 1 ♁, 1 ♀, Arid zone, 130 ms[obre el]n[ivel del]m[ar], 01 17.053S / 090 28.295W, in black light trap, 24.III.1996 (L. Roque). Genovesa: 1 ♀, Bahia Darwin, 10.III.1992, MVL (B. Landry). Isabela: 2 ♁, 1 ♀, Volcán Alcedo Top, 1.100 msnm, LS 0°26’25.5’’ LW91°05’22’’, IV.1998 (L. Roque); 1 ♀, Albermarle, Tagus Cove, 6.IV.1923 (W. Beebe expedition); 2 ♁, Tagus Cove, 13. V.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♁, V [olcan]. Darwin, 300 m elev[ation]., 15. V.1992 (B. Landry); 1 ♁, 2 ♀, V [olcan]. Darwin, 300 m elev., 20. V.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♁, ± 15 km N P[uer]to Villamil, 25. V.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♀, Alcedo, Guayabillos, 900m, 30.X.2000, UVL-W[hite]L (L. Roque). Marchena: 1 ♁ (dissected, slide MHNG ENTO 5978), [no precise locality] 12.III.1992, MVL (B. Landry). Pinta: 3 ♁ (one dissected, slide MHNG ENTO 5769), Plaja Ibbeston [sic], 14.III.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 4 ♁, arid zone, 15.III.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♁, 3 ♀ (one dissected, slide MHNG ENTO 5087), 200 m elev., 16.III.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 2 ♁, 400 m elev., 17.III.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 2 ♁ (one dissected, slide MHNG ENTO 5084), 400 m elev., 18.III.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♁, ± 50 m elev., 20.III.1992, MVL (B. Landry). San Cristobal: 1 ♁ (dissected, BL 1652), 4 km SE Pto Baquarizo [sic], 12.II.1989, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♀ (dissected, BL 1662), 22.II.[19]06 (F. X. Williams). Santa Cruz: 1 ♁ (dissected, slide [ AMNH] MD 259), Indefatigable, 9.I.1936 (W. von Hagen); 1 ♀, same data except 12.I.1936; 1 ♁, 1 ♀, same data except 28.I.1936; 1 ♁, Finca Vilema, 2 km W Bella Vista, 1.IV.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♁, Los Gemelos, 27. V.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♀, Barranco, Arid zone, 20 msnm, 00 44’ 34S- 090 18’ 21W, 13.IX.1996, in fluorescent light (L. Roque);1 ♁, same locality, 8.X.1996, in fluorescent light tramp [sic] (L. Roque); 2 ♀, Santa Cruz, 30.X.1935 (W. von Hagen); 1 ♀, same data except 7.XI.1935; 1 ♁ (dissected, slide [ AMNH] MD 258), 1 ♀ (dissected, slide BL 1664), same data except 25.XI.1935. Santa Fé: 2 ♁, Tourist Trail, 28. V.1992, MVL (B. Landry). Santiago: 2 ♁ (one dissected, slide MHNG ENTO 5083), Bahia Espumilla, 4.IV.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♁, 200 m elev., 5.IV.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♁, 1 ♀ (dissected, slide MHNG ENTO 5755), Aguacate, 520 m elev., 6.IV.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♁, same data but 7.IV.1992; 1 ♀, Central, 700 m elev., 9.IV.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♀, 3 km E Playa Espumilla, 200 mts, 4.IX.1998, UVL (L. Roque). Deposited in AMNH, BMNH, CAS, CNC, IC-CDRS, and MHNG.

Diagnosis. This species may or may not have a pattern of up to four more or less lightly contrasted transverse lines; in this respect it differs most notably from the usually

Figure I0. Male genitalia of Utetheisa henrii sp. n., slide BL 1654. a Whole genitalia without phallus b Phallus c Enlarged vesica.

more strongly marked U. galapagensis (Fig. 2) and U. perryi (see Hayes, 1975: Figs 20, 21). It differs from the larger U. devriesi (17–20.5 mm male forewing length) and U. henrii (14–16 mm male forewing length) in the submedian and postmedian lines slanted towards the apex, whereas U. henrii has the median and postmedian lines starting at right angle from the dorsal margin (Fig. 3), while in U. devriesi there is just one median line that is thickened on the dorsal margin (see Hayes, 1975: Figs 24, 25). Moreover, the male of U. connerorum has the most strongly pectinate antenna of the three species (Figs 6–8). In male genitalia U. connerorum (Fig. 11) has a moderately developed cucullus as in U. galapagensis ( Fig. 9 View Figure 9 ), but it has more strongly developed coremata than U. galapagensis , a less strongly swollen uncus, the vesica has the dorsodistal narrower extension longer, curved back almost to the sclerotized end of the phallus shaft, and it has 0–3 small spinelike cornuti on the right side at the level of the row of sclerotized bumps whereas U. galapagensis has 4 spines in the two specimens examined. In female genitalia U. connerorum mostly resembles U. galapagensis as they share a similar apex of sternum VII with a U-shaped median gap, but the posterior extensions of sternum VII in U. connerorum are narrower, longer, and apically rounded, whereas they are apically blunt in U. galapagensis .

Description. MALE (n=42) (Figs 4, 7, 11). Head smooth scaled, with thinner scales on frons converging medially, with ocelli, mostly greyish brown with some beige scales, sometimes slightly paler along eye margin and dorsal base of antenna; frons slightly rounded, without protuberances; eye about 1/4 width of whole head in frontal view. Labial palpus small, projecting slightly forward and upward, mostly white on basal segment, greyish brown mixed with beige on second, and greyish brown on third, sometimes with 1–2 white scales at apex. Antenna (Fig. 7) bipectinate; scape and pedicel mostly greyish brown; flagellum greyish brown with 1–3 pale beige scales on each flagellomere laterally, some flagellomeres with one thin seta sticking out of scale cover laterally or medially (or both) and about as long as one flagellomere, flagellomeres ventrally covered with short cilia; longest pectinations slightly longer than 2× width of corresponding flagellomere, each flagellomere distally adorned with curved, thick seta slightly less than half length of longest pectination, median pectinations also adorned dorsally with shorter, curved seta located near middle on shorter pectinations and subapically on longer pectinations. Thorax: Patagia greyish brown flecked with beige; tegulae concolorous with patagia, with elongate and thin white scales apically; mesothorax concolorous with tegulae anteriorly, with more beige scales toward apex; metathorax with long, whitish beige scales. Legs with coxa and femur greyish brown abundantly speckled with beige; fore- and midleg with tibia and tarsomeres darker greyish brown with few beige scales laterally on tibia and at apex of each tarsomere; hindleg tibia and tarsomeres paler, with more beige scaling than on other two legs, but also with distinct paler rings at apex of each tarsomere. Forewing length: 12–15 mm (holotype 14 mm). Coloration greyish brown with or without apparent pattern of up to 4 darker greyish brown lines slanted toward outer margin, starting on inner margin postbasally, submedially, postmedially, and subapically, curving back at median sector, and connecting with costa; under magnification scales from light to dark beige and brown; fringe concolorous, with some longer scales white. Hindwing pale greyish brown, rarely with marginal 1/5 slightly darker; fringe slightly contrasting, paler, mixed white to pale brown. Underside of wings mostly pale greyish brown; forewing with costa, apex, and outer margin speckled with white to pale beige.

Abdomen: greyish beige. Genitalia (n=8) (Fig. 11). Uncus rather narrow, moderately long, with sparse, short setation mostly laterally except toward apex, setae slightly longer on slightly swollen section from middle to before apex, with curved, sharply pointed, downturned apex. Cucullus with rather wide median section slightly produced dorsally, with somewhat wrinkled edge, slightly narrowing distally to rounded apex. Corema very broad, not reaching apex of cucullus, with long spatulated androconial scales on broad base, and short-stalked, bulbous ones on distal 2/3. Ampulla short, thumb-like, with mostly short setae, mostly on dorsal surface and apex. Phallus cylindrical, distal third with lateral walls partly unsclerotized, ventral and dorsal sclerotized areas adorned with scobination on distal half dorsally and distal ¼ ventrally, left lateral wall distally with narrow sclerotized and scobinated band ending in short spined crest; coecum penis with minimal ventral incline, not enlarged; vesica with row of about 6–10 sclerotized rounded bumps dorsally on left side before middle, with 0–3 small spine-like cornuti on right side at level of row of sclerotized bumps, with dorsodistal narrower extension moderately developed, curved back almost to apex of sclerotized phallus shaft.

FEMALE (n=36). Color and maculation as in male. Antenna with flagellomeres slightly biserrate, some with seta sticking out dorsally, ventrally with short cilia, with thick seta at distal end of each serration about ¼ longer than one flagellomere, also with one lateral seta on each serration about half as long as distal seta. Forewing length: 12–14 mm. Frenulum with 2 acanthae. Genitalia (n=7) (Fig. 14). Papillae anales short, rounded, rather well sclerotized, with short setation along apical margin and especially as thick cluster at base dorsally, with long setae sparsely distributed on most of surface. Apophyses moderately long and thin; posteriores 1/3 to 2/3 longer than anteriores, approximately reaching ostium in extension. Segment VIII narrow, sternum desclerotized medially. Apex of sternum VII forming pair of rather long, narrow and apically rounded posterior extensions separated by narrow U with anterior end often slightly wider; ventral margin of U normally scaled; with descaled, scobinated surface on dorsal side of lateral extensions. Antrum wide, about 1/2 as wide as tergum VIII, thickly sclerotized, scobinated. Ductus bursae with posterior section dorsoventrally compressed, rather short, slightly wider than antrum, thickly sclerotized, scobinated, posteriorly curved at right angle dorsally and then again anteriorly; anterior section slightly wider, less thickly sclerotized, without scobination, not forming twist. Appendix bursae sclerotized and ridged, dextrally curved, of medium length, with or without spinules at base, narrowing before connecting with ductus seminalis. Corpus bursae circular, not much wider than anterior section of ductus bursae, membranous, with pattern of small pentagons or hexagons, about 1/4 longer than ductus bursae; signa a pair of small, limpet-shaped, oval, short-spined, low internal projections.

Larva. (From Perry and de Vries, 2003). 18 mm long. Head dark brown with white patches. Th orax and abdomen pale buff, heavily overlain dorsally and laterally with greyish and brownish black, these markings merging to more or less continuous black on either side of a pale median stripe.

Biology. The moths of U. connerorum are nocturnal and specimens have been attracted to light from sea level to the pampa zone. Th e following biological observations were given under the name U. galapagensis (Wallengren) . Hayes (1975) reported the food plants as Tournefortia psilostachya HBK. and T. pubescens Hooker f. ( Boraginaceae ), that moths were often seen flying at dusk around plants of Scalesia affinis Hooker f. ( Asteraceae ), and that they fly in all months of the year. Silberglied (1978) reported moths being attracted to ship lights and thus being transported from island to island. McMullen (1993) observed moths visiting flowers of Cordia lutea Lamarck and Tournefortia rufo-sericea Hooker f. Roque-Albelo et al. (2002) treated the chemical defense and lack of aposematism of this species. Th ey reported that the larva feeds on three species of Tournefortia : T. rufo-sericea , T. psilostachya , and T. pubescens . The moths of both sexes contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids as U. ornatrix (L.), which, in contrast, is diurnal and aposematically coloured. Perry and de Vries (2003) added Heliotropium curassavicum L. ( Boraginaceae ) as a food plant for this species. Th ey added that the larva is solitary and draws leaves together, fastening their edges, for concealment, and that larval specimens were collected from May to November. During field experiments in the Galapagos, Garrett et al. (2008) demonstrated that the moths of this species were unpalatable to an orb-weaving spider (Eustela vegeta (L. Koch) Simon, Araneidae ), which released moths given to them off their webs, but lava lizards ( Microlophus pacificus Steindachner ) ate the moths presented to them, which suggest that the endemic group of Galapagos Utetheisa lost their aposematic colouration to avoid diurnal lizard predation, but retained their chemical defenses to avoid nocturnal spider predation.

Etymology. We are pleased to name this species in honour of William and Mindy Conner in recognition of their many contributions to the study of arctiid moths, including Galapagos Utetheisa .

Distribution. This species is endemic to the Galapagos archipelago, where it is the most widespread of all Utetheisa species. We have examined specimens from Baltra, Fernandina, Floreana, Genovesa, Isabela, Marchena, Pinta, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, and Santiago.

Remarks. This species and U. galapagensis apparently are the most closely related of the Galapagos Utetheisa based on the morphology of the female and male genitalia. Th is is corroborated by the mitochondrial sequence data mentioned above.

In one dissected female there was a tiny caterpillar (preserved on slide MHNG ENTO 5770) at the end of the oviduct. It was not enclosed in an egg capsule as the latter disintegrated during KOH treatment of the abdomen.

NHRS

Swedish Museum of Natural History, Entomology Collections

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

MHNG

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

MD

Museum Donaueschingen

LS

Linnean Society of London

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Arctiidae

Genus

Utetheisa

Loc

Utetheisa galapagensis ( Wallengren, 1860 )

Roque-Albelo, Lazaro & Landry, Bernard 2009
2009
Loc

Utetheisa galapagensis

Roque-Albelo L & Garrett SE & Conner WE 2009: 207
Garrett SE & Conner WE & Roque-Albelo L 2008: 2
Perry R & de Vries T 2003: 152
McMullen CK 1993: 99
Hickin N 1979: 176
Silberglied RE 1978: 275
Linsley EG 1977: 29
Hayes A 1975: 161
Parkin P & Parkin DT & Ewing AW & Ford HA 1972: 103
Linsley EG & Usinger RL 1966: 158
Forbes HA 1941: 101
Schaus W 1923: 23
1923
Loc

Utetheisa galapagensis (Wallengren)

Roque-Albelo L & Garrett SE & Conner WE 2009: 207
Garrett SE & Conner WE & Roque-Albelo L 2008: 2
Perry R & de Vries T 2003: 152
McMullen CK 1993: 99
Hickin N 1979: 176
Silberglied RE 1978: 275
Linsley EG 1977: 29
Hayes A 1975: 161
Parkin P & Parkin DT & Ewing AW & Ford HA 1972: 103
Linsley EG & Usinger RL 1966: 158
Forbes HA 1941: 101
Schaus W 1923: 23
Forbes HA 1917: 340
1917
Loc

Euchelia gallopagensis

Wallengren HDJ 1861: 370
1861
Loc

Euchelia galapagenis

Wallengren HDJ 1860: 161
1860